Skip to main content

Full text of "Indigenous races of the earth;"

See other formats




J 



I \, 



I 



iiTfiuifiiisisiflAuoiJiiOG irtf\iSfE^(yj D 



^jpgcaMEMS of various racSS of ka N k B nd. 




VIH. AUSTRALIAN. 




:: i 





Ancient E6yptian Scribe. V* Dyn — Mariette's Discoveries, 1852-4. 

(Louvre Museum:) 



M.HevfrU.,j))ioto6.,Ea 



ES.DuvaUColift.fW' 



INDIGENOUS RACES 

OF 

THE EARTH; 

OR, 
INCLUDING 

MONOGRAPHS ON SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF PHILOLOGY, ICONOGRAPHY, 
CRANIOSCOPY, PALEONTOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, ARCHEOLOGY, COM- 
PARATIVE GEOGRAPHY, AND NATURAL HISTORY: 

CONTRIBUTED BY 

ALFRED MAURY, 

MBLIOTnECATRE DE L'lNSTITUT DE FRANCE; SECRETAIRE GENERAL DE LA SOCIETE" DE GEOGRAPHY 

DE PARIS; MEMBRE DE LA SOCIETE" IMPERIALS DES ANTIQUAIRES DE FRANCE, DES ACADEMIES 

DE BORDEAUX ET DE CAEN, DES ACADEMIES ET SOCIETES D'ARCHEOLOGLE DE BELGTQUE, 

DE PICARDIE, DE MADRID, DES SOCIETES ASIATIQUE ET MEDICO-PS YCHOLOGIQJJE 

DE PARIS, DE LA SOCIETE" d'HISTOIRE DE LA SUISSE-ROMANDE ET DE LA 

SOCIETY DE LITTERATURE NEERLANDAISE DE LETDE; CHEV ALTER 

DZ L'ORDRE DE LA LEGION D'HONNEUR, ETC. ETC. ETC., 

FRANCIS PULSZKY, and J. AITKEN MEIGS, M.D., 



OF LVCBOCZ AXD CSELFALVA, profrssor of the institutes of medicine in the Phila- 

delphia COLLEGE OF MEDICINE; LIBRARIAN OF THE 
ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADEL- 
PHIA ; RECORDING SECRETARY OF THE 
PHILADELPHIA COUNTY MEDICAL SO- 
CIETY; FELLOW OF THE COL- 
LEGE OF PHYSICIANS. ETC. 



FELLOW OF THE HUNGARIAN ACADEMY; COR- 
RESPONDENT OF THE INSTITUTO DI COR- 
RL3PONDENZA ARCHEOLOGICA DI RO- 
MA; LATE UNDER SECRETARY 
OF STATE IN HUNGARY, 
ETC. ETC. ETC., 



("With Communications from Prof. Jos. Leidy, M. D., and Prof. L. Agassiz, LL. D.) 

PRESENTING FRESH 

INVESTIGATIONS, DOCUMENTS, AND MATERIALS; 

BY 

J. C. NOTT, M.D., and GEO. E. GLIDDON, 

MOBILE, ALABAMA, FORMERLY U. S. CONSUL AT CAIRO, 

AUTHORS OP "TYPES OP MANKIND." 



PHILADELPHIA : 

J. B . LIPPINCOTT & CO 
LONDON: TRUBNER & CO. 

185 7. 




(J N 2-3 



FIRST ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HAIL, BY INTERNATIONAL ARRANGEMENT WITH THE AMERICAN PROPRIETORS. 

Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1857, by 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO., 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of 

Pennsylvania. 






TO 

RICHARD K. HAIGHT, 

NEW YORK. 

I bave presumed on our long friendship, and the associations arising 
from our joint archseological and ethnological pursuits — as well as on 
my having been your colleague in numerous scientific societies in 
various parts of the world, for a period of more than twenty years — 
to dedicate this volume to you. 

G. R. G. 



PUBLISHERS' ANNOUNCEMENT. 



Through the medium of a Prospectus, we have again invited 
public co-operation in bringing out a second work on Anthro- 
pology ; and it is with no slight satisfaction that we now 
publish a larger list of Subscribers than even that received for 
" Types of Mankind." 

Such testimonials of the interest taken by our fellow-citizens 
in scientific researches, are regarded by ourselves, as they will 
doubtless be by others both at home and abroad, as the best 
evidence of the love of knowledge developed in the United 
States through our educational institutions. 

Under this conviction, we have endeavored to augment the 
value of " Indigenous Races of the Earth," by sparing neither 
exertion nor outlay to make the book itself worth}' of the 
patronage bestowed upon it. Whether in the number of the 
wood-cuts and the lithographic plates, or as regards the anjount 
of letter-press, it will be found, by those who may choose to 
compare the promises made in our Prospectus with their fulfil- 
ment in the present volume, that we have really given much 
more than could have been anticipated in a book the cost of 
which, to the American Subscriber, is only Five Dollars per copy. 

(v) 



VI PUBLISHERS ANNOUNCEMENT. 

It is to this practical consideration alone that we appeal, 
should criticism allege that any of the mechanical part of this 
work might have been more skilfully executed. Had the price 
been higher, the performance would assuredly have been 
superior 

In j ustice to the labors of the Authors and the Contrib utors, 
we will state, that no monetary compensation is equal to the 
pains bestowed by each upon his part; and several of the 
above have kindly furnished their quota without the remotest 
pecuniary object; at the same time, let it be noted, that the 
accomplished lady to whose single pencil four-fifths of the 
entire series of illustrations herein contained are due, sponta- 
neously volunteered, and for two years has employed it, in 
behalf of her husband's literary interests. 

Aside, also, from the communications made by Professors 
Joseph Leidt and L. Agassiz, as well as by Lieut. Haber- 
sham, U. S. N., the reader will find in this volume several 
items of novelty, — altogether uncontemplated by us when 
the first Prospectus was issued last autumn. 

Among these may be mentioned the inedited Eskimo-cranium 
derived from the late Dr. Kane's first Arctic Expedition, and 
the equally inedited Tclmldchi-cranium and portrait presented 
by Mr. E. M. Kern, — artist in the recent North Pacific Expe- 
dition of the " Vincennes," under Captain Rodgers, U. S. N. 

We hope, therefore, that every Subscriber will feel satisfied 
that we have fully redeemed our engagements in the premises. 

J. B. Lippincott & Co., 

Publishers. 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 



BY GEO. R. GLIDDON. 



The title of the present volume, — "Indigenous Races of the 
Earth," as well as that of our former work, — "Types of Mankind," 
are due to my colleague. 

Dr. JSTott possesses, beyond most men, the faculty of epitomizing 
the gist of an argument in the fewest words. It is on that account, 
and more especially for the disappointment readers may feel upon 
finding my name substituted for my colleague's, in this part of our 
joint book, that its opening page must contain an expression of my 
regret at the only untoward event which, from first to last, has been 
encountered in the literary undertaking now brought favorably to 
an end. 

Being unavoidable, however, such issue — unforeseen but a few 
days ago — requires some brief explanation. 

On my return from Europe last May, M. Alfred Maury's manu- 
script for Chapter I. was the only part of this book in a state of com- 
pletion. Mr. Francis Pulszky's, for Chapter II., arrived in consecu- 
tive portions by the mails from London; Dr. J. Aitken 1 Meigs's, for 
Chapter III., and mine for Chapters V. and VI., were written here, 
during the past summer and autumn ; while Dr. I^ott, in the same 
interval, prepared his for Chapter TV. at Mobile. 

It having been deemed inexpedient to incur the risks of loss of 
these manuscripts by sending them hence to Mobile, Dr. ]STott, except 
through private correspondence and my oral report to him " chez 
lui" last [November, was necessarily unaccpiainted with their several 
tenor : but, when receiving from his hands the manuscript for Chap- 

(Tii) 



Vlll PREFATORY REMARKS. 

ter IV., I anticipated ho difficulty in supplying him with the "proof- 
sheets" of our volume quite" in time for one — to whom the subjects 
developed in it are so familiar — to write the few pages of synopsis 
desirable for its "Prefatory Remarks." 

Under this expectation, the "proof-sheets" have been punctually 
forwarded hence to Mobile by our Publishers ; and I took for granted 
that, by the 15th February, at furthest, Dr. ISTott's second manuscript 
would have reached me here for the press. Unfortunately, we have 
all " reckoned without our host." From the latter part of December 
until, I may say, this moment, the wintry condition of the roads has 
been such as to compel my colleague to write me, almost at the last 
moment, that, having received but few of the "proof-sheets," and 
these in no connected series, he must abandou the hope of editing 
our "Prefatory Remarks." 

My individual chagrin at this contre-temps is so great that I will not 
attempt to offer any substitute for Dr. Nott's frustrated intentions. 
At a more propitious time, and through some other vehicle, I hope 
that my colleague may publish his own commentary upon " Indige- 
nous Races of the Earth," — which owes far more to his personal 
science and propulsion than appears on its face. In consequence, 
my part reduces itself to the editorship of three additional contribu- 
tions, — to three paragraphs about Egyptian ethnography — and to 
succinct observations concerning my own Chapters V. and VI. 

The gratifying communications now presented afford much scien- 
tific novelty and food for the reader's reflections. I append each in 
its order of date. 

" Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Jan. 20th, 1857. 
" Messrs. Nott & Gliddon, 

"Dear Sirs: — Your communication in regard to the hairy race 
who inhabit the Kurile Islands, and the red men of Formosa, has 
been received. 

"I take pleasure in forwarding you two 'heads ' of the former, as 
drawn by Mr. A. E. Hartman, the able artist of the United States 
Survej'ing Steamer 'John Hancock,' and only regret that I am 
unable to furnish you with similar sketches of the latter, our opportu- 
nities of examining them having been very limited. I take the fol- 
lowing extracts in regard to these slightly known races from a nar- 
rative of our Cruise which I have now in press : — 

"THE KED MEN OF THE ISLAND OF FORMOSA. 

" I will say nothing more about Formosa for the present. We left its shores about as 
■wise as we were upon our arrival, and it was not until our second visit that we picked up 



PREFATORY REMARKS. IX 

what little information now exists upon the files of the Expedition in regard to it. Upon 
leaving Keilung (the port of the island of Formosa), for Hong-Kong, we kept along the 
east coast of the island, in the vain search for a reported harbor. There was nothing to be 
seen but an iron-bound coast with range after range of lofty mountains lifting themselves 
above the heavy surf that broke along the entire beach. One day we thought we had dis- 
covered it: we saw ahead the smoke of distant villages rising back of a bight in the coast 
which looked very much like a harbor ; but, upon approaching it, we found ourselves mis- 
taken. We, however, lowered a boat and attempted to land, but the surf was breaking so 
furiously that it would have been madness to have entered it. Besides, the beach was 
crowded by naked and excited savages, who it was generally reported were cannibals, and 
into whose company we should consequently have preferred being thrown with reliable arms 
in our hands. The two convicts, whom the captain had taken in the boat to interpret in 
case of his being able to land, became so frightened at the savage appearance of those 
reported man-eaters, that they went on their knees to him, protesting, through the steward, 
that the islanders had eaten many of their countrymen, and that if he went any nearer they 
would do the same by him and the boat's crew. Finding it impossible to pass the surf, the 
boat returned onboard, and we squared away for Hong-Kong." * * * * "And now, be- 
fore I turn to my journal for a few pages in regard to our experience while coasting around 
this island, let me enlighten the reader as much as possible in regard to it from other 
sources. The Encyclopaedia Britannica says, — 

" ' The Dutch at an early period established a settlement on this island. 

"'In 1625, the viceroy of the Philippine Islands sent an expedition against Formosa, 
with a view of expelling the Dutch. It was unsuccessful. . . . About the middle of the 
seventeenth century, it afforded a retreat to twenty or thirty thousand Chinese from the 
fury of the Tartar conquest. ... In 1653, a conspiracy of the Chinese against the Dutch 
was discovered and suppressed ; and, soon after this, Coxinga, the governor of the maritime 
Chinese province of Tehichiang, applied for permission to retire to the island, which was 
refused by the Dutch governor ; on which he fitted out an expedition, consisting of six hun- 
dred vessels, and made himself master of the town of Formosa and the adjacent country. 
The Dutch were then allowed to embark and leave the island. . . . Coxinga afterward en- 
gaged in a war with the Chinese and Dutch? in which he was defeated and slain. But they 
were unable to take possession of the island, which was bravely defended by the posterity 
of Coxinga; and it was not till the year 1683 that the island was voluntarily surrendered 
by the reigning prince to the Emperor of China. ... In 1805, through the weakness of 
the Chinese government, the Ladrone pirates had acquired possession of a great part of the 
southwest coast.' 

" The Encyclopaedia Americana says, — 

'"The island is about two hundred and forty miles in length from north to south, and 
sixty from east to west in its broadest part, but greatly contracted at each extremity. 
That part of the island which the Chinese possess presents extensive and fertile plains, 
watered by a great number of rivulets that fall from the eastern mountains. Its air is 
pure and wholesome, and the earth produces in abundance corn, rice, and most other kinds 
of grain. Most of the India fruits are found here, — such as oranges, bananas, pineapples, 
guavas, coeoanuts, — and part of those of Europe, particularly peaches, apricots, figs, grapes, 
chestnuts, pomegranates, watermelons, &e. Tobacco, sugar, pepper, camphor, and cin- 
namon, are also common. The capital of Formosa is Taiouan, — a name which the Chi- 
nese give to the whole island.' 

" In addition to the foregoing extracts from standard authority, we have a most, marvel- 
lous account of this island from the pen of Mauritius Augustus, Count de Benyowsky, a 
Polish refugee from Siberian exile, who visited its east coast, in 1790, in a small armed ves- 
sel containing about one hundred men. The account by this nobleman is interesting in the 
extreme, but unfortunately he is guilty of one gross and palpable falsehood, which necessa- 
rily throws a shade of distrust on his entire narrative. He speaks ' of anchoring in several 



xu 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 



boat backed into the surf in the attempt to land: he could only tremble and cry out, 'Dey 
eat man! dey eat man!' His friends on the other side had evidently impressed him with 
that unpleasant national characteristic, and hence his fright when apparently about to be 
rolled helplessly to their feet by a boiling surf. 

"The same day upon which we made this our last attempt to land among them, we 
steamed along up their coast, keeping as close as was prudent, — in fact closer, — and exa- 
mining with our glasses as far back as we could see. In this way we saw small but appa- 
rently comfortable stone houses, neatly-kept grounds, — what looked like fruitful gardens 
and green fields, — all being cultivated by 'Chinese prisoners who had not yet been eaten,' 
we were told on the other side ; or rather we were told that their friends, when captured, 
were made to work until needed for culinary purposes. 

"We were surprised at this air of comfort among half-naked savages, and could not but 
wonder how they could have built such nice-looking houses, until we finally concluded that 
their prisoners had been made to turn their hands to masonry as well as gardening. Thus 
ended our second and last visit to Formosa." 



"THE AINU, OR HAIRY KURILE. 

[See Lieut. Habersham's comments, infra, Chapter vi., pp 620-621.] 



- '.<w % 




"Hoping that the foregoing extracts are what you want, I remain, 
yours very truly, 

A. W. Habersham, H. S. K" 



PREFATORY REMARKS. xiii 

" Cambridge, Feb. 1, 1857. 

" My dear Sirs. — In answer to your queries respecting my latest 
investigations upon the question of the primitive diversity of the 
races of man, I have only a few general remarks to make. Most 
of the difficulties which have been in the way of a more speedy 
solution of that perplexing question, have arisen from the circum- 
stance, that it has been considered too isolately, and without due 
reference to the progress made in other branches of Zoology. I have 
already shown, in the 'Sketch of the natural provinces of the animal 
world, and their relation to the different types of man,' which you 
have inserted in ' Types of Mankind,' that, so far as their geogra- 
phical distribution upon the surface of the globe is concerned, the 
races of man follow the same laws which obtain in the circumscrip- 
tion of the natural provinces of the animal kingdom. Even if this 
fact stood isolated, it would show how intimately the plan of the 
animal creation is linked with that of mankind. But this is not all: 
there are other features occurring among animals, which require the 
most careful consideration, inasmuch as they bear precisely upon the 
question at issue, whether mankind originated from one stock, or from 
several stocks, or by nations. These features, well known to every 
zoologist, have led to as conflicting views respecting the unity or 
plurality of certain types of animals, as are prevailing respecting 
the unity or plurality of origin of the human races. The contro- 
versy which has been carried on among zoologists, upon this point, 
shows that the difficulties respecting the races of men are not pecu- 
liar to the question of man, but involve the investigation of the 
whole animal kingdom — though, strange as it may appear, they 
have always been considered without the least reference to one 
another. 

" I need not extend my remarks beyond the class to which man 
himself belongs, in order to show how much light might be derived, 
for the study of the races, from a careful comparison of their pecu- 
liar characteristics with those of animals. The monkeys most nearly 
allied to man afford even the best examples. The orang-outans of 
Borneo, Java, and Sumatra, are considered by some of the most 
eminent zoologists as constituting only one single species. This is 
the opinion of Andreas "Wagner, who, by universal consent, ranks 
as one of the highest authorities in questions relating to the natural 
history of mammalia; while Richard Owen, than whom no man, 
with the exception of our own Jeffreys Wyman, has studied more 
carefully the anthropoid monkeys, considers them as belonging to 
at least three distinct species. A comparison of the full and beau- 
tifully illustrated descriptions which Owen has published, of the 



XIV PREFATORY REMARKS. 

skeleton and especially of the skulls of these species of orangs, with 
the descriptions and illustrations of the different races of man, to be 
found in almost every work on this subject, shows that the orange 
differ from one another in the same manner as the races of man do; 
so much so, that, if these orangs are different species, the different 
races of men which inhabit the same countries, the Malays and the 
Negrillos, must be considered also as distinct species. This conclu- 
sion acquires still greater strength, if we extend the comparison to 
the long-armed monkeys, the Hylobates of the Sunda islands and 
of the peninsulas of Malacca and Deckan, which extend over regions 
inhabited by the Teli ngans, the Malays, and the Negrillos ; for there 
exists even a greater diversity of opinions among zoologists respect- 
ing the natural limits of the species of the genus Hylobates, than 
respecting those of the orangs, which constitute the genus Pithecus. 
I have already alluded, on another occasion, to the identity of color 
of the Malays and orangs : may we not now remember, also, a 
similar resemblance between some of the species of Hylobates with 
the Negrillos and Telingans ? 

" The monkeys of South America are also very instructive in this 
respect, especially the genus Cebus. "While some zoologists distin- 
guish as many as ten different species, others consider them all as 
one, and others acknowledge two or three species. Here we have 
again, with reference to one genus of monkeys, the same diversity 
of opinion as exists among naturalists respecting the races of man. 
But, in this ease, the question assumes a peculiar interest, from the 
circumstance that the genus Cebus is exclusively American ; for that 
discloses the same indefinite limitation between its species which 
we observe also among the tribes of Indians, or the same tendency 
to splitting into minor groups, running really one into the other, 
notwithstanding some few marked differences, — in the same 
manner, as Morton has shown, that all the Indians constitute but 
one race, from one end of the continent to the other. This differen- 
tiation of our animals into an almost indefinite number of varieties, 
in species which have, as a whole, a wide geographical distribution, 
is a feature which prevails very extensively upon the two continents 
of America. It may be observed among our squirrels, our rabbits 
and hares, our turtles, and even among our fishes ; while, in the Old 
World, notwithstanding the recurrence of similar phenomena, the 
range of variation of species seems less extensive and the range of 
their geographical distribution more limited. In accordance with 
this general character of the animal kingdom, we find likewise that, 
among men, with the exception of the Arctic Esquimaux, there is 
only one single race of men extending over the whole range of 



PREFATORY REMARKS. XV 

ISorth and South America, but dividing into innumerable tribes ; 
whilst, in the Old World, there are a great many well-defined and 
easily distinguished races, which are circumscribed within compara- 
tively much narrower boundaries. 

" This being the case, is it not plain that, unless we compare con- 
stantly the results of our ethnological investigations with the daily 
increasing information we possess respecting the relations of animals 
to one another and their geographical distribution, light will never 
shine upon the question of the races of man ? 

" There is another point to which I would simply allude. Much 
importance is attached to the affinity of languages — by those who 
insist upon the primitive unity of man — as exhibiting, in their 
opinion, the necessity of a direct affiliation between all men. But 
the very same thing might be shown of any natural family of ani- 
mals, — even of such families as contain a large number of distinct 
genera and species. Let any one follow upon a map exhibiting the 
geographical distribution of the bears, the cats, the hollow-horned 
ruminants, the gallinaceous birds, the ducks, or of any other families, 
and he may trace, as satisfactorily as any philological evidence can 
prove it for the human language, and upon a much larger scale, that 
the brumming of the bears of Kamtschatka is akin to that of the 
bears of Thibet, of the East Indies, of the Sunda islands, of Nepal, 
of Syria, of Europe, of Siberia, of the United States, of the Rocky 
mountains, and of the Andes ; though all these bears are considered 
as distinct species, who have not any more inherited their voice one 
from the other, than the different races of men. The same may be 
said of the roaring and miawing of the cats of Europe, Asia, Africa, 
and America ; or of the lowing of the bulls, the species of which 
are so widely distributed nearly over the whole globe. The same is 
true of the gackeling of the gallinaceous birds, and of the quacking of 
the ducks, as well as of the song of the thrushes, — all of which pour 
forth their gay and harmonious notes in a distinct and independent 
dialect, neither derived nor inherited one from the other, even though 
all sing thrushes^. Let any philologist study these facts, and learn, at 
the same time, how independent the animals are, one from the other, 
which utter such closely allied systems of intonations, and, if he be 
not altogether blind to the significance of analogies in nature, he 
must begin himself to question the reliability of philological evi- 
dence as proving genetic derivation. 

"Ls. Agassiz." 
Messes. Nott & Gliddon. 



XVI PREFATORY REMARKS. 

Philadelphia, Feb. 10th, 1857. 
Dr. ISTott and Mr. Gliddon, 

Dear Sirs : — Yon have frequently expressed the desire that I should 
give to you a Chapter on some ethnographic subject, which I would 
gladly have done had I made Ethnography an especial study. After 
the death of Dr. Morton, it was proposed to me to take up the inves- 
tigation of the cranial characteristics of the human races, where he 
had left it, which I omitted, not from a want of interest in ethnogra- 
phic science, hut because other studies occupied my time. Having, 
as curator of the Academy of Natural Sciences the charge of Dr. Mor- 
ton's extensive cabinet of human crania, I confided the undertaking 
to Dr. Meigs, who has shown his capability for investigating the intri- 
cate subject of Ethnography in the excellent Chapter he presents 
as a contribution to your work. To the paper of Dr. Meigs it was 
proposed that I should add notes; but after a diligent perusal it 
appeared to me so complete, that I think I could not add anything 
to enhance its value. 

While engaged in palseontological researches, I sought for earlier 
records of the aboriginal races of man than have reached us through 
vague traditions or through later authentic history, but without being 
able to discover any positive evidences of the exact geological period 
of the advent of man in the fauna of the earth. 

The numerous facts which have been brought to our notice touch- 
ing the discovery of human bones, and rude implements of art, in 
association with the remains of animals of the earlier pliocene 
deposits, are not conclusive evidence of their contemporaneous 
existence. 

It is not from the land of their birth, and upon which they moved 
and died, that we learn the history of lost races of terrestrial animals; 
it is in the beds of lakes and inland seas, and in the deltas of rivers, 
at the boundaries of their habitation. In reflecting upon the present 
condition of the habitable earth, with its teeming population and the 
rapid succession of births and deaths, we might be led to suppose 
the surface of the earth had become thickly strewn with the remains 
of animals. It is, however, no less true than astonishing, that, with 
comparatively trifling exceptions, the remains of each generation of 
animals are completely obliterated. Penetrate the forests, traverse 
the prairies, and explore the mountain chains and valleys of America, 
and seek for the bones of the generations of red-men, of the herds of 
bison, and of other animals, which have lived and died in past ages. 
.Neither upon nor beneath the surface of the earth are they to be 



PREFATORY REMARKS. XVU 

found ; for devouring successors, and the combined influence of air 
and moisture, have completely extinguished their traces. An occa- 
sional swollen carcase, borne by a river current, and escaping the 
jaws of crocodiles and fishes, leaves its remains in the bed of a lake, 
or in a delta, to represent in future time the era of its existence. 

Since the Glacial Period, or rather since tbe subsequent emergence 
of the northern zones of America and Europe from the Great Arctic 
Ocean, the general configuration of the continents bas remained 
nearly unchanged down to the present time. In consequence of 
this circumstance tbe deposits or geological formations in which we 
could most advantageously study the earliest traces of primitive 
man, are, in the greatest degree, inaccessible to our investigations. 
These deposits are the beds of modern lakes and inland seas, and 
fluviatile accumulations or deltas. Marshes, in many instances, 
have served as the depository of the larger quadrupeds, which have 
perished in the mire ; but these are places in which the remains of 
man would be rarely found, because they are naturally avoided. 

Coeval, perhaps, with the Glacial Period of the northern hemi- 
sphere, which at the present time exhibits its similitude in the 
Great Antarctic Ocean, primitive races of man may have already 
inhabited the intertropical regions ; and in the gradual emergence 
of the northern zones of the earth he may have followed the receding 
waters — traditions of which, in after ages, when conjoined with the 
view of the accumulations of drift material, may have given rise to 
the idea of a universal deluge, which appears to have prevailed 
among the aborigines of the western as well as of the eastern world. 

No satisfactory evidence has been adduced in favor of this early 
appearance of man ; but I am strongly inclined to suspect that such 
evidence will yet be discovered. 

Many animals, which we may infer to have existed in association 
with the Mastodon and Megalonyx, have so thoroughly disappeared 
from the face of nature that no trace of them is to be discovered. 
Near Natchez, Mississippi, there have been found together in the 
same deposit, the remains of the Elephant, Mastodon, Mylodon, 
Megalonyx, Ereptodon, Bison, Cervus, Equus, Ursus, Canis, the 
lower jaw of a lion, and the hip bone of a man. All the bones are 
infiltrated with peroxide of iron, and present the same appearance. 
The lower jaw of the lion, the type of the Felis atrox, is the only 
relic of the species yet discovered, though the animal most probably 
at one period ranged America as freely and for as long a time as its 
present congener of Africa and Asia. The human hip-bone alluded 
to, has been supposed by Sir Charles Lyell to have been subsequently 
2 



XVlii PREFATORY REMARKS. 

introduced among the remains of the other animals mentioned ; and 
this supposition I deem highly probable, although the bone does 
present the same appearance as the others with which it was found. 1 
We cannot, however, positively deny that it was contemporaneous 
with those of the extinct animals. 

When America was discovered by Europeans it was thickly popu- 
lated by a race of man, which appears already to have existed for 
many ages, and it is quite as probable that he had his origin on this 
continent as that men originated elsewhere; 2 and further, it is 
probable that the Red-man witnessed the declining existence of 
the Mastodon and Megalonyx, in the later ages of the glacial 
period. 

The early existence of the genera to which our domestic animals 
belong, has been adduced as presumptive evidence of the advent of 
man at a more remote period than is usually assigned. It must be 
remembered, however, even at the present time, that of some of 
these genera only a few species are domesticated: thus of the exist- 
ing six species of Equus, only two have ever been freely brought 
under the dominion of man. 

The horse did not exist in America at the time of its discovery by 
Europeans; but its remains, consisting chiefly of molar teeth, have 
now been so frequently found in association with those of extinct 
animals, that it is generally admitted once to have been an aborigi- 
nal inhabitant. When I first saw examples of these remains I was 
not disposed to view them as relics of an extinct species; for 

1 Bones of recent animals, when introduced into older deposits, may in many cases very 
soon assume the condition of the fossils belonging to those deposits. Fossilisation, petri- 
faction, or lapidification, is no positive indication of the relative age of organic remains. 
The miocene vertebrate remains of the Himalayas are far more completely fossilised than 
the like remains of the eocene deposits of the Paris basin; and the remains of the tertiary 
vertebrata of Nebraska are more fossilized than those of the secondary deposits beneath. 
The Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia contains bones of the 
Megalonyx and of the extinct peccary, that are entirely unchanged ; not a particle of gelatin 
has been lost, nor a particle of mineral matter added, and indeed some of the bones of the 
former even have portions of articular cartilage and tendinous attachments well preserved. 

2 It is not at all improbable that man (strictly the genus Homo) may have first originated 
in central Asia. When we reflect upon the gradual advance in intelligence in the scale of 
living beings, through successive geological periods, may we not infer that the apparently 
earlier civilization of the human race in Asia is indicative of its earliest advent in that 
portion of the world ? Various races of man, in different geographical positions, may have 
acquired their peculiar characteristics (their specific origin) at successive periods long dis- 
tant from each other. Perhaps when the aboriginal progenitors of the civilized Mexicans 
and Peruvians roamed as savage hordes through intertropical America, the great Arctic 
Ocean yet concealed the present northern United States in its depths, and Asiatic civiliza- 
tion was then just dawning from ages of night. 



PREFATORY REMARKS. XIX 

although some presented characteristic differences from those of pre- 
viously known species, others were undistinguishahle from the cor- 
responding parts of the domestic horse, and among them were 
intermediate varieties of form and size. The subsequent discovery 
of the remains of two species of the closely allied extinct genus 
Hipparion, in addition to the discovery of remains of two extinct 
equine genera (Anchitherium and Merychippus) of an earlier geolo- 
gical period, leaves no room to doubt the former existence of the 
horse on the American continent, contemporaneously with the Mas- 
todon and Megalonyx ; and man probably was his companion. 

Some 'time since, Prof. F. S. Holmes, of Charleston, submitted 
for my examination a collection of fossil bones from a post-pleiocene 
deposit on Ashley River, S. C. Among remains of the extinct horse, 
the peccary, Mylodon, Megatherium, Mastodon, Hipparion, the tapir, 
the capybara, the beaver, the musk-rat, &c, were some which I con- 
sidered as belonging to the dog, the domestic ox, the sheep and the 
hog. Prof. Holmes observes that these remains were taken from an 
extensive deposit, in which similar ones exist abundantly; and he 
further adds, that he cannot conceive that the latter should have 
become mingled with the former since the introduction of domestic 
animals into America by Europeans. It is not improbable that the 
American continent once had, as part of its fauna, representatives 
of our domestic animals which subsequently became extinct- — though 
I am inclined to doubt it ; but what we have learned of the extinct 
American horse will lead me carefully to investigate the subject. 

My letter is much extended beyond what I designed, but I hope its 
facts and suggestions will have sufficient interest with you to relieve 
its tediousness. 

I remain with respect, 

at your further service, 

Joseph Leidy. 

Mr. Pulszky {infra, Chapter H., p. 109) has referred to Dr. JSTott's 
experienced consideration some very interesting points of Egyptian 
ethnology, based upon fresher discoveries than any with which we 
were acquainted on the publication of our last work in 1854. I 
have no wish to interfere with the latter's specialty of research, in 
which I trust the future may rank me also among the taught: but, 
taking for granted that the reader can verify accuracy in Egyptolo- 
gical works (abundantly cited in this as in our preceding publica- 
tion), I may here sketch some archaeological facts as preliminary 
headings for my colleague's elaboration hereafter, — being general 
results in which he and myself coincide. • 



XX PEEFATORT REMARKS. 

The Egyptians, eldest historical branch of the Hamitic group of 
races, now appear to science as terrse geniti, or autochthones, of the 
lower valley of the Nile, — and this, of course, from a period incalcu- 
lably beyond all "chronology." Upon them, at a secondary phase 
of the existence of the former, but prior even to the erection of the 
earliest pyramid of the Hid Dynasty, Semitic races by degrees 
became infiltrated and, at a later period — XlTth to XXIId Dynasties 
— superposed. From about the twenty-second century b. c, down to 
the seventh, Hyksos invasions, Israelitish sojourn, Phoenician com- 
merce, Assyrian and Babylonish relations, greatly Semitieized the 
people ; at the same time that frequent intermarriages of the phara- 
onic and hierogrammatic families with princesses and noblesse of the 
Semitic stock in Palestine, Arabia, Syria, and Mesopotamia, mate- 
rially affected the original type of the ruling class of Egyptians. 
About b. c. 650, Psammetichus I., by throwing open the army and 
the ports of Egypt to the Greeks, introduced a third element of 
amalgamation, viz : the Indo-European ; which received still stronger 
impetus after Cambyses (b. c. 525) and his successors held Egypt 
prostrate under Arian subjection. Alexander (b. c. 332), and the 
Ptolemies, then overwhelmed Lower Egypt with Macedonians and 
other Grecians ; C^sar (b. c. 39-30), and the Roman emperors, in- 
jected streams of Indo-Germanic, Celtic, and some Sarmatian blood, 
through legionaries drawn even from Britannia et Dacia antiquse, 
into the already-altered Egyptian veins. Lastly, b. c. 641, Arabia 
sent her wild dromedary-riders along the Nile from its mouths to its 
Abyssinian sources. 

Now, at this period of Egyptian life, about twelve centuries ago, 
no population, in the world perhaps, had undergone such transforma- 
tions (individually speaking) of type as had these Hamites through 
Semitic and Indo-European amalgamation with their females, — never 
famous for continence at any time. Besides, a certain but really 
infinitesimal and ephemeral quantum of Ethiopian and Nigritian 
blood had, through importation of concubines, all along, from the 
XHth Dynasty, been flowing in upon this corrupted mass from the 
south. Preceded, under the Khalifates, by occasional Turanian 
captives ; increased during the period of the " Ghuz " through contact 
with the Mongolian offshoots of Hulagou; and stimulated daily by 
fresh accessions of "Caucasian" Memhoks, — the Ottomans, about 
a. d. 1517, commenced despoiling the fairest land amidst all those 
doomed to their now-evanescent dominion. But, — and here is the 
new point in ethnology to which the reader's attention is solicited — * 
from and after the era of the Saracenic conquest, a revulsion in the 
order of these conflicting amalgamations began to take effect. On 



PREFATORY REMARKS. XXI 

the advent of Islam and its institutions, which were received with 
rapture by the Egyptian masses, unions between the Mohammedan- 
ized Fellah women and any males but Mussulmans became unlawful. 
It will also be noted, too, that neither the " Caucasian" Memlooks, 
nor the Turanian Turks, could or can raise hybrid offspring (perma- 
nent, I mean to say), in Egypt: and again, that all these importations 
of foreign rulers, since the time of Cambyses, consisted in soldiery, — 
very disproportionate in numerical amount to the gross bulk of the 
indigenous agricultural population. 

Hence, under Islamism, the people began to pause, as regards 
any important effects, in this promiscuous intermixture with alien 
races; except (in cities chiefly) with their congeners the Arabs. 
But, on the other hand, among the decaying mongrels termed 
"Copts" (Christian Jacobites) — no Muslim law forbidding their 
intercourse with any nation — the action of hybridity has never 
stopped from that day to this: which is the simple rationale of the 
discrepant accounts of tourists in respect to the multiform varieties 
beheld in this small section of the Egyptians. Now, from the com- 
mencement of that pause, in the 7th century of our era, down to 
the present time, some thirty-six generations have elapsed ; during 
which the Muslim peasant population — that is, between two and 
three millions — intermarrying among themselves, have really ab- 
sorbed, or thrown off, those alien elements previously injected into 
their blood, — and thus, the Fellahs of the present day have, to an 
amazing degree, and after some fifty centuries, actually recovered 
the type of the old IVth dynasty. Indeed, one might almost assert 
that, from blank centuries before Christ down to the XlXth century 
after, the greatest changes which time has wrought upon the bulk 
of the indigenous Egyptian race reduce themselves, — in religion, to 
Mohammed for Osiris ; in language, to Semitic for Hamitic ; in insti- 
tutions, to the musket for the bow; but, in blood, to little if any. 
See again Mr. Pulszky's Chapter (I, pp. 107-122), and our plates 
(I and II, infra). 

One word more, as concerns my individual contributions in 
Chapters V and VI. 

With the exception of Chapter m, which Dr. Meigs has been so 
good as to revise himself, the entire labor of editorship has fallen 
upon me ; and, as an inevitable consequence, I have not had the 
time, even supposing possession of the ability, to bestow upon my 
own contributions the verbal criticism they might, otherwise, have 
received. Furthermore, apart from a few pages of my manuscripts 
regarding the natural history of monkeys submitted last summer to 
the obliging perusal of my friends, Prof. Leidy and Dr. Meigs, I 



XXU PREFATORY REMARKS. 

have neither consulted anybody as to the subjects upon which I 
proposed to treat, nor has any one seen the "revises" until the 
plates were stereotyped. Consequently, for whatever I may have 
written, with a free pen and open utterance, no person but myself is 
responsible. 

If the reader will complaisantly bear in mind that the Chapters, 
severally chosen by my colleague Dr. Nott, and our collaborators, 
had already covered a vast range of "Ethnological Inquiry," — upon 
which, whether acquainted with the themes or not, delicacy forbade 
my trenching — he will perceive the reason why, under the caption 
of "the Monogenists and the Polygenists," I have endeavored to 
fill up some gaps in what I deem to be ethnographical desiderata. 
Such as these facts or deductions of my own may be, I submit them 
unreservedly to public criticism; at the same time that, although not 
advanced with indifference to either, they must take their chance, 
without courting approbation, or deprecating blame. 

G. R. G. 

Philadelphia, 20th Feb., 1857. 



CONTENTS. 



Paoe 

PREFATORY REMARKS — by Geo. R. Gliddon vii 

LETTER FROM LIEUT. A. "W. HABERSHAM, U. S. N., (with 1 wood-cut) . . viii 

LETTER FROM PROF. L. AGASSIZ xiii 

LETTER FROM PROF. JOSEPH LEIDY xvi 

Chap. I. — On the Distribution and Classification of Tongues, — their rela- 
tion to the Geographical Distribution of Races ; and on the 
inductions which may be drawn from these relations — by 
Alfred Maury 25 

II. ICONOGRAPHIC RESEARCHES ON HUMAN RACES AND THEIR Art BY 

Francis Pulszky, [with 98 wood-cuts and IX lithographic Plates, 

3 colored) 87 

III. — The Cranial Characteristics of the Races of Men — by J. Aitken 

Meigs, [with 87 wood-cuts.) 203 

IV. — Acclimation; or, the comparative influence of Climate, Endemic 

and Epidemic Diseases, on the Races of Men — by J. C. Nott. . . 353 

V. — The Monogenists and the Polygenists ; being an exposition of the 
doctrines of schools professing to sustain dogmatically the 
Unity or the Diversity of Human Races; with an inquiry into 
the Antiquity of Mankind upon Earth, viewed Chronologically, 
Historically and Pal^eontologically — by Geo. R. Gliddon, 
(with 4 wood-cuts.) 402 

VI. — Section I. — Commentary upon the principal distinctions observ- 
able among the Various Groups of Humanity — (with a tinted litho- 
graphic Tableau containing 54 human portraits.) 603 

Section II. — On the Geographical Distribution of the Simile in 
relation to that of some inferior Types of Men (with a tinted 
Map containing 54 Monkeys and 6 human portraits) — by Geo. R. 

Gliddon 638 

(xxiii) 



LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES. 



Page — Explanations. 
Plate I. — Frontispiece, colored. "Ancient Egyptian Scribe. Vth Dynasty. — 

Mariette's Discoveries, 1852-4," (Louvre Museum.) Ill 

II. — Fig. 1. "Ancient Scribe (ante, PI. I)— Profile."— Fig. 2. " Same head 

altered into a modern Fellith." Ill 

III.-Fig. 1. "Sepa." ) (Louvre Museum) 110 

Fig. 2. " Nesa." j l ' 

IV. — "Skhem-ka," (Louvre Museum) 110 

V. — Fie. 1. " Pahou-er-nowre." ' 1 , T ^ N ,,„ 

„° „ _, , , „ „, „ > (Louvre Museum) 110 

Fig. 2. " Skhem-ka. Profile." j ' 

VI. — Egyptian head (Louvre Museum) Ill 

VII. — "Men-ka-her — Vth Dynasty," (Louvre Museum) 112 

VIII. — Fig. 1. "Aahmes-nofre-ari." } IT> ,. M > f 116 

„ 6 „ . > (Berlin Museum) -j ,,„ 

Fig. 2. " Nefer-hetep I." j v ' \ 113 

IX. - Fig. 1. " Etruscan Vase." | (BritiBh Museum) 190 

Figs. 2, 3, 4. " Etruscan drinkmg-jars. ) 

Ethnographic Tableau. — " Specimens of Various Races of Mankind." 618 

Chart. — "Illustrative of the Geographical distribution of Monkeys, in their 

relation to that of some inferior Types of Men." 641 



(xxiv) 



INDIGENOUS RACES 



THE EAETH. 



CHAPTER I. 

ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES, THEIR RELA- 
TION TO THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF RACES J AND ON THE 
INDUCTIONS WHICH MAT BE DRAWN FROM THESE RELATIONS. 

BY ALFRED MAURY, 

Librarian of the French Imperial Institute, Secretary-General of the 

80CIETE DE GEOGKAPHIE I)E PARIS. 



[COMMUNICATED TO DR. NOTT AND MR. GLIDDON.] 



SECTION I. 



Authors who have occupied themselves with the comparison of 
languages have been inclined sometimes not to distinguish, in the 
grammar, that which belongs to the very constitution of speech (itself 
nothing else than the constitution of the human mind), and that 
which appertains to such or to such another given form of utterance. 
It is here, however, that an important distinction should be made : 
because, if the difference between generic and specific characters be 
not perceived, a man is incapable of analysis ; and instead of making 
a classification he loses himself in a synthesis vague and indefinite. 

Languages are organisms that are all conceived upon the same 
plan, — one might almost say, upon the same skeleton, which, in their 
development and their composition, follow fixed laws : inasmuch as 
these laws are the consequence of this organism itself. But, along- 
side of this identity in the procedure, each family of tongues has its 
own special evolution, and its own destinies. They all possess among 

(25) 



26 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

themselves some particular analogies, which are made evident upon 
comparing these families one with another ; hut such resemhlances 
are never the same amongst many families ; and two groups, that 
have a given characteristic in common, differ through some other 
which, notwithstanding, links one of them to a group more remote. 
In brief, the specific characters of languages are like those of ani- 
mals ; no characteristic taken singly possesses an absolute value, 
being merely a true indication of lineage or of relationship. It is 
their multiplicity, the frequent recurrence of grammatical forms alto- 
gether special, which really constitutes families. The closer affinity 
becomes grasped when words are discovered, either in their " ensem- 
ble," or for uses the most customary and most ancient, to be iden- 
tically the same. 

Thus, then, we recognise two degrees of relationship among the 
idioms spoken by mankind, viz : the relationship of words coupled 
with a conformity of the general grammatical system ; or, this con- 
formity without similitude of vocabulary. Languages may be termed 
daughters or sisters when they offer the former degree of relationship, 
and allied when they are connected through the latter. 

Do all languages proceed from a common stock — from one primitive 
tongue, which has been the (souche) trunk of the branches now-a- 
days living isolately ? 

This, for a long time, was believed. Nevertheless, such belief was 
not based upon an attentive comparison of tongues that had either 
not yet been attempted, or which was hardly even sketched out : but 
it arose simply from confidence reposing upon the recital of Genesis, 
and owing to the servile interpretation that had been foisted upon 
its text. Genesis, indeed, tells us, at the beginning of its Xlth chap- 
ter, 1 — " There were then upon all the earth one single language and the 
same words." 

This remark of the sacred historian has for its object to explain 
the account of the Tower of Babylon. The nature of his narrative 
cannot occasion doubt in the eyes of criticism the least practised. 
We have here a myth that is certainly very ancient, and which the 
Hebrews had brought hack again (after the Captivity) from their 
mother-country. But it is impossible to behold in it an expose really 
historical. The motive given for the construction of the tower is 
that which would suggest itself to the mind of a simple and ignorant 
population, unable to comprehend the reason why the Assyrians 
should erect this tower destined for astronomical observations, inti- 

1 Verse 1 ; Hebrew Text (Cahen, La Bible, Traduction nouvelle, Paris, 1831, i. p. 28) — 
" And now [KuL— H-AReTs] the whole earth was of [S/iePAeH AKha.1l] one lip and of 
[DeBeRIJI AKAaDIM] one (set of) words." 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 27 

mately woven with, their religion. And the explanation of the name 
of BaBeL (Babylon) itself completes the evidence that the recital had 
been written ex post facto ; and, like so many myths, suggested by 
the double acceptation of a word. 2 

The confounding of the speech of the whole earth, could have been 
but the work of time, and of time very prolonged ; because we now 
know what lengthened persistency, what vitality, is the property of 
tongues ! One perceives in this antique legend a remembrance of 
the confusion which prevailed among the divers peoples, and amid 
the different races, who visited Babylon for political or commercial 
interests. As these populations must have been already very divided, 
their languages were parcelled out, at the period of the narrative, 
into a great number of dialects ; and the simultaneous employment 
of all these idioms in one and the same city appropriately gave it the 
name of City of confusion. Babylon, moreover (like its modern suc- 
cessor, Bagdad of the present day), was. situate almost at the point of 
partition of the two great branches of the white race, viz : the She- 
mites, or Syro- Arabians, on the one side, and of the Japetid^;, or 
Irauo-Arians, on the other. The valley of Shinar was then, there- 
fore, as the frontier-line betwixt two races who possessed some tradi- 
tions of a common origin; and the Biblical mythos of the " Tower" 
had for its object an explanation of the forgotten motives of their 
separation. 

Certainly, if one were to take the account of Genesis to the letter, 
it would be necessary to suppose that the first men had not yet 
attained more than the first degrees of speech, and that their idiom 
was then of great simplicity. Now, this primitive idiom ought to 

2 [It is an amusing coincidence that, while the above scientific passages by my erudite 
friend, M. Maury, are in the stereotyper's hands, the religious and profane press of 
the United States should be ringing with the joyful news of the actual discovery, on the 
classic plain of Arbela too, of "that Titanic structure" (as the enthusiastic penny-a-liner 
well terms it), the " Tower of Babel" ! " Surprising," indeed, would it be were such disco- 
very authentic. It becomes still more "surprising" in view of the palpable anachronisms 
by which this pious writer betrays his total ignorance of the nature, epochas, and results, 
of cuneiform researches: but, what seems most "surprising" is, that this newest canard of 
some adolescent missionary writing to Boston (the "modern Athens") from "Beirut, Dec. 
8, 1856," should travel the rounds of the whole press of America without (so far as I can 
learn) one word of critical commentary, or exposure of its preposterous fallacies. Those 
who, even in this country, follow step by step each discovery made in Assyria, for account 
of the Imperial Government, by the erudite and indefatigable Monsieur Place, as it is 
announced at Paris, are perfectly aware that every newly-examined " tower " in that region 
(besides being long posterior in age to the last built of 67 Egyptian pyramids) only affords 
additional " confirmations " of the modus through which, — during the Babylonish captivity, 
and duly registered in passages of Hebrew literature written after the "school of Esdras" 
established itself at Jerusalem — this myth of the " Tower of BaBJeL," as shown above, arose 
in the Israclitish mind. Compare Types of Mankind, 1854, pp. 297, 506, 559-60: — G. R. G.] 



28 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

have preserved itself the least altered in that very country where lan- 
guages had been one at the beginning. And yet, the Hebrew and 
Chaldsean tongues, which were those of these countries, are very far 
from belonging to what may be called the first floor in the formation 
of language. The Chinese, and the languages of Thibet as well as 
of the trans-Gangetic peninsula, have held to much more of the type 
of primitive tongues, than have those of the Semitic stock. Analo- 
gies infinitely greater ought to be perceived among the most ancient 
languages — Hebrew, Egyptian, Sanscrit, Chinese ; inasmuch as they 
should be much nearer to the source. Albeit we meet with nothing 
of the kind ; and the style of Genesis no more resembles that of the 
Chinese " Kings," than the language of the Rig-veda approaches that 
which the hieroglyphics have preserved for us. Amidst these idioms 
there exists nothing but those identities that are due to the use of 
onomatopees, which was more frequent in primitive times than at 
the present day. The grammatical forms are different. Now, let us 
note that — such is the persistency of these forms in languages — the 
Greek and the German, which have been separated from the San- 
scritic stem for more than 3000 years, have preserved, notwithstand- 
ing, a common stock of grammar. How much richer should not 
this stock have been amongst those languages of which we cited the 
names above. 

Besides, even were the similar words of these primitive idioms 
much more numerous than a few biliteral and monosyllabic onoma- 
topees, this would be far from sufficing to establish unity. Many 
similar words result, in tongues the most diverse, from the natural 
(liaisons) connections that certain sounds have with such or such 
another sensation. Between the word and the perception, there are 
very many secret analogies that escape us, and which were more de- 
cided when man lived in closer contact with nature. This is what 
the learned historian of Semitic tongues, M. Ernest Bjenan, 3 has judi- 
ciously remarked. Primitive man endeavored to imitate everything 
that surrounded him ; because he lived altogether externally. Other 
verbal resemblances are the effect of chance. The scale of sounds in 
human speech is too little extended, and the sounds themselves merge 
too easily one into another, to prevent the possibility of the produc- 
tion of a fortuitous affinity in a given case. 

Similitudes, to be veritable, ought to be grounded upon principles 
more solid than a few rare analogies. And these resemblances do 
not exist among those languages carried, according to the ipse dixit 
of the slavish interpreters of Genesis, from the valley of Shinar to 
the four corners of the world. The constitution of the tongues of 

8 Histoire et Systirne comparS des Langues Semicigiies, Paris, 8vo., Ire partie, 1855. 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 29 

each, family appears as a primitive fact, of which we can no more 
pierce the origins than we can seize those of the animal species. In 
the same manner that creation has sported amid the infinite varieties 
of one and the same type, so human intelligence has manifested 
itself through a multitude of idioms which have different]/ rendered 
its conceptions and its ideas. 



SECTION n. 

The ancient grammarians, who submitted speech to a logical and 
reasoned analysis, had figured to themselves that, in its formation, the 
human mind musl have followed the rational march indicated by 
reason. An examination of the facts has proved that there happened 
nothing of the sort. 

Upon studying a tongue at the divers epochs of its grammatical 
existence, it has become settled that our processes of logic and of 
analysis were unknown to the first men. Thought presented itself 
at first under a form at one and the same time confused and complex, 
in which the mind had no consciousness of the elements of which it 
was composed. Sensations succeeded each other so rapidly that 
memory and speech, in- lieu of reproducing their signs separately, 
reflected them all together in their simultaneous action. Thought 
was wholly sympathetic. That which demonstrates it is, that the 
most ancient languages offer this character in the highest degree. 
In them the word is not distinguishable from the phrase, — otherwise 
speaking, they talked by phrases, and not by words. Each expres- 
sion is the complete organism, of which the parts are not only 
appendices one of another, but are inclosed within each other, or are 
tightly interlocked. This is what philologists have termed aggluti- 
nation, polysynthetism. Such manner of expressing oneself is doubt- 
less little favorable to perspicuity ; but, besides that the first men were 
far from possessing the clear and precise ideas of our time, their 
conception was sufficiently simple to be seized without great labor 
of reflection. Furthermore, men, without doubt, then understood 
each other rather by intuition than through reasoning. What they 
sought for was an intimate relation between their sentiments and 
those vocal signs, by the help of which the former could be manifested; 
and these relations once established, they were perceived and com- 
prehended like the play of the features, like the meaning of a gesture, 
rather spontaneously than through analysis of their parts. 

In whatever method we would explain to ourselves, however, this 
primitive characteristic of human speech, it is now-a-days not the 



30 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

less determined. The history of languages is but the continual 
march from synthesis towards analysis. Everywhere one beholds a 
first idiom giving place to a vulgar tongue, that does not constitute, 
to speak correctly, a different idiom, but which is a vernacular in its 
second pljasis, that is, at a period more analytical. Whilst the 
primitive tongue is overloaded with flexions in order to express the 
more delicate relations of thought, richer in images if perhaps poorer 
in ideas, the modern dialect is clearer, more explicit, — separating 
that which the ancients crowded together ; breaking up the mechan- 
isms of the ancient tongue so as to give to each idea, and to each 
relation, its isolated expression. 

And here let not the expressions be confounded with the words. 
The words, otherwise called the elements, that enter into the expres- 
sion, are short, generally monosyllabic, furnished nearly all with 
short vowels or with simple consonants ; but these words disappear 
in the expressions within which they enter ; — one does not seize them 
more than can the eye, in the color green, distinguish the blue and 
yellow. The composing words are pressed (imbricated, to speak with 
botanists), to such degree, that one might call them, according to 
the comparison of Jacob Grimm, blades of herbage in a grass-plot. 
And that which takes place, for the composition of the expressions, 
happens also as regards the pronunciation of the words that so strin- 
gently cling to them, viz : the same simplicity of sounds, inasmuch 
as the expression must nevertheless allow all the parts of its organ- 
ism to be seized. "ISTo primitive tongue," writes M. Jacob Grimm, 
in his memoir on the origin of speech, " possesses a duplication of 
consonant. This doubling arises solely from the gradual assimilation 
of different consonants." At the secondary epoch there appear the 
diphthongs and breakages (brisements) ; whereas the tertiary is char- 
acterized by softenings and by other alterations in the vowels. 

Above all, it is the Sanscrit which has made evident these curious 
laws of the gradual transformation of languages. The Sanscrit, with 
its admirable richness of grammatical forms, its eight eases, its six 
moods, — its numerous terminations and its varied forms enouncing, 
alongside of the principal idea, a host of accessory notions — was emi- 
nently suited to the study of the growth and decline of a tongue. At 
its debut, in the Eig-veda, the language appears with this synthetic 
character; these continual inversions, these complex expressions that 
we just now signalized as conditions in the primordial exercise of 
thought. Afterwards follows the Sanscrit of the grand epopees of 
India. The language had then acquired more suppleness, whilst 
preserving, nevertheless, the rigidity of its pristine processes : but 
soon the grammatical edifice becomes decomposed. The Pali, which 



CLASSIFICATION" OP TONGUES. 31 

corresponds to its first age of alteration, is stamped with a remark- 
able spirit of analysis. "The laws that presided over the formation 
of this tongue," writes Eugene Burnouf, 4 "are those of which the 
application is discernible in other idioms, at diverse epocbas and in 
very different countries. These laws are general, inasmuch as they 
are necessary. Let the Latin, in fact, be compared with the lan- 
guages which are derived from it; the ancient Teutonic dialects 
with the tongues of the same origin ; the ancient Greek with the 
modern ; the Sanscrit with the numerous popular dialects of India ; 
and the same principles will be seen to develop themselves, the same 
laws to be applicable. The organic inflections of the mother tongues 
subsist in part, but in an evident state of alteration. More generally 
they disappear, and are replaced ; the cases by particles, the tenses 
by auxiliary verbs. These processes vary from one tongue to 
another, but the principle remains the same. It is always analysis, 
whether a synthetical language finds itself suddenly spoken by bar- 
barians who, not understanding the structure, suppress and replace 
its inflexions ; or whether, abandoned to its own course, and by dint 
of being cultivated, it tends towards decomposition, and to subdi- 
vide the signs representative of ideas and of the relations them- 
selves." 

Tbe Prakrit, which represents the secondary age of alteration in 
ancient tongues, is submitted to the same analogies. On the one 
hand, it is less rich; on the other, simple and more facile. Finally, 
the Kawi, ancient idiom of Java, is a corruption of the Sanscrit ; 
wherein this language, deprived of its inflexions, has taken in their 
place the prepositions and the vernacular dialects of that island. 
These three tongues, themselves formed through derivation from the 
Sanscrit, soon undergo the same lot as their motber : they become, 
each in its turn, dead, learned, and sacred languages, — the Pali, in 
the isle of Ceylon and in Indo-Cbina ; the Prakrit among the Djainas ; 
the Kawi in the islands of Java, Bali and Madoura ; and in their 
place arise in India dialects more popular still, the tongues Crours, 
Hindee, Cashmerian, Bengalee, the dialect of Guzerat, the Mahratta, 
&c, together with the other vulgar idioms of Hindostan, of which 
the system is far less learned. 5 

Languages of the regions intermediary between India and the 
Caucasus offer, in their relation and affiliation, differences of the 
same order. At the more ancient periods appear the Zend and tbe 
Parsi, bound together through a close relationship with the Sanscrit, 
but corresponding to two different developments of the faculty of 

4 Sssai sur le Pali, par E. Bcrnouf et Chr. Lassen. 

6 Ernest Renan, Op. cit., "de l'origme du langage," p. 22. 



32 ON THE DISTRIBUTION' AND 

speech. The Zend, notwithstanding its traits of resemblance with 
the Vedic Sanscrit, allows our perceiving, as it were, the first symp- 
toms of a labor of condensation in the pronunciation, and of analysis 
in the expression. It wears all the external guise of a tongue with 
flexions (langue a flexion) ; but at the epoch of the Sassanides [a. d.' 
224 to 644] as M. Spiegel remarks, it already commences to dis- 
robe itself of them. The tendency to analysis makes itself by far more 
felt in the old Persic, or Parsi ; and, in modern Persian, decomposi- 
tion has attained its ultimate term. 

We might reproduce the same observations for the languages of 
the Caucasus, the Armenian and the Georgian; for Semitic tongues, 
by comparing the Rabbinical with the ancient Hebrew; but what has 
been already said suflices for the comprehension of the fact. 

The cause of these transformations is found in the very condition 
of a tongue, in the method through which it moulds itself upon the 
impressions and wants of the mind, — it proceeds from its own mode 
of generation. An idiom is an organism subject, like every organ- 
ism, to the laws of development. One must not, writes Wilhelm 
von Hulmboldt, consider a language as a product dead and formed 
but once ; it is an animate being and ever creative. Human thought 
elaborates itself with the progress of intelligence; and of this thought, 
language is a manifestation. An idiom cannot, therefore, remain 
stationary ; it walks, it develops itself, it grows up, it fortifies itself, 
it becomes old, and it reaches decrepitude. 

The tongue sets forth with a first phonetic radical, which renders 
the sensation in all its simplicity and its generality. This is not yet 
a verb, nor an adjective, nor a substantive ; it is a word that expresses 
the common sensation that may lie at the bottom of these gramma- 
tical categories ; which translates the sentiment of welfare, of plea- 
sure, of pain, of joy, of hope, of light, or of heat. In the use that 
is made of speech, there is doubtless by turns a sense verbal or 
nominal, adverbial or qualifying ; but nothing, however, in its form 
indicates or specifies such a part (role). Very simple languages are 
still nearly all at this elementary stage. It is at a later day only that 
the mind creates those formswhich are called members of a discourse. 
These had existed without doubt virtually, but the intelligence did 
not feel the need of distinguishing them profoundly by an essential 
form. Subsequently there forms went on multiplying themselves ; 
but their abundance no less than their nature has varied according 
to countries and to races. Sometimes it is upon the verb that 
imagination has exhausted all the shades of expression ; at others it 
is to the substantive that it has attributed these modifications. Mind 
has been more or less inventive, and more or less rational : it has 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 33 

seized here upon delicacies which completely escaped it tnere ; and 
in the clumsiest tongues one remarks shadowings, or gradations, 
that are wanting to the most refined. Of this let us give an example : 
— the Sanscrit is a great deal richer than Greek in the manner by 
the aid of which it expresses the relationship of the noun to a phrase, 
and the relations of words between themselves. It possesses a far 
deeper and much purer sentiment of the nature of the verb and of 
its intrinsic value : yet, notwithstanding, the conception of the mood 
in a verb, considered as distinct from time, escaped it, — the verbal 
nature of the infinitive remained to it unknown. Sanscrit in this 
respect, therefore, yields to Greek, which, moreover, is united to it 
by very tight bands. 

Thus then, human intelligence did not arrive in eveiy language 
to the same degree, and consequently it did not create the same 
secondary wheel-work. The general mechanism presented itself 
everywhere the same ; because this mechanism proceeds from the 
internal nature of our mind, and this nature is the same for all 
mankind. 

The genius of each tongue, then, marked out its pattern ; and this 
genius has been more or less fecund, exhibits more or less of mobility. 
"Words have constantly represented the same order of objects, because 
these objects do not change according to countries or according to 
races ; but they are offered imder aspects the most varied, and these 
aspects have not always been identical under different skies and 
amid diverse societies. Hence the creation of words in unequal 
number to represent the same sum-total of known objects. The 
brilliant imagination of one people has been a never-failing source 
of new wojds, of novel forms ; at the same time that, amongst 
others, the idea has remained almost embryonic, and the object ever 
presented itself under the same aspect. If given impressions were 
paramount, the words by which they were translated became greatly 
multiplied. 

In the days of chivalry there was a host of expressions to render 
the idea of horse. In Sanscrit, the language of Hiudostan, where the 
elejihant plays a part as important as the horse among ourselves, 
words abound to designate this pachyderm. Sometimes it is de- 
nominated as "the twice-drinking animal," sometimes as "he who 
has two teeth;" sometimes as "the animal with proboscis." And 
that which happens for substantives occurs also for verbs. Among 
the American tongues, spoken by populations who had few objects 
before their sight, but whose life consisted altogether in action and 
feeling, verbal forms are singularly multitudinous. On the opposite 
hand, in Sanscrit and in Greek, which were spoken in the presence 
3 



34 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

of a civilization already advanced, amid an infinitude of productions 
of nature or of industry, the nouns take precedence over the verbs. 
Here the richness of the cases dispenses with the rigorous sense of .. 
prepositions, as occurs in Greek ; whereas among ourselves, who in 
French possess no longer any cases, the meaning of the phrase exacts 
that our prepositions should be well defined. Hence, then, the life 
itself of a people has been the source of the modifications operated 
in its tongue, and each idiom has pursued its development after its 
own fashion. 

Two causes combine towards effecting an alteration of languages, 
viz : their development within themselves, and their contact with 
foreign idioms, — above all with such as belong to families altogether 
distinct ; but the second, compared to the first, is of small account. 
The influence of neighboring foreign tongues introduces some new 
words and sundry locutions, certain " idiotisms ;" but it cannot, without 
difficulty, inject into alien speech those grammatical forms which are 
its own heritage. Its influence re-acts much more upon the style than 
on the grammar. If two languages of distinct families are spoken by 
neighboring populations, or by those living in perpetual contact, it or- 
dinarily happens that the most analytical tongue forces its processes to 
penetrate into that which is the less so. Thence it is that the German, 
brought into contact with the French, loses a portion of its syntheti- 
cal expressions, as well as the habitual use of those compound 
phrases which it received from the Asiatic speech whence it issued ; 
and that the French, when spoken by Negroes, is stripped of its 
grammatical richness, and becomes simplified almost to the level of 
an African tongue. In the same manner the Armorican, or Bas- 
Breton, whilst preserving the ground-work of Celtic grammar, is 
now-a-days spoken under a form that recalls more of French than of 
the ancient Armorican. 

One sees, therefore, that the crossing of languages, like that of 
races, has really not been very deep. Once invaded by a stranger- 
tongue, one of a nature more logical in its processes, the old lan- 
guage either has not undergone more than superficial alterations, or 
has disappeared entirely, without bequeathing to the idiom which 
followed it any inheritance but that of a few words. Such is what 
happened to Latin as regards the Gallic (G-aulois). This Celtic 
tongue is completely supplanted by the idiom of the Romans, and has 
left no other vestiges of its existence than a few words, together with, 
doubtless, some peculiarities of pronunciation also that have passed 
into the French. One perceives equally well in English, here and 
there, words and locutions that appertain to the Welsh ; and which, 



CLASSIFICATION OP TONGUES. do 

in consequence, must be a heritage of the tongue whilom spoken by 
the Kelts of Albion. 

If the grammatical dispossession of a language could have been 
wrought gradually, one ought to find some mixed phrases at the 
living period of those tongues that have been driven out by others. 
Now, such is not the case. The Basque, for example, foreign in 
origin both to French and Spanish, has indeed been altered through 
the adoption of a few words and a few locutions borrowed from these 
languages, by which it is surrounded, and, as it were, invested ; but 
it evermore clings to the basis of its structure, the vital principle 
of its organism ; and a Franco-Basque, or a Basco-Spanish, is not 
spoken, nowhere has ever been spoken. Modern Greek has appro- 
priated many words from Turkish, no less than from Italian, as well 
as some expressions of both tongues ; but its entire construction 
remains fundamentally Hellenic, notwithstanding that it belongs 
to the analytical period, and that the ancient Greek was still 
emerging frorn the synthetic. Again, the Persian, which is so 
imbued with Arabic words that writers of this language often inter- 
calate sentences wholly Arabic in their discourses, remains, never- 
theless, completely Indo-Germanic as concerns its grammar. But 
we have not seen that this tongue has ever associated the Persian 
declension with the Arabic conjugation, or yoked the Persian pre- 
positions to Semitic affixes and suffixes. Finally, the Osmanlee 
Turkish, besides incorporating words of every language with which 
the Turks have been in contact for more than a thousand years, has 
purloined all its scientific nomenclature from the Arabs, most of its 
polite diplomatic phrases from the Persians; but, whilst fusing 
Semitic as well as Indo-European exotic words into its copia ver- 
borum, the radical structure of its so-called Tartarian [or, Turanian] 
grammar, no less than its original vocabulary, is still so tenaciously 
preserved, that a coarse Siberian Yakut can even now, after ages of 
ancestral separation, communicate his simple ideas to the intelligence 
of a Constantinopolitan Turko-Sybarite. 

All these considerations show us, therefore, that the families of 
tongues are assemblages (des ensembles) very distinct, and the results 
of a diversified order of the creative faculty of speech. This faculty 
does not, then, appear to us as absolutely identical in its action ; and 
we must necessarily admit that it corresponds, under its different 
forms, to races of mankind possessing different faculties, as well for 
speech as for ideas. This is what the study of the principal classes 
or families of tongues will make still more evident ; seeing that we 
shall find them in a relation sufficiently striking to the different 
human races. 



36 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

One of the most skilful philologists of Germany, M. A. E. Pott, 
Professor of Linguistics at the University of Halle, has recently 
combated (in a work entitled, " The Inequality of Human Races, 
viewed especially as regards the Constitution of their Speech, 5 ) the hypo- 
thesis of a unique primitive language, whence all others are supposed 
to have issued ; and he has shown that it has no more foundation than 
that which would make all the species of one and the same genus 
issue from a single individual, and all varieties from one primitive 
type. He has claimed for languages an ethnological character, suited 
to the classification of races, not less certain than the physical type 
and the corporeal forms. Perhaps even, he observes, the idiom 
is a criterion more certain than the physical constitution. Does not 
speech, in fact, reflect the intelligence better, — is not language 
more competent to give the latter' s measurement, than can be gath- 
ered from the dimensions of the facial angle, and the amplitude of 
the cranium ? A powerful mind may inhabit a slender and mis- 
shapen body, whilst a well-made tongue, rich in forms and nuances, 
could not take its birth among intellects infirm or degenerate. This 
observation of M. Pott is just ; but it ought likewise to be allowed 
that the classification of languages offers, perhaps, more uncertainty 
than that of races considered physiologically. The truth of this 
remark of M. Pott must, nevertheless, be restricted ; because speech 
is not the complete measure of intelligence, taken in the aggregate. 
It is merely proportionate to the degree of perception of relationships, 
of sensibility, and of memory : because we shall see, further on, that 
some peoples, very far advanced in civilization, could have a language 
very imperfect in its forms ; at the same time that some savage tribes 
do speak an idiom possessing a certain grammatical richness. 

SECTION in. 

Philologists who have devoted themselves to the comparative study 
of the languages of Europe, MM. F. Bopp and Pott, in particular, 
have established the more or less close relationship of these tongues 
amongst each other. All, with the exception of some idioms, of 
which we shall treat anon, offer the same grammatical system, and 
a vocabulary whose words can be attached one to another through 
the rules of etymology. I say the rules, because etymology now-a- 
days possesses its own, and is no longer governed by arbitrary, often 
ingenious, but chimerical distinctions. Through the attentive com- 

5 Die Ungleichheit menschlicher Rassen haupsachlich vo.n SprachwissenschaJ '(lichen Standpunkte, 
vnter besonderer Berilchsichtigung von des Grafen von Gobineau gleichnamigen Werke; Leingo 
& Detmold, 8vo., 1S56. 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 37 

parison of the changes that well-known words have undergone in 
passing from one language into another, modern philology has be- 
come enabled to grasp the laws of permutation as regards the letters, 
and the regular processes for the exchange of sounds. These facts 
once settled, it has become possible to trace backward words, in appear- 
ance strangely dissimilar, to a common root which stands forth as the 
type whence modifications have produced all these derivative words. 

It is in the Sanscrit that this type has been discovered ; or, at the 
very least, the Sanscrit presents itself under a form much more 
ancient than the European formations ; and, in consequence, it ap- 
proaches nearest to that type of which we can no longer grasp any 
but the diversified derivatives. 

In like manner, the grammar of the languages of Europe, in its 
fundamental forms, is recognized in the Sanscrit grammar. This 
grammar, of which we specified above the character and richness, 
incloses, so to speak, in substance, those of all the European idioms. 
The elements which compose these idioms are like so many debris of 
a more ancient tongue, whose model singularly approximates to the 
Sanscrit. It is not, however, that the languages of Europe have not 
each their own riches and their individual genius besides. In cer- 
tain points they are often more developed than the Sanscrit. But, 
taken in their collective amplitude, they are certainly branches more 
impoverished than that which constitutes the Sanscrit. These 
branches appertain to a common source that is called Indo-European 
or Indo-Crermanic. The sap seems, nevertheless, to have exhausted 
itself little by little ; and those branches most distant from the trunk 
have no longer anything like the youth, fulness, and life, which flow 
in the vessels of the branches of primary formation. 

Hence the languages of Europe belong to a great family, that, at 
an early hour, divided itself into many branches, of whose common 
ancestor we are ignorant, but of whom we encounter in the Sanscrit 
the chief of one of the most ancient collateral lines. We have pre- 
viously stated that the Persic (Parsi) and the Zend were two tongues 
very intimately allied to the Sanscrit. They are consequently sisters : 
and, whilst certain tongues of Europe, such as the Greek and the 
Shlavic languages, recall, in a sufficiently striking manner, the Sans- 
crit ; others, the Germanic tongues, hold more closely to the Persic 
and the Zend. 

Comparison of the languages of Europe has caused them to be 
grouped into four great classes, representing, as it were, so many sis- 
ters from the same mother, but sisters who have not been called to an 
equality of partition. The more one advances toward the East, the 
more are found those tongues that have partaken of the inheritance. 



38 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

Whilst the Sclavonic idioms, and in particular the Lithuanian family, 
have preserved, almost without alteration, the mould of which Sans- 
crit yields us the most ancient product, the Celtic languages, driven 
away to the "West, remind us only in a sufficiently-remote manner of 
the mother-tongue ; and, for a long time, it was thought that they 
constituted a group apart. 

This distribution of languages in Europe, co-relative in their affi- 
nity with the antique idioms once spoken from the shores of the Cas- 
pian Sea to the banks of the Ganges, is an incontestable index to the 
Asiatic origin of the peoples who speak them. One cannot here sup- 
pose a fortuitous circumstance. It is clearly seen that these tribes 
issuing from Asia had impinged one against another ; and the Celts, 
as the most ancient immigrants on the European continent, have 
ended by becoming its most occidental inhabitants. 

"We have been saying that the European languages of Indo-Ger- 
manie stock are referred to four families. We have already enume- 
rated the Celtic, the Indo-Germanic, and the Shlavic tongues. The 
fourth family, which may be called Pelasgic, comprehends the Greek, 
the Latin, and all the languages that have issued from them. Let 
us examine separately the characteristics of these linguistic families, 
whose destinies, posteriorly to the populations which spoke them, 
have exercised such influence upon those of humanity. 

The Greco-Latin group has received the name of Pelasgic, Greece 
and Italy having been peopled originally by a common race, the Pe- 
lasgi, whose idiom may be considered as the (souche) source of the 
Greek and the Latin. The first of these tongues is not, in fact, as 
had been formerly imagined, the "mother" of the other. They are 
simply two sisters : and if a different age is to be assigned to them, 
the Latin possesses claims to be regarded as the elder. Indeed, this 
language presents a more archaic character than the classical Greek. 
The most ancient dialect of the Hellenic idiom, that of the ^Eolians, 
resembles the Latin much more than the later dialects of Greek. 
Whilst, in this last tongue, the presence of the article announces the 
secondary period, at the same time that contractions are already nu- 
merous, the synthetical character is more pronounced in Latin ; its 
grammatical elements have not yet been separated into so many dif- 
ferent words; and the phraseology, as well as the conjugation and the 
most ancient forms of declensions, possess a striking resemblance 
to that which we encounter in the Sanscrit. The Latin vocabu- 
lary contains, over and above, a multitude of words whose archaic 
form is altogether Sanscrit. This language has moreover passed, in 
its grammatical forms and its syntax, through a series of transforma- 
tions that we can follow from the most ancient epigraphic and poeti- 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 39 

cal monuments back to the authors of the IVth and Vth century before 
our era. Latin itself was nothing more than one of the branches of 
the ancient family of Italic tongues, and which comprehended three 
branches, — the Japygian, the Etruscan, and the Italiot. These again, 
in their turn, subdivide themselves into two branches : the first con- 
stituting the Latin proper, and the second comprising the dialects of 
the Ombrians, the Marses, the Volsciaus, and the Samnites. 

"We are acquainted with the Japygian tongue solely through some 
inscriptions found in Calabria, and belonging to the Messaprine dia- 
lect. Their decipherment is as yet little advanced ; notwithstanding 
the labors that comparative philology has undertaken in these latter 
days : 7 but, what of it is understood suffices to exhibit to us an Indo- 
European tongue, which becomes recognizable in a much more certain 
manner in the inscriptions of the Italiot languages ; that is to say, of 
tongues somewhat-closely allied to the Latin, and whose forms 
approximate already, in sundry respects, more to the Sanscrit. 

The comparison of these last idioms to their Asiatic prototype per- 
mits us not merely to seize the relationship of the tribes that spoke 
them. It enables us to judge, also, of the degree of civilization which 
they had attained when they penetrated into Europe. In fact, as has 
been remarked by one of the most accomplished philologues of Ger- 
many, M. Th. Mommsen, those words that we discover at once with the 
same signification, in the different Indo-European tongues, — except, 
be it well understood, the modifications which became elaborated ac- 
cording to the inherent genius and the pronunciation of each of these 
languages — give us the measure of the social state of the emigrant 
race at the moment of its departure. ~Eow, all the names of cattle, 
of domestic animals, for ox, sheep, horse, dog, goose, 8 are the same 
in Sanscrit, in Latin, in Greek, and in German. Hence, the Indo- 
European population knew, upon entering Europe, how to rear cattle. 
We see also that they understood the art of constructing carts, yokes, 
and fixed habitations ; 9 that the use of salt 10 was common with them ; 

' See on this subject the learned works of F. G. Geotefend, entitled, — Rudimenta lingua 
Umbricce ex inscripiionibus antiquis enodala (Hanover, 1835) ; — of S. Th. Aufrecht, and A. 
Kirchhoff, Die TTmblischen Sprachdenkmdler (Berlin, 1839) ; — and of Th. Mommsen, Die Un- 
teritalischen Dialecte (Leipzig, 1850). 

8 Sanscrit gaus, Latin bos, Greek j3ots, French boivf, English beef: — Sanscrit avis, Latin 
ovis, Greek ois, English sheep : — Sanscrit cevus, Latin equus, Greek " m -os, English horse. The 
mutation of P into Q is again met with in passing from the Umbrian and the Sanscrit into 
Latin ; for example, pis for quis ; Sanscrit hansas, Latin anser, Greek ynv ; and the same for 
pecus, taurus, canis, &c. 

9 Sanscrit jugam, Latin j'ugum, Greek ?{,yov, French Jong, English yoke: — Sanscrit akshas, 
Latin axis, Greek afav whence Siia^a, French char, English car: — Sanscrit damas, Latin 
domus, Greek li^os : — Sanscrit vtcas, Latin vicus, Greek d,Ko; ; English house. 

w Sanscrit saras, Latin sal, Greek &\as, French sel, English salt. 



40 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

that they all divided the year into lunar months, and counted regu- 
larly up to more than 100, 11 according to the decimal system ; and 
that they professed a worship similar to that depicted for us in the 
Eig-veda. 

"But, as a counter-proof, — the words that we simply encounter both 
in Greek and Latin, but which do not exist in the Sanscrit in their 
proper sense, and of which only a remote etymological radical can 
be discovered, become witnesses, in their own turn, for the progres- 
sions that had been accomplished in Europe. They unfold to us 
what had been the acquirements in common, which the Pelasgi pos- 
sessed prior to their complete separation into Hellenic and into 
Italic populations. 12 We thence learn how it is that from this Pe- 
lasgic epoch dates the establishment of regular agriculture, — the 
cultivation of the cereals, of the vine and the olive. Finally, those 
words possessed by the Latin alone, but which the Greek has not 
yet acquired, display the progress accomplished by the Italic popula- 
tions after they had penetrated into the Peninsula. For instance, 
the word expressing the idea of " boat" (navis, Sanscrit nans), and 
which was subsequently applied to a " ship" (French navire, and by 
us preserved in navy, &c), belongs to the three languages as well as 
that which renders the idea of " oar." The Pelasgi had, therefore, 
imported with them from Asia, acquaintance with, transportations 
by water; but the words for sail, mast, and yard, are exclusively 
Latin. It was, consequently, the Italic people who invented (for 
themselves) navigation by sails; and this circumstance completes 
the demonstration, that it was through the north of the Italian 
peninsula that the Pelasgi must have penetrated into it. 13 

We are, unfortunately, still perplexed as to what was the precise 
idiom of these Pelasgi. It is, perhaps, in the living tongue of the 
Albanians, or Skippetars, that the least adulterated descendant of 

11 The names of numbers are the same up to a hundred, and the numeral system is iden- 
tical. 

12 [My colleague, M. Maury, writes me that his Histoire des Religions de la Grece A nlique 
(2 vols. 8vo., publishing by Ladrange, Paris), is on the point of issue — Feb. 1857. It is 
the fruit of long years of research, and cannot fail to throw great light upon ante-Hellenic 
events. In another equally - interesting field, the Melanges Hisloriques of our friend M 
Ernest Renan (now in press) will explore many points of contact, or of disunion, between 
Sanscritic and Semitic languages and history. — G. R. G.] 

13 [This interesting method of resuscitating facts long entombed in the ashes of ante- 
history, confirms the accuracy of Dr. David F. Weinland's views, "On the names of 
animals with reference to Ethnology," in a paper read before the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, last August. But I know of it only through a very condensed 
report {New York Herald, Aug. 26, 1856). — G. R. G.] 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 41 

this idiom must be sought for. 14 Notwithstanding the quantity suf- 
ficiently noteworthy of Greek and Shlavic words that has penetrated 
into the Albanian, a grammatical system, nearer to Sanscrit than the 
Greek affords, is encountered in it. Such, for example, is the de- 
clension of the determinate adjective through a pronominal appendix, 
— which is observed likewise in Sclavonic tongues, so approximate, 
on the other hand, to Sanscrit. The conjugation of the verb is very 
distinct from that in Greek, and denotes a system of flexion less 
developed. 

I shall say nothing about the neo-Latin tongues, born from the 
decomposition of Latin, and which lost little by little the synthetical 
character and the flexions of their mother. I will but remark, that 
it is very curious to establish how the languages issued from this 
stock that have been spoken by populations whose national life is 
very slightly developed, are those which present an analytical con- 
stitution the least pronounced, and wherein the flexions have not 
became so greatly impoverished. The Valaq or Roumanie, the 
Rheto-Bomain or dialect of the country of the Grisons, are certainly 
more synthetic, and grammatically less impoverished than French or 
Spanish. But, at the same time that these tongues have preserved 
their more complex character, they have become still more altered 
in respect to their vocabulary ; and one feels in them very strongly 
the influence which intermixture of races exerts upon languages ; 
otherwise called, the mingling of different tongues. The verb in the 
Hheto-Eomain, for instance, is conjugated now-a-days in the future 
tense and in the passive form like a German verb. 

The Sclavonic, or Letto-Shlave, tongues decompose themselves into 
several groups that correspond to different degrees of linguistic 
development. The Lettish group, or Lithuanian (which comprehends 
the Lithuanian, properly so called, the Borussian or ancient Prus- 
sian, and the Lettia or Livonian), answers to a period less advanced 
than the Shlavic branch; for example, the Lithuanian substantive 
has but two genders, whilst the Shlave recognizes three. The Lithu- 
anian conjugation does not distinguish the third persons of the 
singular, of the dual and the plural. The Shlavic conjugation, on the 
contrary, clearly distinguishes seven persons in the plural and in the 
singular. But, by way of amends, the Lithuanian keeps in its 
declension the seven cases and the dual, so characteristic in Sanscrit. 

14 See on this subject the Eludes Albanaises of M. J. von Hahn published at Vienna in 
1854. M. A. F. Pott has made the observation, that the Valaq idiom preserves probably 
some vestiges of this antique language of Illyria ; the use of the definite article, notably, 
seems in Wallachian to proceed from sources foreign to Latin. 



42 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

These cases are even occasionally identical with those of this last 
tongue. The Sclavonic, or Shlave, idioms properly so denominated, 
subdivide themselves into two branches, that of the south-west and 
that of the west. The first comprises the Russian, the Bulgarian which 
furnishes us with the most ancient Shlavic form (approximating very 
much to the idiom termed Cyrillic or ecclesiastical, in which are 
composed the most ancient monuments of the Christian literature of 
this race), the IUyrian, the Serle or Servian, the Croat, and the Slovine 
spoken in Carinthia, in Carniola, a part of Styria, and in a canton 
of western Hungary. The Shlavic tongues of the west embrace the 
Lekh or Polish, the Tcheq or Bohemian, the Sozab or Wendic (popu- 
lar dialect of Lusace), and the Polab, — that has disappeared like the 
ancient Prussian, and which was spoken by the Sclavonic tribes who 
of yore were spread along both banks of the lower Elbe. 

The Germanic languages attach themselves (we have already said), 
more to the Zend and the Persic than to the Sanscrit. The Persic 
and Zend are part of a group of tongues that is designated by the 
name of Iranian languages. It embraces again many other idioms, 
of which several have disappeared. To it are attached notably the 
Affghan or Pushtu, the Beloodchi spoken in Beloodckistan, the Kurd, 
the Armenian, and the Ossete — which seems to be nothing else than 
the language of those people known to the ancients by the name of 
Albanian, the Aghovans of Armenian authors. This narrow bond 
between the Germanic and the Iranian languages tells us plainly 
whence issued the populations which spread themselves over central 
Europe, and that very likely drove before them the Celts. The 
affinity that binds these Germanic tongues amongst each other, — 
that is to say, the ancient Gothic, or dialects of the German properly 
so called, to which cling the Flemish and the Dutch, the Prison and 
the Anglo-Saxon, and lastly the old Icelandic and its younger sisters 
the Danish and Swedish — is much closer than that observable between 
the Shlavic and amongst the Pelasgic languages. Eour traits in com- 
mon, as Mr. Jacob Gbjmm has noticed, attach them together, viz : 
variation of sound, which the Germans call "ablaut;" metathesis, or 
transposition ; and finally, the existence of two different forms of 
verbs and of nouns, that are denominated "strong declension or con- 
jugation," and "weak declension or conjugation." 

An attentive comparison of the laws of the Sanscrit grammar and 
vocalization, with those of German grammar and vocalization, has 
revealed some curious analogies which explain those resemblances 
that had been, even anciently, perceived between German and 
Greek. 

Celtic languages are known to us, unhappily, only through some 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 43 

doubtless very degenerate representatives of that powerful family, 
viz : the Gf-celic or Welsh, and the Armorican or Bas-breton (which are 
in reality no more than dialects of the Kimric tongue), the Irish, 
the Erse or Gadhelic idiom spread over the Scottish Highlands, and 
the Manx or idiom of the little isle of Man, — not forgetting the lost 
Cornish dialect. "We hardly know anything of the tongue spoken 
of erst by our fathers, the Gauls (G-aulois or Galls); except that the 
small number of words remaining to us suffices to classify it with the 
same family. Of all the branches of the Indo-European family this 
Celtic is, in fact, the one whose destinies have been the least happy, 
and the most confined. Its tongues have come to die along the 
shores of the Ocean that opposed an impassable barrier to renewed 
emigration of those who spoke them. Invaded by the Latin or 
German populations, the Keltic races have lost, for the most part, 
the language that distinguished them, without, on that account, 
losing altogether the imprint of their individuality. 

The history of the Indo-European languages is, therefore, the surest 
guide we can follow in endeavoring to re-construct the order of those 
migrations that have peopled Europe. This community of language 
that unveils itself beneath an apparent diversity, can it be simply the 
effect of a commonality of organization physical and intellectual? 
The inhabitants of Europe, — do they belong solely to what might 
be termed the same formation ? It would, if so, become useless to 
go searching in Asia for their common cradle. The fact is in itself 
but little verisimilar ; but, here are some comparative connections of 
another order that come to add themselves to those which languages 
have offered us, and to confirm the inductions drawn from the pre- 
ceding data. 

On studying the mythological traditions contained in the Yedas, as 
well as in the most ancient religious monuments of India and Persia, 
there has been found a multitude of fables, of beliefs, of surnames of 
gods and some sacred rites, some variants of which, slightly altered, 
are re-encountered in the legends and myths of antique Greece, of 
old Italy, of Germany, Scandinavia, Russia, and even of England. 
It is only since a few years that these new analogies have been 
brought to light; and the Journal directed by two distinguished 
Orientalists of Berlin, MM. Th. Aufrecht and Adalbert Kuhn, 
has been the chief vehicle for their exposition. One of the first 
Indianists of Germany, M. Albert Weber, has also contributed his 
portion to this labor of (rapprochement) comparison ; of which, in 
France, the Baron d'Eckstein learnedly pursues the application. 

I have already said that the names of gods met with in Greek and 
Latin indicate to us a worship (culte) among the Pelasgi altogether 



44 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

similar to that of which the Big-veda is the most ancient monument. 
It cannot, of course, be expected that I should here enumerate all 
these names. I will, however, select out of their multitude, some of 
a-nature suited to cause these analogies to he understood. 

The God of Heaven (or of the sky) is called by the Greeks Zeus 
Pater ; and let us here notice that the pronunciation of Z resembles 
very much that of D, inasmuch as the word Zeus becomes in the geni- 
tive Dios. The Latins termed the same god Dies-piiter or Jupiter. 
How, in the Veda, the God of Heaven is called Dyauslipitar. The 
Greeks designated the sky as Ouranos, and invoked it as a supreme 
god. And, it must again be noted that, in their tongue, the V does 
not exist, but is always rendered by OU. In the Veda, on the other 
hand, it is termed Varouna. The Earth always receives — among 
the Greeks, the Latins, and the Germans, — the epithet of " mother ;" 
and likewise under this surname is it invoked in the Vedic hymns. 

But these are, after all, only similitudes of names : some complete 
myths connect amongst each other all the Germanic populations. 
These myths, too, have become invested, amid each one of the latter, 
with a physiognomy slightly distinct; because every thing in 
niythos is shifting and changeable : and, even among the same people, 
myths modify and transform themselves according to times and 
according to places ; but, a basis, — a substratum, of ideas in common 
remains ; and it is this residue which permits us to grasp the original 
relationship of beliefs. Well, — we might cite a host of these fables 
that have run over the whole of Europe, but ever preserving the 
same traits. I will give one of them, just by way of specimen : — 

Grecian antiquity has recorded various legends concerning a mar- 
vellous artisan yclept Aa/<5«Aos (the " inventive") who occasionally 
becomes confounded with the God of fire, personification of light- 
ning (and the thunderbolt), Hepheestos ; whom we call, after the Latins, 
Vulcan. The Aryas (proper name of those Arians who composed the 
Sanscrit Vedas) also adored, as a blacksmith-god, the personified 
thunderbolt. They termed him T-wachtrei; and the physiognomy of 
this personage possesses the greatest analogies with that of Vulcan. 
Tivaehtrei is called the "author of all works ;" because fire is the 
grand agent of human industry ; and he is Ignipotens, as says Virgil 
speaking of Vulcan. And, in the same manner that this divinity had 
forged the thunderbolt of Jupiter, and executed the cup out of which 
immortals quaffed ambrosia, Twachter' had forged the thunderbolt 
of Indra, god of the sky (or Heaven) in the Vedic pantheon ; and 
was the maker of that divine cup whence was poured out the soma, 
— which was, at one and the same time, ambrosia and the libation. 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 45 

Fwachter' has for assistants, or for rivals, the Bibhavas, 15 — other 
divine artists, who play a considerable part in the songs of the Veda 
and in Hindostanic history; wherein one recognizes numberless 
traits common to the Hellenic legend of the Cyclopians, the Cabiri, 
the Telchines, and in particular to that of Daedalus. Now, these same 
legends are picked up here and there from different points of Europe, 
in localities the most distant, and between which no interchange of 
ideas could anciently have occurred. The celebrated blacksmith 
"Wieland," or Velant, so famous in the traditions of northern Ger- 
many, — who, in Scandinavia, is termed Volund — is a compound of 
Vulcan and Daedalus, no less than another heir to the Vedic tradi- 
tions about Twachter'. 

The adventure so classically-renowned of the Cretan hero, and of 
his son Icarus, reproduces itself, with but trifling variations, in that 
of Volund. He is also shut up within the labyrinth ; but Scandi- 
navian tradition no longer places in Crete (Candia) this marvellous 
edifice. It is on an island named "Savarstadr." The Greek fable 
gives to Daedalus wings, in order that he may escape from his 
prison. In the story of the people of the north, it is a shirt of 
feathers with which he clothes himself. His brother Eigil, here 
substituted for Icarus, wishes to try the power of this feathery dress ; 
and perishes like the son of Daedalus — victim of his rashness. 

A scholiast teaches us, that the celebrated Greek voyager Pytheas 
had found at the islands of ^Eolus, now the Lipari-isles, the singular 
custom of exposing, near the volcano (Stromboli) in which it was 
believed that Vulcan made his residence, the iron that one desired 
to see fashioned into some weapon or instrument. The rough metal 
was left during the night thus disposed, and upon returning on the 
morrow, the sword, or other implement, was found newly manufac- 
tured. An usage of this kind, founded upon a similar credence, is 
spread through a number of Germanic countries. It is no longer 
Vulcan, but Wieland, a cripple like him moreover, who becomes the 
mysterious blacksmith. In Berkshire (England) they used formerly 
to show, near a place called White-Horse hill, a stone, whereupon, 
according to the popular notion, it was enough to deposit a horse- 
shoe with a piece of silver, and to tie near it the animal to be shod ; 
and, on coming back, the operation was found done. The marvel- 
lous farrier Way land- Smith, as he was called, had paid himself with 
the silver money ; and the shodden brute was ready to be led away. 
In many cantons of Germany, analogous stories used to be told : only, 

15 On this point consult the learned work of M. F. Neve, entitled Essai sur U myths des 
Ribhavas, Paris, 1847. 



46 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

the name of the invisible blacksmith underwent changes, and imagi- 
nation embroidered upon the common web some particular details. 

Wieland, who is also named " Geinkensekmid," is associated in 
certain localities, with a bull ; wbich recalls to mind that one manu- 
factured by Daedalus, to satisfy the immodest passion of Pasiphae, 
the "all-illumining" spouse of Minos — whom Hellenic tradition 
makes a king of Crete, but who is encountered both amidst the 
Arians and the Germans. Among the Aryas he bears the name of 
Manou, or rather of Manus. He is a legislator-king ; having for his 
brother Yania, the god of the dead; just as Minos's brother was 
Pihadamanthus (Rhada-»iaw-thus). This last, as well as Tama, is re- 
presented with a wand in his hand, and judging in the infernal 
regions. Among the Germans, Manus is called Mannus. He is 
also (a man and) an ancient king, who, like the Indian Manus, is an 
Adam, the first author of mankind. 

I must refer to the learned work of M. A. Kuhn those who wish 
to penetrate deeper into these curious comparisons. The glimpse I 
have just given, shows how much of authority they add to those 
analogies that the comparative study of languages has furnished us. 
Our German philologists have felt this, inasmuch as they insert, in 
the same periodical repertory, mythological researches of this kind, 
purely linguistic. I would add, that such comparative examinations 
enable us to comprehend better the nature and the history of the 
Hellenic religion in particular, and the religions of antiquity in 
general. This method yields us the key to a multitude of myths 
which we could not decipher did we not mount up to their Asiatic 
origines. Allow me yet again to offer a short example. 

According to the Grecian fable, Aomon was the father of Ouranos. 
The motive for this filiation had not until now been pierced through. 
"Why should the most ancient of the gods, their supreme father, 
have had an "anvil" for his own father? such being the Greek 
signification of this word. Sanscrit can alone tell us, — as M. R. 
Eoth, one of the most ingenious and skilful Orientalists of Germany, 
has remarked. The Sanscrit form of this Greek name is Agman, 
and the word signifies, at one and the same time, "anvil" and "sky" 
(or heaven). The myth becomes intelligible. Here, as in innumer- 
able other cases, the god receives for his progenitor another personi- 
fication, from the same part of nature that he represents. And, in 
the same manner that Rhea has engendered Demeter, — that is to say, 
the "mother-earth," because Rhea (as the meaning of her name 
indicates) is a personification of the Earth ; so, likewise, as Helios 
(the sun) had for his father Hyperion, that is to say, again the sun, — 
did Ouranos (the sky) receive birth from Acmon, — whose name 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 47 

has the same acceptation. But, whilst the word Acmon passed into 
Greek with the sense of " hammer," — against which that of " anvil" 
was easily interchangeable — it lost, among the Hellenes, the meaning 
of " sky," and thus the myth, transported into Europe, ceased to 
possess significance any more. 

In the presence of analogies and connections so conclusive, it is 
impossible to suppose simply that a population of the same race, and 
with the same fundamental stock of language, was spread from India 
and Persia to Britain and Erin : we must necessarily suppose that the 
peoples coming from Asia had imported into Europe their idiom and 
their traditions. Must it hence be admitted that this portion of the 
earth had not then been already populated ; and that those Asiatic 
tribes, which took the leadership of this long defile of conquerors, 
found nothing before them but solitudes ? 

It is again the study of languages that will furnish us with the 
reply. 

I have stated that all the idioms of Europe belong to the Indo- 
European stem ; three groups (or if you will, three languages), form- 
ing the only exception ; without speaking, be it well understood, of 
the Turkish, scarcely implanted on this side of the Bosphorus, and 
whose introduction dates but from a few centuries ; nor comprising, 
either, the Maltese, — solitary vestige of Saracenic dominion in Italian 
lands. 

The first group is represented by the Basque tongue, or the Eiskari, 
which embraces but two dialects. The second is the Finnish group, 
comprising the Lapponic, the Einnic or Suomi, and the Esihonian 
spoken in the northern part of Livonia, as also at the islands of (Esil 
and Dago. Lastly, the third group reduces itself to the Magyar, or 
Hungarian, which links itself to the Finnish group through an indi- 
rect relationship. 

"We know how the Magyar introduced itself into Europe. It is 
the tongue of the ancient Huns, who, mingling with the populations 
of Dacia and Pannonia, gave birth to the Hungarians ; but we are 
less advanced as regards what concerns the history of the Finnish 
and the Basque languages. 

Wilhelm von Humboldt, who devoted himself to researches of 
great interest upon the Basque tongue, has shown that this language 
had of yore a much more extensive domain than the little corner of 
land by which it is now confined. Names of places belonging to 
the whole of southern France, and even to Liguria, prove that a 
population of Euscarian idiom was anciently spread from the Alps 
to the occidental extremity of Spain. These people were the Iberes, 
Iberians, yonderers ; and the Basque is the last relic of their tongue. 



48 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

The labors of the skilful philologue of Beziers, M. Boudakd, have 
put the finishing stroke in bringing this fact to light. 

The Celts, or Kelts, encountered before them, therefore, the Iberes ; 
whom they pushed onward into the south of Gaul, where we find 
them established in the time of Caesar. They amalgamated with 
them, as the name of Celt-Iberia teaches ; and very certainly in Lan- 
guedoc also, no less than in Aquitania. These Iberians — a nation 
lively and impressionable, vain and stirring — may well have infused 
into the Keltic blood that element of restlessness and levity which 
one perceives in the Gauls, but which is alien, on the contrary, to 
the true Kelt, — at once so attached to his traditions, and ever so 
headstrong in his ideas. 

The Basque tongue, otherwise called Iberian, resembles in nothing 
the Indo-European idioms. It is "par excellence" a polysynthetical 
language, — a tongue that, in its organism, reminds one, in a suffi- 
ciently-striking manner, of the languages of America. It composes " de 
toutes pieces" the idea-ivord; suppresses often entire syllables; and, in 
this work of composition, preserving sometimes but a single letter of 
the primitive word, it presents those adjunctive particles that by phi- 
lologists are termed postpositions — as opposed to prepositions — which 
serve to distinguish cases. In this manner is it that the Basque 
constructs its declension. This new characteristic re-appears in 
another great family of languages which we shall discuss anon, viz : 
the Tartar tongues belonging to central Asia. 

The Basque, consequently, denotes a very primitive intellectual 
state of the people who occupied western Europe previously to the 
arrival of the Indo-Europeans ; and, were it allowable to draw an 
induction from an isolate characteristic, one might suppose that the 
Iberes were, as a race, allied to the Tartar. 

But this hypothesis, daring as it is, receives a new degree of 
probability from the study of the second group of European lan- 
guages, foreign to the Indo-Germanic source, viz : the Finnish group. 

This group is not restricted to a few idioms on the north-east of 
Europe. It extends itself over all the territory of northern Russia 
even to the extremity of Kamtsehatka. Comparison of the numerous 
idioms spoken by tribes spread over Siberia has revealed a common 
bond between them, as well of grammar as of vocabulary. These 
tongues, which might be comprehended under the general appellation 
of Finno- Japonic (from the name of those occupying upon the map the 
two extremes of their chain), offer this same characteristic of agglutina- 
tion that has just been signalized in the Basque ; but in a much less 
degree. They make use of that curious S} r stem of postpositions 
which appertains also to the ancient idiom of the Iberes. Those ter- 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 49 

urinations destined to represent cases are replaced by prepositions 
distinct from the word, — which, in our languages, precede, on the 
contrary, the words of which they modify the case. It must be 
noted that the apparition of these postpositions invariably antecedes, 
in the gradual formation of tongues, the employment of cases ; 
whereas, prepositions replace these when the tongue becomes altered 
and simplified. Cases are nothing, indeed, but the result of the 
coupling of the postposition to words. The organic march of the 
declension presents itself, therefore, throughout the evolution of lan- 
guages, in the following manner, viz : at first the root (or radical), 
ordinarily monosyllabic ; next, the radical followed by postpositions, 
— corresponding to the period of agglutination; again, the radical 
submitted to the flexion, — corresponding to the ancient period of our 
Indo-European tongues ; and, finally, the preposition followed by the 
radical, — corresponsive to the modern period of these same lan- 
guages. It is to be noted that the postposition (in relative age) 
never returns subsequently to the preposition, — any more than can 
the milk-teeth grow again in an old man after the loss of his molars. 

Thus, then, the age of the Finnish tongues and of the Basque is 
fixed. They were idioms of analogous organization, and of which 
the arrest of development announces a sufficiently feeble degree of 
intellectual power. 16 The brethren of the Aryas and Iranians, upon 
penetrating into Europe, had only, therefore, to combat populations 
living in a state analogous to that in which we find the hordes of 
Siberia, — species of Ostiaks or of Vogouls, of Tcheremiss or of Mord- 
vines. "With their intellectual superiority, the people coming from 
occidental Asia had no need of being very numerous to vanquish 
such barbarous tribes ; with whom, doubtless, they frequently amal- 
gamated, but of whom they ever constituted the aristocracy. This 
warrior and haughty spirit of those Asiatic conquerors preserved 
itself above all among the Germans, and it is to be perceived also 
amid the Latins and the Greeks. 

Let it not, however, be imagined that, beneath the influence of the 
neighborhood which new migrations created for them, such tribes 
of Finnish stock thrown off to the north-east of Europe, and those 

16 The study of the vocabulary of the Finnish tongues, and even that of the Tartarian, 
proves to us that those populations were wanting in a quantity of knowledge that we find, 
from the very beginning, amidst the Indo-European populations, and which the former were 
afterwards forced to borrow from the latter. For example, the name of salt, in all the 
idioms of that family as well as in Hungarian, expressed by a derivative of the Sanscrit, 
Greek, or Latin name. Indeed, it is certain that the use of salt remained for a long time 
unknown to the inhabitants of Northern Europe ; and that Christian II, king of Denmark, 
had gained over the Swedish peasants by bringing to them this precious condiment. 

4 



50 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

Iberian peoples repulsed to the south-west, have remained absolutely 
stationary. Their languages tell us the contrary ; because these lan- 
guages have improved : but such perfectioning has not been able to 
step beyond certain bounds. The Finnic spoken in Finland, for in- 
stance, has drawn nearer to tongues a flexions (with flexions) ; but 
never has it been able to attain that degree of force, of clearness and 
energy, which makes the merit of our Indo-European idioms. 

As concerns sounds, notwithstanding their homogeneity, the Fin- 
nish tongues, — or, to qualify them more exactly, the Ougro-Tartar 
languages — vary considerably. There are some very soft ones, like 
the Suomi or Finlandish ; and some very harsh, like the Magyar ; 
but a principle of harmony dominates them. This principle is 
especially perceptible in the Suomi. Indeed, this idiom seeks above 
all for sweetness and euphony. It avoids, in consequence, mono- 
syllabic radicals, and nearly always attaches to the root a final vowel 
that bears no accent. Hence M. Schleicher has remarked how this 
gives to the words of this tongue the measure of a "trochee." 17 

We meet again with this harmonic tendency equally in the Tartar 
tongues, which the "ensemble" of their characteristics and words 
attaches also as closely to the Ougro-Japonic languages, as the Tartar 
type attaches itself to the Finnish, or Ougrian, through the interme- 
diacy of the Tungouse type. The separation is not more decided 
(tranoMe) between the races of Siberia and those of central Asia, 
than between the idioms which they speak. The Mongol, the Mand- 
ohou, the Ouigour, the Turkish, are not fundamentally distinct from 
the Finnish tongues ; and this explains why some philologers had 
been struck with the resemblance between Turkish and Hungarian. 
"We are here referring to the primitive Turkish, to that which was 
spoken in Turkestan, and of which some dialects yet subsist in cer- 
tain parts of Russia and of Tartary ; because, as to that which is now 
European Turkish, it is altered almost as much as the Turkish blood 
itself. It is imbued with Arabic and Persian words ; it has become 
singularly softened down : in the same manner that the Asiatic 
Turks, by dint of crossing themselves through marriage with Georgian 
girls, with Greek, Arab, Persian (occasionally with an Abyssinian 
or negress), Sclavonian and other women, have ended by taking a 
physiognomy altogether different from that of their ancient progeni- 
tors, — which has been gaining in nobleness and regularity what it 
loses in singularity. European blood has so well infiltrated itself 
into that of the Hunnic hordes which conquered the country situate 
between the Danube and the Theis, that it is now-a-days impossible 

B The Greeks and the Latins called trochee a foot composed of along and a short syllable. 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 51 

to descry any more of the Mongol, anything of that hideousness bo 
celebrated among the Huns, in the expressive traits of the present 
Magyar. 

One may, then, designate this vast family of languages under the 
denomination of Ougro- Tartar. All of them, at divers degrees, are 
subject in their words to the law of euphonic transformations of vow- 
els in the particles suffixed, that is to say, joined on at the ends of 
words. In order that nothing should come to injure the clearness 
of the radical's pronunciation, everything is combined so that its 
vowel remains immutable ; and hence, accordingly as this vowel is 
hard, soft, or intermediary, the vowels of the suffixes are submitted 
to modifications having for object to prevent the asperity or the 
heaviness of the latters' sound from smothering the sound of the 
radical. This law, so remarkable, is precisely the reverse of what 
happens in languages a flexions (with flexions), for the case ; because 
in them it is the suffixes that act upon and influence the vowels of 
the radical. 

All these tongues proceed equally through the path of agglutina- 
tion. The radical is, indeed, at bottom monosyllabic. Its almost con- 
stant junction to a particle-suffix makes it, in reality, a dissyllable, 
whose monosyllabic origin is nevertheless recalled by the presence 
of the accent upon the first syllable. Never does the radical suffer 
any foreign syllables to place themselves at its head (or commence- 
ment) ; and we still behold in Magyar how, notwithstanding that it 
has largely undergone the influence of the Indo-European tongues by 
which it is surrounded — as in Finnish, as in Turkish, as in Mongol, — a 
word can never begin with two consonants ; and lastly, the generical 
employment of the postposition to designate the relations of the 
substantive. The number of these postpositions varies according to 
the development and the richness of the tongue. In Suomi, for 
example, the adjunctive particles are very numerous, not less than 
fifteen being counted, which makes in reality fifteen cases ; without 
including the nominative, that forms itself without suffix : and still, 
notwithstanding, the Finnish does not recognize the distinction of 
one of the most natural cases, viz : the accusative, which it renders 
through indirect cases. 

The whole of these languages, maugre their apparatus of forms, 
are nevertheless poor. It is clear that this heap of postpositions results, 
in reality, from a powerlessness of the mind to reduce to simple and 
regular expressions the relations of words betwixt each other. We 
must not, therefore, wonder at finding, in the Ougro-Tartar tongues, 
almost always the same terminations, as well in the plural as in the 
singular. 



52 ON THE DISTKIBTTTION AND 

One may partition, according to their degree of development, these 
tongues into four groups, — the Ougrian group, that comprises the 
Ostiak, the Samoyede, the Vogoul, and divers other dialects of Sibe- 
ria : the Tartar group properly so called, which comprehends the 
Mongol that occupies in it the lower rung, the Ou'igour, the Mand- 
chou, and the Turkish, whose position is on the highest : the Japonic 
group, to which belongs the Corean ; and the Finno-Ougrian, that 
embraces the Suomi or Einlandic, the Esthonian, the Lapponic, and 
the Magyar ; all which latter tongues are superior to those of the pre- 
ceding groups, as concerns the grammatical system and ideology. 

The Finno-Ougrian family prolongs itself into North America, 
where we encounter its most widely-spread branches in the most 
boreal latitudes. And in like manner it is to be noted, that the Es- 
kimaux race, and the septs thinly scattered over those frozen coun- 
tries, approximate in their type to that of the Ougrian. 

The idioms spoken in the entire sub-Arctic region present the 
same uniformity, therefore, as the fauna of this region. 18 Indeed, we 
know that animal species are found to be very nearly the same along 
the boreal latitudes both of the Old and the ISTew world. 

Whilst one body of the great Indo-European migration from Asia 
was advancing by detachments into our temperate countries, another 
corps descended through the defiles of the Hindoo-Kosh, and by the 
basin of the Indus, into the vast plain of the Ganges ; and spread 
itself bit by bit over the whole peninsula, of which this river laves the 
northern provinces. This is what we are taught not merely by the 
traditions of the Hindoos, but also by the study of the languages 
spoken in this peninsula. In fact, while we encounter, at the north 
of Hindostan, idioms emanating from the Sanscrit family, we meet, 
further to the south, with an " ensemble " of tongues, absolutely 
foreign to it, as well in vocabulary as in grammar. 

These languages appertain all to the same family, and they are 
denominated, after the Hindoos, by the epithet of Dravirian or Dra- 
vidian. Hence, the Arian tribes had been preceded in India by popu- 
lations of a wholly distinct family ; in the same manner- that the 
sisters of the former had encountered in Europe another race, differ- 
ent likewise from themselves. And, what is remarkable, the two 
categories of languages spoken by the autochthones of Europe and 
the indigenous peoples of Hindostan belong, in classification, to lin- 
guistic families having many traits in common. 

The Dravidian tongues subdivide themselves into two groups ; one 

18 Agassiz, " Sketch of the Natural Provinces of the Animal World, and their relation to 
the different Types of Man" — in Nott and Ghddon's Types of Mankind, 7th edition, 1856, 
pp. lx. — xiii. 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 53 

the northern, and the other southern. The first embraces the lan- 
guages spoken by the dispersed native tribes, whom the descendants 
of the invading Aryas have repelled into the Vindhya mountains, 
viz : the Male or Radjmahali, the Uraon, the Cole, and the Khond 
or Gonde. The second comprises the Tamoul or Tamil, the Telougou 
or Telenga (called also Kalinga), tbe Talava, the Malayalam, and the 
Carnatic or Carnataka. As the populations at the south of the penin- 
sula bave preserved, during a longer time, their national indepen- 
dence, and even have attained a civilization of their own, one can 
understand that the idioms of the southern group must be far richer 
and more developed than those of the northern group. Nevertheless, 
despite this inequality of development, one discovers, in a striking 
manner, the same characteristics in the whole of these tongues. 
Another branch of the same family, which extends to the north-east 
of the basin of the Ganges, indicates to us through its presence, that 
a fraction of the indigenous population was thrown towards the 
north-east ; so that, it must now be admitted, the great Dravidian 
nation, cut through its centre (by the intrusive Aryas), was, like the 
primitive population of Europe, driven off to the two opposite extre- 
mities of its vast territory. The Bodo and the Dhimal are the two 
principal representatives of this cluster separated from the stem, 
whose most advanced branches continue onward until they lose them- 
selves in Assam. 

All the characters appertaining to the Ougro-Japonic tongues are 
found again in these Dravidian languages, of which the Gonde may 
be considered to have preserved to us their more ancient forms. All 
manifest in a high degree the tendency to agglutination. The law 
of harmony, that we have perceived just now in the Finnish lan- 
guages, re-appears here with the same character. Tbe foundations of 
the grammatical system, which are identical in all these tongues, 
doubtless constitute them as separate families from Tartarian ; but this 
(Dravidian) family is very close, certainly, to those idioms spoken by 
the Tartars. The same contrasts exist, as regards the vocalization, 
between the Ougro-Japonic and the Dravidian tongues. The Mag- 
yar may be compared to that Dravidian idiom richest in consonants, 
— for example, to the Toda or Todara, which is spoken by an ancient 
aboriginal tribe established in the Nilgherri-hills ; and the Finnish, 
with the Japonic, correspond in their softness to the Telougou talked 
at the south-east of Hindostan. 

These Dravidian populations were spread even to the islands of 
Ceylon, the Maldives and the Laquedives ; inasmuch as the idioms 
there still spoken attach themselves also to the Dravidian group. 

Comparative philology demonstrates to us, therefore, that a popu- 



54 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

lation in race very approximate to the Tartar, and which was, con- 
sequently, itself allied to the Finnish race, did precede the Aryas in 
old Hindostan. 

One must not judge of the intellectual and social condition of 
these ahorigines from the literary movement that has heen wrought 
in the hody of the Tamoul, which was the counterblast of that grand 
intellectual movement represented to us by the Sanscrit, and was 
certainly due to the Aryan influence. In order to judge what these 
primitive populations of Hindostan had been, one must go and study 
their scattered remains. This has been done, quite in recent times, 
by the English, to whom we owe some most interesting details about 
these antique tribes. These debris of primeval Indian nationality are 
now distributed in three distinct parts of the peninsula. The first 
are met with in the heart of the Mahanuddy, as far as Cape Comorin ; 
being the Bheels, the Tudas, the Meras, the Coles, the Gondes or 
Khonds, the Soorahs, the Paharias, &c. The second inhabit the 
northern section towards the Himalaya; such are the Radjis or 
Doms, and the Brahouis. The third occupy the angle that sepa- 
rates the two peninsulas of India, and which is designated by the 
name of Assam, as well as that mountainous band constituting the 
frontier between Bengal and Thibet. 

The whole of these tribes live even now as they lived very many 
centuries ago. They are agricultural populations, who, from time to 
time, clear with fire a portion of the jungle or the forest. The word 
which, amongst these people, renders the idea of culture, signifies 
nothing else than the cutting down of the forest. The Aryas, on the 
contrary, were a pastoral people ; and in India, as in many other 
countries, the shepherds triumphed over the farmers. Everything, 
furthermore, announces among these Dravidian people much gentle- 
ness of character, which is again a distinctive trait of the Mongols 
and of the Finnish populations. Their worship must have been 
that naturalistic fetishism which remains the religion of the Bodos, 
the Dhimals, and the Gondes. They adored objects of nature. They 
had deities that presided over the different classes of beings and the 
principal acts of life ; and they knew naught of sacerdotal castes 
or of any other regular organization of worship. Some usages, 
preserved even at this day among several of these indigenous tribes, 
show us that woman, at least the wife, enjoyed among them a very 
great degree of independence. 

The facts accord, then, with linguistics to show us how, within 
that portion of Asia comprehended between the Euphrates and 
Tigris, and the Indus, there had existed a more intelligent and 
stronger race, that, at a very early day, divided itself into two 



CLASSIFICATION" OF TONGUES. 55 

branches, of which one marched into Europe, and the other into 
Hindostan ; both encountering, in each new country, some popula- 
lations of analogous race, and possibly allied, whom they subju- 
gated, and of whom they became the superior caste — the aristocracy. 
The two inferior castes of India, the Vaisyas and the Soudras, are 
but the descendants of such vanquished nations, — the anterior type 
of India's autochthones being even yet represented in a purer state 
by some of the Dravidian "hill-tribes" above described. 

But, alongside of this grand and powerful race of Aryas and 
Iranians, there appears, from the very remotest antiquity, another 
race, whose territorial conquests were to be less extended and less 
durable, but of whom the destinies have been glorious also. It is the 
Semitic (Shemitic, Shemitish) or Syro-Arabian race. From the banks 
of the Euphrates to the shores of the Mediterranean, and to the 
extremity of the Arabic peninsula, this race was expanding itself. 
Its great homogeneity springs from the close bonds which combine 
together the different dialects of its tongue. These dialects are the 
Aramsean, the Hebrew, the Arabic, the Chaldasan and the Ethiopic. 

By their constitution, all these idioms distinguish themselves 
sharply from the Indo-European languages. They possess neither 
the same grammatical system, nor the same verbal roots. In Se- 
mitic languages, the roots are nearly always dissyllabic ; or, to speak 
with philologists, triliteral, that is to say, formed of three letters : and 
these letters are consonants ; because, one of the most distinctive 
characteristics of the Semitic tongues is, that the vowel does not 
constitute the fundamental sound in a word. Here vowels are 
vague, or, to describe them otherwise, they have not any settled 
fixed-sound, distinct from the consonant. They become inserted, or 
rather, they insinuate themselves between strong and rough conso- 
nants. Nothing of that law of harmony of the Ougro-Tartar or 
Dravidian tongues, nothing of that sonorousness of Sanscrit, of Greek, 
and neo-Latin languages, — exists in the Semitic. Man speaks in 
them by short words, more or less jerked forth. The process of 
agglutination survives in them still; not, however, completely, as 
in the Basque. There are many flexions in them, but these flexions 
do not constitute the interior of words. 

Since the publication of M. Ernest Kenan's great labors upon the 
history of Semitic languages, we are made perfectly acquainted with 
the phases through which these languages have passed. 

They have had, likewise, their own mould, which they have been 
unable to break, even while modifying themselves. The Rabbinical, 
the "ISTahwee" or literal Arabic, in aspiring to become languages 
more analytical than the Ohaldee or the Hebrew, have remained, not- 



56 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

withstanding, imprisoned within the narrow hars of an imperfect 
grammar. This is the reason, as M. Ernest Eenan has remarked, 
that, — whilst the Indo-European tongues continue still their life 
in our day, as in past times, upon all points of the globe — Semitic 
languages, on the contrary, have run through the entire circle of 
their existence. But, in the more circumscribed course of their life, 
they have presented the same diversities of development established 
for all the preceding families ; and, at the same time that the Ara- 
maean which comprises two dialects, — the pagan Aramaean or Sabian, 
and the Christian Aramaean or Syriac — is poor, without harmony, 
without multiplied forms, ponderous in its constructions, and devoid 
of aptitude for poetry, the Arabic, on the contrary, distinguishes 
itself by an incredible richness. 

The Semitic race, of which the birth-place must be sought in 
that peninsular space shut in, at the north by the mountains of 
Armenia, and at the east by those which bound the basin of the Tigris, 
has not gone outside of its primitive father-land. It has only travelled 
along the borders of the Mediterranean, as is proved to us by the 
incontestable Semiticism of the Phoenician tongue, whose inscriptions 
show it to have been very close to the Hebrew. Africa has been 
almost the only field for its conquests. Phoenician colonies bore a 
Semitic idiom into the country of the ISTumidians and the Mauri; 
later again, the Saracenic invasion carried Arabic — another tongue 
of the same family — into the place of the Punic, which last the Latin 
had almost dispossessed. In Abyssinia, the G-heez or Ethiopic does 
not appear to be of very ancient introduction, and everything leads 
to the belief that it was carried across the Red Sea by the Joktanide 
Arabs, or Himyarites, whose language, now forgotten, has left some 
monuments of its existence, down to the time of the first Khalifates, 
in divers inscriptions. 

The Semites found in Africa upon their arrival a strong popula- 
tion, that for a long period opposed itself to their conquests. This 
population was that of the Egyptians ; whose language now issues gra- 
dually from the deciphering of the hieroglyphics, and which left, as 
its last heir, the Coptic, still living in manuscripts that we collect 
with avidity. 

This Egyptian was not, however, an isolated tongue. The Berber 
— otherwise miscalled the "Kabyle," which name in Arabic only 
means "tribe," — studied of late, has caused us to find many conge- 
ner words and " tournures." And this Berber (whence Barbary) itself, 
yet spoken by the populations Amazirg, Shillouh, and Tuareg, was 
expelled or dominated by the Arabic. Its domain of yore extended 
even to the Canary-isles. Some idioms formerly spoken in the north 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 57 

of Africa attached themselves to it through, bonds of relationship 
more or less close. The presence, throughout the north of Africa, 
of inscriptions in characters called Tifnag, and which seem to have 
been conceived in Berber language, makes known to us that this 
tongue must have reigned over all the territories of the Barbaresque 
States ; and was most probably that of the JSTumidians, Gsetulians, and 
Garamantes. 

Egyptian civilization was very profuse in aspirates. Its gramma- 
tical forms denote a more advanced period than that of the Semitic 
tongues : its verb counts a great number of tenses and moods, formed 
through the addition of prefixes or of suffixes. But its pronoun and 
its article have still an entirely Semitic physiognomy, notwithstand- 
ing that the stock of its vocabulary is absolutely foreign to that of 
those languages. 

We have already caused it to be remarked that, in the Galla (of 
Abyssinia) one re-encounters the Semitic pronoun. The influence 
exerted at the beginning by the Semites over the race to which the 
Egyptians were proximate — and whom we will call, with the Bible, 
Hamitic — was, therefore, in all likelihood, very profound. When 
the Semites entered into relations with the Hamites, the language of 
the latter must have been yet in that primitive stage in which essential 
grammatical forms might still be borrowed from foreign tongues. 
An intermixture sufficiently intimate must have occurred between 
the two races ; above all in the countries bordering upon the two 
territories. Such is what occurred certainly for the Phoenicians, 
whose tongue was Semitic, whilst the stock of population belonged, 
nevertheless, to the Hamitic race. For Genesis gives Canaan as the 
son of Ham ; and Phoenicia, as every one knows, is " the land of Ca- 
naan." The whole oriental region of Africa as far as the Mozam- 
bique coast affords numerous traces of Semitic influence. Along- 
side of the Gheez, that represents to us, as E. Penan judiciously 
writes it, the classical form of the idiom of the Semites in Abyssinia, 
several dialects equally Semitic arrange themselves ; but all more or 
less altered, either by the admixture of foreign words, or through the 
absence of literary culture. Amid these must be placed the Amhario, 
the modern language of Abyssinia. 

Semitic tongues underwent, in Africa, the influence of the lan- 
guages of that part of the world ; and, in particular, of those of the 
Hamitic family, spoken in the countries limitrophic to that inha- 
bited by the Semites. 

African languages cannot all be referred to the same family : but 
they possess among themselves sundry points of resemblance. They 
constitute, as it were, a vast group, whence detaches itself a family 



58 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

that may be called the African family " par excellence," and which 
extends from the Occidental to the Oriental coasts, re-descending 
even into the Austral portion. 

All the languages that form part of this group, and in general the 
tongues of the whole of this portion of the globe, possess one system 
of vocalization, otherwise termed, a powerful phonology; and some- 
times even a disposition almost rhythmical, which gained for them, on 
the part of some philologists, the name of alliteral tongues. Thus, 
although the consonants in them be often aspirated, and affect odd pro- 
nunciations, they are never accumulated together. Double letters are 
rare, and in certain tongues unknown. For example, in Oaffr, the 
vowels have a pronunciation clear and precise. In the major number 
of the languages of Southern Africa, and in some few of those of Cen- 
tral Africa, the words always terminate with vowels, and present regu- 
lar alternations of vowels and consonants. This is above all true of the 
Caffrarian languages. 19 M. d'Avezac writes about the Yebou, or Ebo, 
tongue spoken in Guinea : in regard to euphony, this language may 
be considered as one of the softest in the world ; vowels abound in 
it ; and it is in this respect remarkable that (except, perhaps, some 
rare and doubtful exceptions) not merely all the words, but even all 
the syllables end in vowels : the consonants offer no roughness in 
their pronunciation ; and many are articulated with a sort of quaint- 
ness (mignardise), which renders it difficult to seize them, and still 
more difficult to express graphically by the letters of our alphabet. 20 
Among some other African tongues, on the contrary, the termination 
is ordinarily nasal. Amid the majority of the languages of northern 
and midland Africa, the words finish with a vowel. Such is what one 
observes in the Woloe, the Bulom, the Temmani, the Tousnali, and the 
Fasoql. 

As concerns the system proper of sounds, and the vocabulary, 
they vary greatly in African languages : and the harmony, sonorous- 
ness, and fluidity of speech, frequently meet, in certain sounds, with 
notable exceptions. It is the character of these various sounds that 
may serve as a basis for the classification of the tongues of Africa. 
All present compound vowels and consonants ; amongst which, m p, 
m b, are of the frequentest employment. The duplex consonants 
n k,n d, appear likewise. Finally, in some African idioms, one en- 
counters the consonants dg, gb, Jcb, bp, bm, Tee, Jch, rh, pmb, b lm.™ 

19 See on this subject The Kafir Language; comprising a sketch of its history, by the Bev. 
John W. Appleyard (King William's Town, 1850), p. 65 seqq. 

20 Memoires de la Sociele Bthnologique de Paris, ii. part 2, p. 50. 

21 In these illustrative notations no attempt is made, of course, to follow any of the 
diversified "standard alphabets" recently devised for the use of Missionaries. On this 
question of the expediency of such alphabets, and their success so far, I coincide entirely 
■with the criticism of a very scientific friend, Prof. S. S. Haldeman {Report on the Present 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 59 

Aspirates and the sibilants are not rare, any more than the vise, 
simple or compound, of the iv . Among some languages of this 
family, the palatal and dental letters are confounded, or at least are 
not clearly distinguishable. Several tongues are completely devoid 
of certain letters : for instance, the Qdji, and divers others, are want- 
ing in the letter I; and replace it, whenever they meet with it in what 
foreign words they may appropriate, by r, or d, or n. 

The accordances, of different parts of the discourse, are often 
regulated by a euphonic system which is felt very strongly in sundry 
idioms, notably in the Yazouba. The radicals are more frequently 
monosyllabic. It is the addition of this radical with a modifying 
particle (which is most commonly a prefix) that gives birth to the 
other words. The relations of cause, of power, of reciprocity, of re- 
flectivity, of agent, &c, as well as those of time, number, and sex, are 
always expressed through a similar system. The radicals, thus united 
to formative particles, become, in their turn, veritable roots, and con- 
stitute the source (souche) of new words. One can comprehend, never- 
theless, how very imperfect is such a system, for defining clearly the 
relations, at once so multiplied and so distinct, existing between 
words. There exist above all some for which African languages 
are of extreme poverty; for example, the ideas of time and motion. 
And this character approximates them, in a manner rather striking, 
to the Semitic tongues. As in these latter idioms, African languages 
do not distinguish the present from the future, or the future from 
the past : otherwise, they express both these tenses by one and the 
same particle. The penury and the vagueness of particles indica- 
tive of the prepositions, — or to speak with grammarians, of the pre- 
fixes to prepositions — are again far more pronounced in the majority 
of African idioms than amidst the Semitic. They enunciate, by the 
same particle, ideas as different as those of movement towards a 

State of our knowledge of Linguistic Ethnology, made to the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, Aug. 1856). My experiences of the hopelessness of arriving at 
any exact countervails in European characters for Arabic intonations alone, so as to 
enable a foreigner, who has not heard Arabs speak, even to pronounce correctly, render me 
very sceptical as to the ultimate possibility of transcribing, through any one series of 
Alphabetic signs, the infinitude of distinct vocalizations uttered by the diverse groups of 
human types; which articulations, as Prof. Agassiz has so well remarked, take their 
original departure from the different conformations of the throat inherent in the race-cha- 
racter of each distinct group of mankind. 

Should any one, however, desire to put this universal " Missionary Alphabet" through 
an experimentum crucis, he need not travel far to test its applicability to remote, abnormal, and 
barbarous tongues, by trying its efficacy upon three cognate languages close at hand. Let 
a Frenchman, wholly unacquainted with English, transcribe into the " Missionary Alpha- 
bet," a short discourse as he hears it from the mouth of a Londoner. Then, pass his manu- 
script on to a German (of 'course knowing neither French nor English), and let him read it 
aloud to an Englishman. " Le diable mime ne s'y reconnaitrait pas !'■' — G. R. G.] 



60 ON" THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

point, or the departing from a point ; of position in a place, toward 
a place, or near a place. The same poverty is observable in the 
conjunctions : copulative particles being employed frequently to 
render the idea of possession and of relationship ; those which ex- 
press the idea of connexion being often replaced by pronouns or by 
definite particles. 

Per contra, African languages, as well as the Semitic, are ex- 
tremely rich in respect to the changes (voies) of the verb, that is to say, 
in forms indicating the manner in which a verb may be employed. 
These changes — which are so numerous, notably in Arabic — are not the 
less so in the majority of African languages; beyond all, in the princi- 
pal group that extends from the Mozambique coast to Caffraria on one 
side, and to Congo on the other. Although these changes are com- 
posed, in the major portion of such tongues, by the addition of pre- 
fixes, they form themselves in others through the aid of suffixes. 

The number of these changes varies singularly according to the 
tongues. Thus, in the Sechuana language, and in the Temneh, there 
exist six changes ; in the Sooaheeli seven, in the Caffr eight, and in 
the Mpongwee eleven. 

To give an idea of the opulence of these changes in a single verb, 
we borrow an illustration from the language of Congo. Sal a, to 
labor; s alii a, to facilitate labor ; salisia, to labor with somebody ; 
salanga, to be in the habit of laboring ; salisionia, to labor the one 
for another; sal any an a, to be skilful at laboring. 

All verbal roots are susceptible of similar modifications through 
the help of certain particles that may be added to them. In this 
method, by the sole use of the verb, an expression is attained indicating 
whether the action be rare, frequent, difficult, easy, excessive, &c. And 
this richness of changes does not prevent the language froni being, 
as regards its verbs, and viewed in respect to their number, of great 
poorness. For instance, — the idiom of Congo, from which we have 
just borrowed the proof of such a great richness of changes, does not 
possess any word to express the idea of "living," but is obliged to 
say in place, to conduct ones soul, or being in one's heart. 

Another very characteristic trait of the majority of African 
tongues is, that they do not recognize the distinction of genders, 
after the manner of the Semitic idioms or the Indo-European. They 
distinguish, on the contrary, as two genders, the animate and the in- 
animate ; and in the class of animate beings, the gender man or in- 
telligent, and the gender brute or animal. Others of these languages, 
in lieu of distinguishing numbers after the fashion of Indo-European 
and Semitic- idioms, recognize only a collective form which takes no 
heed of genders, and a plural form that applies itself to beings of the 



CLASSIFICATION" OF TONGUES. 61 

same genders. This is a particularity that we shall again encounter 
in the clicking languages, or the Hottentot. 

We do not possess sufficient elements as yet to give a complete 
classification of the languages of Africa. It is only since the recent 
publication of the Polyglotta Africana of Mr. S. W. Koelle that we 
have acquired an idea of the reciprocal affinities which link together 
the tongues of Western Africa. 

The classification proposed, however, by Koelle is freely intro- 
duced into the following schedule. 

I. — ATLANTIC languages, or of the north-west of Africa. 

These tongues have, with those of southern Africa, for a 
common characteristic, the mutation of prefixes. They 
comprise the following groups, viz : 

1st. — The Fouloup group, which embraces the Fouloup or 
Floupe, properly so called, spoken in the country of the 
same name, — the Filham, or Filhol, spoken in the canton 
which surrounds the city of Buntoun; this town is situate 
upon the river Koya, at about three weeks' march from the 
Gambia. 

2d. — The Sola group, which comprises the Bola talked in the 
land of Gole and that of Bourama,— the Sarar, idiom of the 
country of this name stretching along the sea to the west of 
Balanta and to the north of the district where the Bola is 
spoken, — the Pepil spoken in the isle of Bischlao or Bisao. 

3d. — The Biafada group, or Dchola, spoken at the west of 
JSTkabou and north of Nalou, — the Padschade, which is an 
idiom met with at the west of Koniadschi and east of 
Kabou. 

4th. — The Bulom group, comprehending the Baga, a tongue 
spoken by one of the popoulations of this name which 
inhabits the borders of the Kalum-Baga, eastward, to the 
islands of Los, 21 — the Timne talked at the east of 
Sierra-Leone, — the Bulom spoken in the country of this 
name that bounds on Timne, — the Mampua, or Manpa 
Bulom, called also Scherbo, idiom of the region extending 
westward of the Ocean, between Sierra-Leone and the land 
of Bourn, — the Kisi, spoken west and north of Gbandi, and 
east of Mende. 
II. — MANDINGO family — spread over the north-west of Upper 
Soodan. 

22 It is unknown to what family of tongues belong the idioms of the other populations 
termed Baga, who dwell upon the banks of the Rio-Nunez and Rio-Pongas. 



62 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

This very extended family comprehends the Mandingo, 
properly so termed, or better the Mende', — the Kabunga, 
Mandingo dialect spoken in the land of Kabou, — and 
several other dialects of the same language, such as the 
Tokonka, dialect of Toro ; the Dchalunka, dialect of Fouta- 
djalon ; the Kankanka, dialect of Kankan ; the Bambara, 
the Kono, talked westwards and northwards of the Kisi; 
the Vei, in the country of this name situate to the east of 
the Atlantic and north of Gbandi, which embraces several 
dialects, viz : the Tene, spoken in the land so called, that 
has Souwekourou for its capital ; the Gbandi, spoken at the 
north of Gula and at the west of Nieriiva; the Landoro, 
talked west of Limba; the Mende, spread over the west 
of Kono and the Kisi, and east of Karo; the Gbese, 
idiom of the borders of the river Nyua; the Toma, called 
likewise Bouse, spoken in the land of the same name 
situated to the south of that of the Gbese; and the Gio, 
talked westward from Fa. 
EX— UPPER-GUINEAN— that is, the languages of the Pepper, 
Ivory, Gold and Slave, coasts, decompose themselves into 
three groups, viz : 

1st. — The Kroo tongues, comprising the Dewoi, spoken on 
the banks of the river De, or St. Paul's ; the Bassa, talked 
in a portion of the Liberian territory ; the Era, or Kroo, 
spread south of the Bassa along the coast; the Krebo, 
spoken in a neighboring canton ; the Gbe, or Gbei, whose 
domain lies east of the Great Bassa. 

2d. — The languages of Dahomey, of which the principal are 
the Dahome, or Popo ; the Mahe, spoken eastward of the 
Dahome ; and the Hwida, talked in the country of that 
name, located to the south of the GeUfe islands. 

3d. — The languages Akou-Igala, embracing the numerous 
dialects of the speech of the Akou, among which the 
Yozouba, spoken between Egba and the Niger, — and the 
Igala, language of the country of that name — are the most 
important. 23 "We shall revert further on to the Yozouba. 
IV. — The languages of the north-west of UPPER SOODAN divide 
themselves into four groups : 

1st. — The group Guzen, represented chiefly by the idiom of 
a very barbarian people, the Guzescha, who inhabit to the 
west of Ton ; 

a The Tebou, of which M. D'Avezac has published the grammar [Mimoires de la Socieie 
Etlmologique de Paris, II, part 2, pp. 106 seqq.), appertains to this group. 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 63 

2d. — The group Legba, which embraces the Legba and the 

Kiamba ; 
3d. — The group Koama, to which belongs the Bagbalan ; 
4th. — And lastly, the group Kasm, spoken westward of the 

land of the Gfuzescha. 

V. — The tongues of the DELTA of the Niger are divided into three 

groups : — the first represented by the Ibo dialects, — the 
second by the Egbele and several other idioms, — the third 
by the dialect of Okouloma, the name of a maritime dis- 
trict near the country of the Ibo and that of Outcho. 

VI. — The NUPE family, or languages of the basin of the Tchadda, 

— a family embracing nine idioms, of which the principal 
are the ]STup:e, or Tatba, spoken in a country neighboring 
Raba on the Niger ; and the Goali, or Gbali, talked to the 
east of the ISTupe. 

VII. — The family of CENTAL-AFRICAN languages is composed 
of two groups : 
1st. — The tongues of Bornotl, which comprise also those of 
the Kanam, and the Budouma, spoken in the lake-isle of 
that name. The main language of Bornou is the Kanouri, 
which attaches itself by close relationship to the three 
tongues of Guinea, — the Ashantee, the Fantee, and the 
Odji. 
2d. — This group comprehends the Pika, or FiKA, and the 
Bode dialects spoken west of Bornou. 

VHT. — The WOLQE, or JIOLOF, spoken by the populations of 
Senegambia, distinguishes itself, with sufficient sharpness, 
from all the preceding tongues ; and offers a grammatical 
system that has more than one trait in common with the 
Semitic languages. 

IX. — In the same region, another family of tongues has the E00- 
LAH, or PEULE, for its type ; one dialect of which is 
spoken by the Fellatahs, and very probably also by the 
Hausa, or Haousans. The vocabulary of these divers idioms, 
and notably that of the Peule, has presented a remarkable 
analogy with the Malayo-Polynesian 34 languages, of which 
we shall treat anon. It seems, therefore, that the Peule 
family might not, perhaps, be attachable to African tongues. 
The Wolof, although constituting a separate family, ap- 
proaches in certain points the Yozouba, spoken to the 

24 Gustave d'Eichthal, ffisloire el Origine des Foulahs ou Fellans, Paris, 1841 (Tirage & 
part de l'Extrait des Memoires de la Societe Ethnologique). 



64 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

north of the Bight of Benin, — between the 2d and 3d de- 
gree of W. long., and the 6th and 10th degree of IS. latitude. 
The Wolof demarcates itself by its final inflexions. To it 
other idioms, seemingly, have to be attached : such as the 
Bidschago, or Bidshoro, which is spoken in the island of 
Wun, — the Gadschaya, idiom of a tribe called also Sehe- 
rule, or Serawouli, — and lastly the Goura. 

X. — Another group, which is characterized by initial inflexions, is 

spread over the basin of the Gambia, and is represented by 
the Landoma, that is spoken in the land of KaJcondi, — and 
the Nabou, used in the canton of Kahondan. 
The Wolof verb is susceptible of seventeen modifications, 
that consist in adding to each radical one or two syl- 
lables, and which extend or restrict its acceptation. It is 
something like the forms of the Arabic verb. The article 
follows the substantive, and embodies itself with it, as in 
agglutinate languages. The plural article exhibits equally 
an especial characteristic that makes it participate of a 
demonstrative pronoun. In general, the Wolof offers, in its 
phonology, that same harmonical disposition which belongs 
to all the African languages. 

XI. — Although the Wolof approximates to the YOZOUBA more 

than to any other African tongue, these two idioms still re- 
main separated by a difference sufficiently defined. The 
Yozouba possesses, in its grammatical system, a great 
degree of perfection and regularity. One observes in it an 
" ensemble " of prefixes complete and regular, that, upon 
joining themselves to the verb, give birth to a multitude of 
other words formed through a most simple process. The 
radical thus passes on the abstract idea of action into all 
derivative concrete ideas ; and thus reciprocally by the addi- 
tion of a simple prefix, a noun becomes a possessive verb. 

Another peculiarity of the Yozouba is, that the same ad- 
verb varies in form and even in nature according to the 
species of words it qualifies. 

The Yozouba system, notwithstanding its individuality, con- 
nects itself tolerably near with that of the tongues of 
Congo. The M'pongwe, for example, spoken on the Gaboon 
coast, forms its verbs by adding a monosyllabic prefix to the 
substantive ; by opposition to certain Senegambian languages, 
such as the Mandingo, in which they employ suffixes to 
modify the sense of the verb or the noun. 
XXI. — The CONGrO-languages appertain to that great formation of 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 65 

African tongues of which we treated ahove, and that divide 
themselves into many groups, united incontestably by close 
bonds. 

1st. — The first group is that of the tongues of Congo ; the 
whole of them characterized by the initial flexion. They 
embrace the languages of the tribes named Atam, of which 
one of the chiefest is the TJdom, spoken in a country of this 
name, which has Ebil for its capital, — the languages of Mo- 
ftos-tribes, that subdivide themselves into several groups, 
embracing a great number of idioms, — the tongues of Congo 
and of Angola that comprise three groups ; the first, repre- 
sented above all by the Mbamba ; the second, by the Ba- 
huma, or Mobuma; and the third, by the JSPgola, speech of 
Angola. 

2d. — The second group, comprehends the toDgues of South- 
West Africa, viz : the Kihiau, that also forms its verbs by 
means of prefixes, and attaches itself very nearly to the 
Congo-languages. It appears to identify itself with the 
MuNTOU-tongue, spoken by the Veiao, whom one encounters 
in the country of Knyas, about two months' journey west 
from the Mozambique coast. To this group, likewise, be- 
longs the Marawi, the Niamban, and many other languages. 

3d. — The third group is represented by the Souahilee-tongues ; 
comprising the Souahili properly so-called, spoken by the 
inhabitants of the coasts of Zanzibar; and the languages 
of neighboring peoples who dwell to the south of the Galla- 
country; such as the Wanika, the Okaouafi, the "Wakamba. 
A good deal of the BjHiAtr-language is met with in the Sou- 
ahili ; which indicates well the affinity of the two groups. 

4th. — The fourth, the group-Caffr, comprehends the Zoulou, 
or Caffr proper, — the Temneh, the Sechuana, the Damara, 
and the Kiniea. All these languages offer the same organ- 
ism, and a great richness of changes (votes) together with an 
extreme poverty of verbs. 
Xl II. — The tongues of the preceding formation approximate in a 
very singular manner, as regards certain points of their 
organism, to that family that may be termed HAMITIC 
(from Khime, Chernmia, the ancient native name of Egypt); 
and which has for its type the Egyptian,' of which the 
Coptic is but a more modern derivative. To it may be 
attached, on the eastern side, the Galla ; and on the western, 
the Berber. 

The Egyptian is known to us from a high antiquity, thanks 
5 



66 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

to its hieroglyphical system of writing, of which the employ- 
ment mounts up to at least 3500 years before our era. This 
writing, — wherein are beheld the figured and metaphysical 
representations of objects (mostly indigenous to the Nile) 
gradually passed into the state of signs of articulation — 
permits us to assist, as it were, at the formation of speech. 
Through the use of these signs, one seizes the first appa- 
rition of verbal forms, as well as of a host of prepositions. 
The basis of Egyptian seems to be monosyllabic; but the 
employment of numerous particles very soon created many 
dissyllables. This language recognizes two articles, two 
genders, two numbers. The verb through its conjuga- 
tions, — which is are made by the aid of prefixes and suffixes, 
and that counts many changes, — participates more of the 
Indo-European grammatical system than of the Semitic. 
Egyptian vocalization seems to have been very rich in 
aspirates. 
This linguistic family, to which the Egyptian belongs, 
would appear to have been very widely extended at the 
beginning. The Berber, vulgarice Kabyle, now almost re- 
duced to the condition of a "patois," has a tolerably rich 
literature, and comprehends several very distinct dialects, 
viz : the Algerian Berber, spoken by the Kabail — moun- 
tain tribes of the Atlas — imbued with Arabic words ; the 
Mozabee, the Shillouh, the Zenatiya of the province of 
Constantine, and the Towerga, or Touarik. 
XIV, — The HOTTENTOT family of tongues — or "langues 1 
Klies," cliceing languages — is characterized by the odd 
aspiration, so designated, which mingles itself (as a sort of 
gluching) in the pronunciation of the greater number of 
words. Hottentot languages bear, above all in the conju- 
gation of their verbs, the character of agglutination. Like 
Semitic tongues, they are deprived of the relative pronoun. 
They distinguish two plurals for the pronoun of the first 
person, the one exclusive and the other inclusive; the 
former excluding the idea of the person to whom a dis- 
course is addressed ; and the latter, on the contrary, inclo- 
sing it. In their nouns, there exist two genders in the sin- 
gular,, and three in the plural number, — this third one, 
called common, has a collective value. It follows that when 
an object be designated in the singular, its gender always 
becomes indicated. These tongues distinguish three num- 
bers, but they are unacquainted with the case ; whilst the 



CLASSIFICATION OP TONGUES. 67 

adjective remains completely indeclinable, and takes neither 
the mark of gender nor of number. 
This family of clicking languages comprehends the Hottentot, 
or Quaiquai, — and the Bosjesman dialects, ISTamaqua and 

KOEANA. 

Notwithstanding its strange phonological system, the family 
of Hottentot tongues is not altogether so profoundly dis- 
tinct from African languages, as one might be tempted to 
suppose at first sight. It is incontrovertible that these 
sounds, in nature at one and the same time nasal and 
guttural, which we term Kliks, constitute a special charac- 
teristic ; but the foundation of the grammatical forms in 
Hottentot idioms is met with among the tongues of Africa. 
Thus, the verb presents, like them, a great richness of 
changes : it has a form direct, negative, reciprocal, causative ; 
and all these voies are produced by the addition of a particle 
to the end of the verbal radical. Their double plural, a 
common and a particular, is a trait which assimilates them 
to the Polynesian and even to the American languages. 
The double form of the first person plural, indicating if the 
personage addressed be comprised in the "we," or is ex- 
cluded from it — writes Wilhelm von Humboldt — has been 
again met with in a great number of American tongues, 
and had been assumed until now to be an especial characte- 
ristic of these languages. This character is encountered, 
however, in the majority of the languages that we are here 
considering ; in that of the Malays, in that of the Philip- 
pine isles, and in that of Polynesia. In Polynesian tongues, 
it extends even to the dual; and such, moreover, is its 
particular form, in them, that, were we to guide ourselves 
by logical considerations merely, it would become neces- 
sary to view these tongues, as being the cradle and the 
veritable father-land of this grammatical form. Outside 
of the South Sea, and of America, I know of it nowhere 
else than among the Mandchoux. Since Wilhelm von 
■ Humboldt penned these words, the same grammatical pecu- 
liarity, which exists in the Malgache (of Madagascar), has 
been discovered in an African tongue, — the VEi-language. 
African languages present, therefore, to speak properly, but 
a very feeble homogeneity. The same multiplicity of 
shades, that is particularly observed among the Blacks, 
reappears in their idioms. 
On studying the grammars and the vocabularies of the 
latter, one seizes the tracing-thread of those numberless 



68 OK THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

crossings which have made, of the branches of the Negro- 
race, populations very unequal in development of faculties, 
and in intelligence exceedingly diverse. One perceives a 
Semitic influence in the speech, as one sometimes discovers 
it in the type of face. The Hottentots, who are more dis- 
tinct from Negro-populations than any other race of Austral 
Africa, separate themselves equally through their tongue. 
The Foulahs and the "Wolofs, so superior to the other 
Negroes by their intellect and their energy, distinguish 
themselves equally through the respective characteristics 
of their idiom. And in like manner that, maugre the 
variety of physical forms, a common color, differently shaded 
(nuance'e), reunites into one group all those inhabitants of 
Africa whose origin is not Asiatic, a common character 
links together the grammars of their languages; — or, in 
other words, African idioms have all a family-air, without 
precisely resembling each other. 

There is one important remark to be made here. It is, that 
some African languages denote a development sufficiently 
advanced of the faculty of speech, and consequently of the 
reflective aptitudes of which this is the manifestation. In 
this fact we have a new proof that tells against the unity 
of the origin of languages. Because, if African languages 
were the issue of other idioms, fallen in some way among 
minds more narrow (homes) than had been those of the 
supposed-elder nations that spoke them, they ought neces- 
sarily to have become impoverished, to have altered them- 
selves ; and the laws, which have been established above in 
the history of one and the same tongue, would lead us to 
expect that these last ought to be at once more analytical 
and more simple. 

Now, their very-pronounced characteristic of agglutination 
excludes the idea of languages arising from out of the 
decomposition of others ; and the complex nature of their 
grammar attests a date extremely ancient for their forma- 
tion. The idioms of Africa carry, then, the stamp both of 
primitive and complicated languages ; and, as a conse- 
quence, of tongues which are not derived, at an epoch 
relatively modern, from other languages possessing the 
same parallel character. Hence it must be concluded, that 
these African languages are formations as ancient as other 
linguistic formations ; possessing their own characteristics ; 
and of which the analogies correspond with those that bind 
up together the great branches of the Negro-race. 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 69 

"We have seen that a few of the African languages recall to mind, 
either through their vocabulary, or by peculiarities of their grammar, 
the Polynesian idioms. 

These idioms constitute, as it were, a grand Zone, that extends 
betwixt Africa and America : and this position explains how migra- 
tions of the race that spoke them, and which we shall call Malayo- 
Polynesian, may have come over to blend themselves with the negroes 
of Africa. From Madagascar as far as Polynesia, we find a family 
of similar tongues that has become designated by the name of Ma- 
layo-Polynesian, after that of the race. 

It decomposes itself into two groups, viz : the Malay group, com- 
prehending an "ensemble" of idioms spoken from Madagascar to 
the Philippine-islands ; and the Polynesian group, properly so-termed. 

One meets again, in this family, with the self-same inequality of 
development amid the different languages that compose it. Whilst 
the Malay denotes an advanced degree of culture, the idioms of Po- 
lynesia offer a simplicity altogether primitive. These have restricted 
their phonetic system within very narrow limits ; and they employ 
matter-of-fact methods, no less than very poor forms, in order to 
mark the grammatical categories. It is through the help of particles, 
oftentimes equivocal, that these languages try to give clearness to a 
discourse compounded, albeit, of rigid and invariable elements. The 
structure of Polynesian words is much more simple than that of the 
Malay words : a syllable cannot be terminated by a consonant fol- 
lowed by a vowel ; or it is not even formed save through a single 
vowel. These languages are, besides, deprived of sibilants ; and they 
tend towards a planing-away of homogeneous consonants, and to 
cause those that possess a too-pronounced individuality to disappear. 
It has seemed, therefore, that the Polynesian tongues result from the 
gradual alteration of Malay languages ; which are far more energetic 
and much more defined. Otherwise this Polynesian family offers a 
tolerably great homogeneity : everywhere one re-beholds in it this 
identical elementary phonology. The idioms of the Marquesas-isles, 
of New-Zealand, of Taiti, of the Society-islands, of the Sandwich and 
Tonga, are bound together by close ties of relationship. Such is the 
paucity of their vocal system, that they have recourse frequently to 
the repetition of the same syllable, in order to form new words. 
The onomatopee is very frequent in them. The grammatical cate- 
gories are also but vaguely indicated ; and one often sees the same 
word belonging to different parts of the same sentence. The methods 
of enunciating one idea are sometimes the same, whether for ex- 
pressing an action or for designating an object. The gender and 
number are often not even indicated. The vocal system (which 



70 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

recalls, in certain respects, that of the Dravidian tongues) seems, 
by the way, to have undergone, in the course of time, modifications 
sufficiently deep. 

The Malgache, or Malagasy, spoken at the island of Madagascar, 
constitutes, as it were, a link between the Malayo-Polynesian idioms 
and those of Africa. Mr. J. R. Logan, in an excellent sei'ies of labors 
on this tongue, 25 makes it seen how several traits in common existed 
between the Malgache and those tongues of the great Souahilee- 
Congo family, which he terms Zimhian. The same system of sounds. 
One finds again in them that euphony signalized in the idioms of 
Central Africa, associated with those double letters, nip, m d, nh, nd, 
n j, tr, dr, ndr, nr, ts, nts, tz, that also characterize the languages 
of Africa. Prefixes serve equally in them to represent the categorical 
forms of a word. Finally, that which is still more characteristic, the 
Malgache does not distinguish genders any more than do the African 
idioms ; and, like the vast Souahilee-Congo group, it carries with it 
the generical distinction, according as beings are animate, rational, 
or inanimate, irrational. But, side by side with these striking ana- 
logies, there exist fundamental differences. The Malgache-vocabu- 
lary is African in no manner whatever, although it may have imbibed 
some words of idioms from the coast of Africa : it might approach 
rather towards the Hamitic vocabulary ; but its pronouns are peculiar 
to itself. It possesses quite an especial and really characteristic power 
for combining formative prefixes ; and many traits attach it to those 
tongues of the Soodan which have surprised philologers by their 
analogies with Polynesian languages. 

It is, therefore, evident that the Malgache represents to us a mix- 
ture of idioms ; or, to speak more exactly, the result of influences 
exerted upon a Polynesian idiom by African languages, and, with 
some plausibility likewise, by those of the Hamitic class. This com- 
mingling betrays itself equally in the population of Madagascar. 
Evidently in this island, to judge by the pervading type of its inha- 
bitants, there has been an infusion of black blood into the insular, 
or reciprocally. In general, the races that find themselves spread 
over the zone occupied by the families of Malayo-Polynesian lan- 
guages do not at all present homogeneity ; and one must admit that 
they descend from innumerable crossings. Nevertheless, the fact — if 
fact it be, after the analyses of Crawfukd, indicated farther on — of a 
(fond) substratum of words in common, and of a grammar reposing 
upon the same bases, proves that one and the same race has exer- 
cised its influence over all these populations. 

25 The Journal of ike Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, Singapore, — Supplementary 
No. for 1854, pp. 481 seqq. 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 71 

Where must one go and seek for the cradle of this race ? Com- 
parative philology places us upon a trail towards its discovery. 
There exists in the trans-Gangetic peninsula an "ensemble" of lan- 
guages appertaining to the same family as the Chinese ; by attaching 
itself on the one hand to the Thibetan, and on the other to the 
Siamese. These tongues have been designated by the name "mono- 
syllabic," because the primitive monosyllabism is perceived in them 
in all its original simplicity. In monosyllabic languages, there yet 
exist only simple words rendered through one single emission of the 
voice. These words are, at one and the same time, both substantives 
and verbs : they express the notion, the idea, independently of the 
word ; and it is the modus through which this word becomes placed 
in relationship with other words that indicates its categorical sense in 
a sentence. The Chinese tongue — above all under its ancient or 
archaic form — is the purest type of this monosyllabism. It corres- 
ponds in this manner to the older period which had preceded that 
of agglutination. 

Every Chinese word — otherwise said, each syllable — is composed 
of its initial and of its final sound. The initial sound is one of the 
136 Chinese consonants; the final sound is a vowel that never 
tolerates other than a nasal consonant, in which it often terminates, 
or else a second vowel. "What characterizes the Chinese, as well as 
the other languages of the same family, is the accent that manifests 
itself by a sort of singing intonation ; which varies by four different 
ways in the Chinese, reduces itself to two in the Barman, and ends 
by effacing itself in the Thibetan. The presence of this accent 
destroys all harmony, and opposes itself to the "liaison" of words 
amongst themselves ; because, the minutest change in the tone of a 
word would give birth to another word. In order that speech should 
remain intelligible, it is imperative that the pronunciation of a given 
word must be invariable. Hence the absence of what philologists 
call "phonology" in the Chinese family. Albeit, in the vernacular 
Siamese, already an inclination manifests itself to lay stress upon, 
or rather to drawl out, the last word in a compound expression. 
These compounded expressions abound in Chinese ; the words that 
enter into them give birth, in reality, through their assemblage, to a 
new word ; because the sense of this expression has often no resem- 
blance whatsoever, almost no relationship, to that of the two or 
three words out of which it is formed. 

The drawling upon the second syllable that takes place in the 
Siamese is the point of departure from monosyllabism, which already 
shows itself still more in the Qambodjian. The Barman corresponds 
to the passage of monosyllabic tongues, wherein the sounds are not 



72 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

oonnected, into languages in which the sounds are hound together. 
Indeed, nearly all the Barman words are monosyllabic; but they 
have the faculty of modifying themselves in their pronunciation so 
as to hitch themselves on to the other words, and hence originate a 
more harmonious vocalization. 

All the basin of the Irawaddy, and Aracan (that is separated from 
the Burmese empire by a chain of mountains running nearly parallel 
to the sea, the mounts Teoma), are inhabited by tribes speaking 
idioms of the same family as the Barman. Little by little, other 
languages of the same family, such as the Laos, have been driven 
back from the north-west of the trans-Gangetic peninsula by con- 
quering populations emanating from this Burmese race, which now- 
adays opposes such an energetic resistance to the English. It is 
precisely to the same race that belong the more savage populations 
of Assam. Here, speech and their physical type leave no room for 
doubt in this respect. Of this number are the Singpho and the 
Manipouri. 

But, that the Thibetan is itself nothing but a modification, but an 
alteration, of the languages of this same monosyllabic family, is what 
becomes apparent to us through the tongues of several tribes of 
Assam and of Aracan, — such as that of the Nagas, and that of the 
Youmas, which serve for the transit from the Barman into the Thi- 
betan. These more or less barbarian populations, spread out at the 
north-west of the trans-Gangetic peninsula, have all the character 
of the race that has been called the yellow. Evidently it is there 
that one must seek for the savage type of the Chinese family. 

The Thibetan is certainly that tongue which most detaches itself 
from the monosyllabic family ; and, by many of its traits, it ap- 
proaches the Dravidian idioms. It demarcates itself from the Bar- 
man through its combinations of particular consonants, of which the 
vocal effect is sweeter and more mollified ; but the numerous aspi- 
rates and nasals of the Chinese and the Barman are re-beheld in it. 
Upon comparing the monuments of the ancient Barman tongue, 
with those of the ancient Thibetan, one perceives that formerly this 
language had more of asperity, — asperity of which the Thibetan still 
preserves traces ; because, notwithstanding its combinations of 
softened consonants, this language is at the bottom completely 
devoid of harmony. Particles placed after the word modify its sense, 
and the order of these words is always the inverse of what it is in 
our idioms. Hence the apparition, in these tongues, of the first 
lineaments of that process of agglutination already so conspicuous in 
the Barman. One may construct in it some entire sentences com- 
posed of disjointed words, linked between each other only by the 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES 73 

retro-active virtue, or faculty, of a final word; and it is thus that 
these languages arrive at rendering the ideas of time still more com- 
plex. The Barman, in particular, is, in this respect, of very great 
richness, — a series of proper names can be treated in it as an unity, 
and may take on at the end the mark u do" of the plural, which 
reacts then upon the whole : and even a succession of substantives is 
susceptible of taking the indefinite plural u mya." 

These languages cause us, therefore, to assist, so to say, at the 
birth of agglutinative idioms, of which the Basque has afforded us, 
in Europe, such a curious specimen. Albeit, whatever be the de- 
velopment that several idioms of the trans-Gangetic peninsula may 
bave acquired through the effects of their successive evolution, they 
are all not the less of extreme simplicity. The Barman is the most 
elaborated of the whole family; whereas the Chinese, and the speech 
of the empire of Annam, are but very little. As concerns the vocal 
system, on the contrary, the Thibetan and the Barman do not raise 
themselves much above the Chinese ; and it is in the south of the 
trans-Grangetic peninsula that one must inquire for more developed 
articulations, always exercising themselves, however, upon a small 
number of monosyllabic sounds. On the opposite hand, the tongues 
of the south-east of that peninsula approximate more to the Chi- 
nese as regards syntax. 

One sees, then, that, maugre their unity, the monosyllabic lan- 
guages form groups so distinct that one cannot consider them as 
proceeding the ones from the others, but which are respectively con- 
nected through divers analogies ; and that they must, in consequence, 
be placed simply parallel with each other, at distances ever unequal 
from the original monosyllabism. Although the Barman and the 
Thibetan approach each other very much, — and that they find, in 
certain idioms, as it were, a frontier in common, — they still remain 
too far asunder with regard to the grammar, the vocabulary and the 
pronunciation, for it to be admitted that one may be derived from 
the other. They seem rather to be, according to the observation of 
Mr. Logan, two debris differently altered of a more ancient tongue 
that had the same basis as the Chinese. 

Thus one must believe that, from a most remote epoch, the yellow 
race occupies all the south-east of Asia ; because the employment of 
these monosyllabic languages is a characteristical trait which never 
deceives. In those defiles of Assam where so many different tribes 
— repelled thither by the conquests of the Aryas, of the Chinese and 
the Burmese — find themselves gathered, the races of Tartar-type all 
distinguish themselves from the Dravidian tongues through then 



74 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

monosyllabic structure, allied sometimes to the Thibetan, at others 
to the Barman. 

In the peninsula of Malacca, or Malaya, and amid the isles of 
Malaysia, one meets with some populations which, as regards the 
type, recall to mind the most barbarous tribes of Assam, — the Gar- 
rows, for example. There have been found again at Sumatra some 
tribes whose customs and whose type very much recall those of the 
savage populations at the north-east of Hindostan. The Nagas, or 
Kakhyens, of whose tongue we have already spoken, possess a very 
remarkable similitude of traits and usages with the Polynesians and 
divers indigenous septs of Sumatra. They tattoo themselves like the 
islanders of the South Sea. Every time they have slain a foe, they 
make (as has been observed amongs the Pagai of Sumatra) a new 
mark on their skins ; and, as takes places among the Aboungs — 
another people of the same island — and also among certain savages 
of Borneo, a young man must not wed so long as he has not cut off 
a certain number of the heads of enemies. Among the Michmis — 
another tribe of Assam — one finds again the usage, so universal in 
Polynesia, and equally diffused amid the Sumatran Pagais, of ex- 
posing the dead upon scaffolds until the flesh becomes corrupted and 
disengages itself from the bones. All these tribes of Assam, which 
remind us as well of the indigenous septs of the Sunda-islands as 
of the primitive population of the peninsula of Malacca, speak mono- 
syllabic tongues appertaining to the Tbibeto-Barman, or Siamo- 
Barman, family. This double circumstance induced the belief that 
it is the trans-G-angetic peninsula whence issued the Malayo- 
Polynesian populations. The languages they speak cluster around 
the Siamese and the Barman ; but, in the ratio that they are removed 
from their cradle, their sounds become softened down, and they 
become impoverished, whilst evermore tending, however, to get rid 
of the monosyllabism that gave them birth. 

These transformations, undergone by the Malayo-Polynesian lan- 
guages, have been, nevertheless, sufficiently profound to efface those 
traits in common due to their relationship. They arise, according 
to probability, from the numerous interminglings that have been 
operated in Oceanica. 

"Whilst some petty peoples of the Thibeto-Chinese source were 
descending, through the trans-Gangetic peninsula, into Malaysia, 
and advanced incessantly towards the East, those Dravidian tribes 
that occupied India, and which themselves issued from a stock, if 
not identical, at least very neighborly with the preceding, were 
coming to cross themselves with these Malaysian populations. But 
such cross-breeding was not the only one. There was another that 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 75 

altered the race still more. This commingling took effect with a 
third population that appears to have been the veritable primitive 
race of the south of Hindostan- — a black race which has been thrown 
to the east, but whose remains are still found about the middle of 
the Indian Sea, at the Andaman islets, and that constitutes the 
foundation of the pristine population of Borneo and the Philippines. 
It seems to be the same population that occupied exclusively, prior 
to the advent of Europeans in those waters, New Guinea, Australia, 
Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania), and divers archipelagoes placed to 
the eastward of New South Wales. 

The tongues of these black Oceanic tribes were, without doubt, 
very barbarous, and they have been, in several cases, promptly sup- 
planted by the Malayan idioms. They have, notwithstanding, still 
left traces of their existence at the Sandwich isles, which seem to 
have been occupied at the beginning, and before the arrival of the 
Polynesians proper, by the black race. The ground-work of their 
vocabulary has remained Australian, although the grammar is wholly 
Polynesian. It is the same at the Viti islands. Elsewhere, how- 
ever, as at the Philippines, those blacks who are known under the 
name of Aiytas, (Ajetas), or Igolotes, have adopted the idiom of the 
Malayan family, which has penetrated into their island with the 
conquerors. 

Unhappily, we possess but very little information concerning the 
Australian languages. All that may be affirmed is, that they were 
quite distinct from the two groups of the Malayo-Polynesian family : 
the Malay group and the Polynesian group being themselves very 
sharply separated. 

Mr. Logan has caught certain analogies between the Dravidian 
idioms and the Australian tongues: which is easily understood; 
because the populations that expelled from Hindostan those puny 
tribes which, at the beginning, had lived dispersed therein, must have 
exerted by their language some influence over the idiom of these 
septs, which was evidently very uncouth. A profound study of the 
names of number, in all the idioms of the Dravidian family, has 
revealed to him the existence of a primary numerical system purely 
binary, — which is met with again in the Australian languages ; aud 
it corresponds to that little-advanced stage in which one would sup- 
pose the black race that had peopled India must have been. And 
this binary system, which the later progress of intelligence in the 
Dravidian race has caused to be replaced by more developed systems 
— the quinary system, and the decimal — has left some traces both in 
tongues of the southern trans-Gangetic peninsula, and amidst certain 



76 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

populations of the peninsula of Malaya. 26 Now, we again encounter, 
even yet, this binary system among Australian populations. 

The Dravidian idioms have, then, chased before them the Austra- 
lian tongues at a primordial epoch that now loses itself in the night 
of time. At a later age, there appeared the Malayo-Polynesian lan- 
guages, which have coalesced in order to push still farther on to the 
eastward, or at least to drive within a more circumscribed space, 
these same Australian tongues. Then, after having implanted them- 
selves in those islands whence the Australian savages had been gra- 
dually expulsed, the two groups, the Malay and the Polynesian, 
declared war against each other ; and now- a-days, in the Indian 
Ocean, the Polynesian becomes more and more crowded out by the 
Malay. 

This fact brings us back naturally to the problem of the origin of 
that linguistic formation which we have designated by the name 
" Malayo-Polynesian." 

"We have said that the Thibeto-Barman races had expelled from 
India those black tribes with which they must have intermingled in 
certain cantons. The Dravidian populations acted in the same way. 
Several of the primitive tribes of Hindostan preserve still, in their 
features and in their skin, the impress of an infusion of Australian 
blood. Has a mixture of another nature taken place in Polyne- 
sia ? Are the islanders of the Great Ocean born from the crossing 
of some race coming from elsewhere ? Several ethnologists, and 
notably M. Gustave d'Eichthal, 27 have admitted that the Polynesians 
came from the east. Besides the resemblances of usage which these 
ethnographers have perceived between divers American populations 
(and especially those of the Gfuarani family) and the Polynesians, 
they have discovered, in their respective idioms, a considerable 
number of words in common. Nevertheless, such similitudes are 
neither sufficiently general, nor sufficiently striking, to enable us 
with certainty to identify the two races. There are concordances 
that, as regards words, may originate simply from migrations ; or 
which, as regards forms of syntax, result from parity of grammatical 
development. 

This does not prevent the employment of other facts (as yet histori- 
cally unproven, and fraught with tremendous physical obstacles) to 
demonstrate the possibility of the emigration of some American popu- 
lations ; but upon this point languages do not yield us anything 
decisive. More conclusive are the comparisons that M. d'Eichthal 

26 Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, April — June, 1855, p. 180. 
21 Etudes sur VEistoire Primitive des Races Oeianiennes et Americaines, by the learned "Se- 
cretaire-adjoint de la Society Ethnologique." 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 77 

has made between the tongues of those FoulaJis, or Eellatahs, that 
inhabit Senegarnbia, and some idioms of the Malayo-Polynesian 
family. These analogies are too striking for us to refuse some recog- 
nition of an identity of origines ; which, furthermore, resiles from 
many other comparisons. The light complexion of the Eoulahs, and 
the superiority of their intellect, had at an early hour attracted the 
notice of voyagers. "We would admit, therefore, that the Malayo- 
Polynesian race, — whilst it advanced towards the south-east of Asia, 
and exterminated or vanquished the black races — had penetrated on 
the opposite hand into Africa ; crossed itself with the negro popula- 
tions ; and thus gave birth to the Foulah-tribes and their congener 
peoples. At Madagascar, we re-encounter this same Malayo-Polyne- 
sian race under the name of Ovas, or Hovas. This island appears like 
the point of re-partition of the race that might be named " par excel- 
lence" Oceanic, because it is by sea that it has invariably advanced. 

[JTot to interrupt the order of the foregoing sketch of these Oceanic 
languages, we have hitherto refrained from presenting another con- 
temporaneous view, that would, in many respects, modify the one 
which, on the European continent, represents an opinion now cur- 
rent among philologists concerning those families of tongues to 
which the name " Malayo-Polynesian" has been applied. If the high 
authority of Mr. John Crawfurd 28 were to be passed over in Malayan 
subjects, our argument would lack completeness ; at the same time 
that the results of the learned author of the " History of the Indian 
Archipelago," were they rigorously established, would merely ope- 
rate upon those we have set forth, so far as breaking up into several 
distinct groups, — such as, Malgaohe, Malay, Papuan, Harfoorian, 
Polynesian, Australian, Tasvianian, &c, — the families of languages, 
in this treatise, denominated by ourselves Malayo-Polynesian. And 
it must be conceded concerning those tongues spoken by the perhaps- 
indigenous black races of Malaysia, Micronesia, and Melanesia, that, 
while, on the one hand, science possesses at present but scanty infor- 
mation; on the other, no man has devoted more patience and skill 
to the analysis of such materials as we have, than Mr. Crawfurd. 
The following is a brief coup d'ceil over his researches. 

" A certain connexion, of more or less extent, is well ascertained 
to exist between most of the languages which prevail from Mada- 
gascar to Easter Island in the Pacific, and from Formosa, on the 
coast of China, to 'New Zealand. It exists, then, over two hundred 
degrees of longitude, and seventy of latitude, or over a fifth part of 

the surface of the earth. ****** The vast region of which I 

— — — 

28 A Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay Language, London, in 8vo., 1852; vol. i., 
Dissertation and Grammar. 



78 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

have given the outline may be geographically described as consist- 
ing of the innumerable islands of the Indian Archipelago, from 
Sumatra to New Guinea — of the great group of the Philippines — of 
the islands of the North and South Pacific — and of Madagascar. 
It is inhabited by many different and distinct races of men, — as the 
Malayan, the brown Polynesian, the insular Negro of several varie- 
ties, and the African of Madagascar." 

Beginning with these last, Mr. Crawfurd says, — " Very clear 
traces of a Malayan tongue are found some 3000 miles distant from 
the nearest part of the Malayan Archipelago, and only 240 miles 
from the eastern shore of Africa. Prom this isolated fact (which 
the author, pp. eclxxvi — xxxi, shows by historical navigation to be 
by no means improbable), the importance and the value of which I 
am about to test, some writers have jumped to the conclusion that 
the language of Madagascar is of the same stock with Malay and 
Javanese, and hence, again, that the people who speak it are of the 
same race with the Malays. It can be shown, without much diffi- 
culty, that there is no shadow of foundation for so extravagant an 
hypothesis." And, in fact, after exhibiting how in their grammars, 
both groups of tongues resemble each other merely by their simpli- 
city, he manifests, through a comparative vocabulary, that the whole 
number of known Malayan words, in the Malagasi language, is but 
168 in 8340 ; or about 20 in 1000. 

Next, the insular Negroes of the Pacific Archipelagoes — the 
" Puwa-puwa, or Papuwa, which, however, is only the adjective 
'frizzly,' or 'curling.' " After enumerating their physical characte- 
ristics at different islands, he concludes — "Here, then, without 
reckoning other Negro races of the Pacific which are known to 
exist, 29 we have, reckoning from the Andamans, twelve varieties, 
generally so differing from each other in complexion, in features, 
and in strength and stature, that some are puny pigmies under five 
feet high, and others large and powerful men of near six feet. To 
place all these in one category would be preposterous, and contrary 
to truth and reason." That they have no common language is made 
evident (p. clxxi) through a comparative vocabulary of seven of 
these Oriental Negro tongues ; whence the unavoidable conclusion 
that each is a distinct language. 

Adverting digressionally to the Australians, — who are never to 
be confounded, physically-speaking, with any of the woolly-haired 

29 In a later monograph on the "Negroes of the Indian Archipelago" (Edinburgh New 
Philosophical Journal, 1853, p. 78), Crawturd maintains, — "There are 15 varieties of 
Oriental Negroes. ****** There is no evidence, therefore, to justify the conclusion, 
that the Oriental Negro, wherever found, is one and the same race." 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 79 

blacks of the Pacific Archipelagoes. The point of contact between 
these distinct types is at Cape York, in Torres Straits, and around 
its neighboring islets. No where else has amalgamation betwixt 
them been perceived. "As to the great bulk of the inhabitants of 
Australia, they are assuredly neither Malays, Negroes, nor Poly- 
nesians, nor a mixture of any of these, but a very peculiar people, 
distinct from all the other races of men" (p. clxxvi). In lists of 
about thirty languages, already known in the yet-discovered parts 
of Australia, Mr. Crawfurd (p. ccxci) has been unable to detect 
more than four or five words of corrupt Malay ; and that only in 
the tongue of a tribe at Cobourg peninsula, once Port Essington. 

As to Polynesia, our author holds : — " The languages spoken over 
this vast area are, probably, nearly as numerous as the islands of 
themselves ; but still there is one of very wide dissemination, which 
has no native name, but which, with some propriety, has been called 
by Europeans, on account of its predominance, the Polynesian. 
This language, with variations of dialect, is spoken by the same 
race of men from the Eiji group west, to Easter island eastward, 
and from the Sandwich islands north, to the New Zealand islands 
south. The language and the race have been imagined to be essen- 
tially the same as the Malay, which is undoubtedly a great mistake" 
(p. cxxxiv). After pointing out their physical contrasts with cha- 
racteristic precision, he adds — " The attempt, therefore, to bring 
these two distinct races under the same category had better be 
dropped, for, as will be presently seen, even the evidence of lan- 
guage gives no countenance." Again bringing to his aid compara- 
tive vocabularies, Mr. Crawfurd (p. ccxl) ascertains that the total 
number of Malayan words, in the whole range of Polynesian 
tongues, is about 80 ; including even the numerals ; which them- 
selves make up nearly a sixth part of that trifling quantity, — on 
which imagination erects an hypothesis of unity, between the lusty 
and handsome islanders of the South Seas, and the squat and ill- 
favored navigators of Malayan waters. 

Lastly, the Malays themselves. Sumatra is, traditionally, their 
father-land; but they were wholly unknown to Europeans before 
Marco-Polo in 1295 ; and, 220 more years elapsed before acquaint- 
ance with them was real. From this centre they seem to have 
radiatedover the adjacent coasts and islands; subduing, extermina- 
ting, enslaving, or driving into the interior, the many sub-typical 
races of the same stock which appear to have been, like themselves, 
terrse geniti of the Archipelago, distinguished by their restless and 
ever-encroaching name. "By any standard of beauty which can be 



80 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

taken, from the Ganges to the Pillars of Hercules, the Malays must 
he pronounced as a homely race," — whose heau-ideal of cuticular 
charms (as Crawfurd says in his larger History) is summed up in the 
phrase " skin of virgin-gold color." In their physique, the Malays 
are neither Chinese nor Dravidians, neither Polynesians nor Mala- 
gasi, neither Oriental nor Occidental Negroes; hut as Dryden the 
poet sung (p. xvi) : — 

"Flat faces, such as would disgrace a screen, 
Such as in Bantam's embassy were seen : — " 

in short, nothing else than Malays. For the specification of their 
language and its dialects, the " Grammar and Dictionary" is the 
source to which we must refer; but, what singularly commends 
Mr. Crawftjrd's analytical investigations to the ethnographer is, the 
careful method through which, by well-chosen and varied compara- 
tive vocabularies, he has succeeded in showing, how Malayan blood, 
language, and influence, decrease in the exact ratio that, from their 
continental peninsula of Malacca, as a starting point, their coloni- 
zing propensities have since widened the diameter between their 
own primitive cradle, and their present commercial factories, or 
piratical nuclei. Nor must it be forgotten that, upon many of the 
islands themselves, both large and small, there exist distinct types 
of men, independently of Malayan or other colonists on the sea- 
board, speaking distinct languages. Thus, in Sumatra, there are 4 
written, and 4 unwritten tongues, besides other barbarous idioms 
spoken in its vicinity : at Borneo, so far as is yet known of its un- 
explored interior, there are at least 9 ; at Celebes, several. At the 
same time that, according to Mr. Logan, each newly-discovered 
savage tribe, like the Orang Mintird, the Orang Benud, the Orang 
Muka Kuning, &c, amid the jungle-hidden creeks around Singa- 
pore, presents a new vocabulary. 

Being one of the few Englishmen, morally brave enough to avow, 
as well as sufficiently learned to sustain, by severely-scientific argu- 
ment (pp. ii-vii, and elsewhere), polygenistic doctrines on the origin 
of mankind, Mr. Crawfurd's ethnological opinions are entitled to 
the more respect from his fellow-philologues, inasmuch as — without 
dispute about a vague appellative, " Malayo-Polynesian," — his philo- 
sophic deductions must logically tally with those continental views, 
to which a Franco-Germanic utterance is given at the close of 
our section Hid. 

Upon the various systems of linguistic classification, through 
which each unprejudiced philologist — i. e., to the exclusion always 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 81 

of preconceived dogmas fabricated, as Koranic Arabs would say, fi aya- 
mena ed-djah'Uieli, "daring our days of ignorance" — defines his more 
or less scientific, but ever-individual, impressions, differences of 
opinion must inevitably ensue ; some scholars reasoning from one 
stand-point, others from another : nor would we, when closing this 
parenthesis about the term "Malayo- Polynesian," overlook the 
physiological fact indicated by Prof. Agassiz, 30 viz : that identities 
among types of men linguistically similar, whilst historically and 
ethnically different, do sometimes arise only from similarity in the 
internal " structure of the throat" — anatomical niceties imperceptible 
to the eye perhaps, but not the less distinctly impressive on an acute 
and experienced ear.] 

Of all the families of languages at present recognized on the sur- 
face of our globe, there only remains for us to examine the American 
tongues. Endeavor has been made to attach them to the Polynesian 
family ; but from these they essentially distinguish themselves, and 
we shall see presently that certain traits assimilate them, on the con- 
trary, to African languages. 

Let us signalize a primary fact. It is that, whilst the populations 
of the two Americas are far from offering a great homogeneity 
of physical characters, their languages, on the contrary, consti- 
tute a group which, as relates to grammar, affords an unity very 
remarkable. 

That which distinguishes all these tongues is a tendency, more 
apparent than that among any other linguistic family, to agglutination. 
The words are agglomerated through contraction, — by suppressing 
one or several syllables of the combined radicals — and the words 
thus formed become treated as if they were simple words, susceptible 
of being again employed and modified like these. This property has 
induced the giving to the languages of the ISTew "World the name of 
poly synthetical, — which M. F. Liebeb, has proposed to alter into that 
of olophrastic. 

Besides this characteristic, there are several others that, without 
being so absolute, seem nevertheless to be very significant. Thus, 
these idioms do not in general know our distinction of gender ; in 
lieu of recognizing a masculine and a feminine, they have an animate 
and an inanimate gender. I have said above, that there is one trait 
which is common to them and to divers idioms of Polynesia, as well 
as to the Hottentot tongues. It is the existence of two plurals (and 
sometimes of two duals), exclusive and inclusive, otherwise tei'med, 

80 Christian Examiner, Boston, July, 1850, p. 31 : — Types of Mankind, p. 282. 

6 



82 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

particular and general. The exclusive plural, in certain dialects, 
applies itself to the orator, and to the community to which he 
belongs, by excluding the others ; whereas, in sundry dialects, this 
same plural applies to those in whose name one speaks, to the 
exclusion of the persons to whom one is addressing a discourse. 

One trait of the grammar of American languages, that has greatly 
struck the first Europeans who sought to grasp their rules, is what 
they have called transition. This process, otherwise intimately con- 
nected with polysynthetism, consists in dissolving the pronoun indi- 
cative of the subject, — no less than that one indicating the object, — 
into the verb, so as to compose but a single word. Hence it follows 
that no verb can be employed without its governing case (regime). 
The number of these transitions varies according to the languages, 
and the pronoun incorporates itself with the verb generally by suffixes. 
By means of a modification of the principal radical, American 
tongues arrive at rendering all the accessory or derived notions that 
attach themselves to the idea of verb. Hence arises a vast number 
of voies. These changes constitute all the riches of the New World's 
idioms. This abundance of changes is above all striking in the Al- 
gonquin, and in Dahkota, — the language of an important Sioux tribe. 
On the contrary, in the Moxo, — a tongue of South America, the conju- 
gations reduce themselves to one. Here we have a new trait of 
resemblance between the idioms of Africa and those of the ISTew 
World. 

A classification of American languages has been attempted. It is 
a difficult undertaking ; because, in general, amid populations that 
live by tribes exceedingly fracted, and in a savage state, words 
become extremely altered in passing from one tribe to another. New 
words are created with great facility ; and were one to take but the 
differences into account, it might be believed that these languages 
are fundamentally distinct. The erudite Swiss, long a distinguished 
citizen of the United States — successor, in philology, to a learned 
Franco- American, Duponceau — Mr. Gallatin, has found in North 
America alone some 37 families of tongues, comprising more than 
100 dialects ; and even then he was far from having exhausted all 
the idioms of that portion of the world. It is true that he embraces, 
within his classification, the Eskimaux and Athapascan idioms, which 
appertain, as well as certainly the former race, to the Ougro-Finnie 
stock, — otherwise termed the boreal branch. Among North Ameri- 
can families, those of the Algonquin, Iroquois, Cherokee, Choctaw and 
Sioux, are the most important; but, concerning the indigenous 
tongues spoken around the Rios, Gila and Colorado, philological 
science hitherto possesses only vague information. 



CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 83 

At the centre of America we meet with four families, viz : the 
family Quicho-Maya, of which the chief representatives are the idioms 
of Yucatan; — the second family is exhibited in the Otomi, which at 
first had been erroneously made a completely separate type, — the 
third is the Lenea family, principally spread over the territory of 
Honduras, — and lastly, the fourth family is represented by the 
Nahuatl, otherwise called the ancient Mexican ; of which we possess 
literary monuments written in a kind of hieroglyphics. 

The Quicken, or Quichoa — language of the Incas — comprehends 
several dialects, of which the principal is the Aymara. The Quichoa, 
of all the families of the ~Hew "World, possesses most prominently the 
polysynthetical character. The Guarani family, to which the Chilian 
attaches itself, manifests a very great grammatical development. It 
was spread throughout the south- and east of austral America, and 
was spoken over a vast expanse of territory. Finally, the two fami- 
lies, the Pampean or Moxo, and the Cardib, occupy, in the hierarchi- 
cal ladder of American idioms, the very lowest rungs. In these there 
is excessive simplicity, — for instance, in the G-alibi, spoken by savage 
tribes of the French Guyana, and which belongs to the Caribbean 
family. One finds in it neither gender nor case; the plural is ex- 
pressed simply by the addition of the word papo, signifying all, and 
serving at one and the same time for the noun as well as the verb. 
In this last part of a discourse, the persons are not discriminated ; 
and the same form acts in the plural, no less than in the singular, 
for the three persons. 

American languages have, then, also passed through very different 
phases of development; but, even when they have attained, as in 
Quichoa and the Quarani, a remarkable degree of elaboration, they 
have been unable, notwithstanding, to overcome the elementary 
forms upon which they had been scaffolded. 

In the presence of such existing testimonies, of this gradual 
development, it becomes, henceforth, impossible to conclude any- 
thing from those analogies signalized between American and 
African languages, as regards imagined filiation. The aspect of 
two vast linguistic groups, placed at distances so remote, might have 
engendered a supposition of some links of proximate relationship 
between the populations speaking them, if, in view of their physique, 
the Indians of the New World, and the negroes and Hottentots of 
Africa, were not so entirely different. But, seeing that we have 
established each floor (Stage) of linguistic civilization — if one may so 
speak — we cannot admit that these tongues have been transported 
from Africa to America, or, at least, that their grammar already 



84 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND 

governed the idioms spoken by such supposititious emigrants. Simi- 
litude between the two groups shows us merely, that the native abo- 
rigines of Africa and of America possessed an analogous faculty of 
language ; and that neither could rise above a certain level, which, at 
first sight, may have been taken for a common characteristic, and as 
a sign of filiation. 



section m. 

The sketch we have just given of the families of tongues spread 
over the globe's surface has led us to observe, that the linguistic 
families coincide (with tolerable exactitude) with the more trenched 
divisions of mankind. 

Each superior race of man is represented by two families of lan- 
guages corresponding to their largest brancbes, viz: the White race, 
or Caucasic, by the Indo-European and Semitic tongues ; — the Yellow 
race by the monosyllabic and the Ougro-Tartar tongues, otherwise 
called "Finno- Japonic." To the Black race correspond the tongues 
of Africa; — to the Red race, the tongues of America; — to the Malayo- 
Polynesian races, the tongues of that name; — to the Australian 
race, the idioms of Australasia. ITo more of homogeneity is beheld, 
however, amongst the languages spoken by those inferior races inha- 
biting Africa, America, Oceanica, or Australia. 

The multifarious crossings of these primitive races, — crossings 
that may be called those of the secondary race-floor — are represented 
by families that possess characteristics less demarcated, and which 
participate generally of the two families of idioms spoken by the 
races whose intermixture gave birth to them. 

The Dravidian languages partake of the Ougro-Tartar and the 
monosyllabic tongues. The Hamitic languages are intermediate 
between the Semitic and the African tongues. The Hottentot lan- 
guages hold to the African and the Polynesian tongues ; certain lan- 
guages of the Soodan offering, also, the same character, but with a 
predominance of Polynesian elements ; whereas it is the African 
element that preponderates in Hottentot idioms. 

The apparition of these grand linguistical formations is, therefore, 
as ancient as that of the races themselves. And, in fact, speech is 
with man as spontaneous as locomotion, — as the instinct of clothing 
and of arming oneself. This is what the Bible shows us in the 
abridged recital it gives of Creation.' God causes to pass before 
A-DaM, the-Man, all the animals and all the objects of the earth (as 



CLASSIFICATION OP TONGUES. 85 

it were, in a cosmorama), and the-Man gives to each a name. 31 It is 
impossible to declare more manifestly that speech (language) ia 
an innate and primitive gift. From the instant that man was created, 
he must have spoken, by virtue of the faculty he had received from 
God. 

The use of this faculty has also been as different among the 
diverse races of mankind as that of all other faculties. And, in the 
same manner that there have been races pastoral, agricultural, pisca- 
tory and hunting, — that there are populations grave, and populations 
volatile ; adroit and cunning tribes, as well as tribes stupid and shal- 
low — so there have been races with language developed and powerful, 
populations that have attained a high degree of perfection in speech ; 
whereas others have very quickly found their development arrested, 
— just, indeed, as there have been, and ever will be, races pro- 
gressive and races stationary. 

We are unable to pierce the mystery of the origins of humanity. 
"We are ignorant as to a process by which God formed man, and the 
Bible itself is mute in this respect. It neither resolves, nor indicates 
the difficulties inherent in, the first advent of our species. But, it ia 
very evident that, in speaking of mankind in general, — that is to 
say, of A-DaM; for such is the sense of the word — it designates, 
according to Oriental habits, the race by an individual : in precisely 
the same method that, in the ethnic geography of the children of 
Eoah [Genesis x), it represents an entire people by a single name. 
Thus, Genesis speaks to us only of the genus homo, which it personifies 
in an individual to whom it attributes the supposed instincts of the 
first men. This being at present settled, it cannot be concluded 
from biblical testimony that all human beings spoke one and the 
same tongue at the beginning, — any more than we can conclude 
that there had been but one primitive couple. 

From the origin there were different languages, as there were like- 
wise different tribes ; and from out of these primitive families issued 
all the idioms subsequently spread over the earth. Because, the 
faculty of speech was, at its origin, coetaneous with the birth of man- 
kind ; and linguistic types are not now formed, any more than new 
races of men, or new animals, are being created. Existing types be- 
become altered, modified. They cross amongst each other within 
certain limits, — and with the more facility according as they may 

81 Genesis, II, 19 : — " Jehovah-Elohim forma de terre tous les animaux des champs, tous 
les oiseaux du ciel, et les fit venir vers I'homme pour qu'il vit a, les nommer ; et comme 
I'homme nommerait une creature anime'e, tel devait etre son nom." — (Cahek's Hebrew text, 
L p. 8.) 



86 ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF TONGUES. 

already possess greater affinity. They become extinct and disap- 
pear: but that is all. The work of creation on our globe is 
terminated; and all the invisible dynamics which the Creator set 
in motion, in order to people this physical and moral world, may 
indeed preserve that which they have produced ; but I'dge du retour 
for them has arrived. They have become powerless and sterile 
for creations that are reserved, without doubt, for other worlds. 

A. M. 

Paris, Library of the Institute — April, 1856. 



ICONOGR APHIC RESEARCHES. 87 



GHAPTEK II. 

ICONOGRAPHIC RESEARCHES 

ON HUMAN RACES AND THEIR ART ; 
BY FRANCIS PTJLSZKY. 



' Tedd a durva Scythat a Tiberishez, es 

A nagy R6ma fiat Bosphorus oblihez 

Barlang leszen amott a Capitolium 

'S itt uj' R6ma emelkedik." 
'Put the rude Scythian on the Tiber, 

And the son of great Rome on the Cimmerian coast, 

There the Capitol will become a den, 

And here rises a new Some." (Berzsenyi.) 



Letter to Mr. Geo. It. Cfliddon, and Dr. J. 0. Nott, on, the Races of 

Men and their Art. 
My Dear Sirs: 

Reading your " Types of Mankind," equally valuable for consci- 
entious research and sound criticism, I could not but be pleased with 
your felicitous idea of supporting ethnological propositions by the 
testimony of copious Egyptian, Assyrian, Persian, Greek, and Chi- 
nese monuments, in order to prove the constancy of national types, 
during the historical period of antiquity, by authentic representa- 
tions. Blumenbach and Prichard only cursorily referred to ancient 
monuments; your publication was the first 1 to call Archaeology into 
the witness-box for cross-examination in the question of races and 

* If our work, published early in 1854, may take credit for having somewhat extended 
and popularized this method of research, the road had been widely opened, ten years pre- 
viously by Morton (Crania JEgypiiaca, Philada., 1844). Subsequently to Morton, the 
same method was applied with singular felicity by M. Courtet de l'Isle (Tableau ethno- 
graphique du Genre Humain; 8vo., Paris, 1849) ; but, as mentioned in "Types," (p. 724,) I 
was not aware of M. Codrtet's priority until the text of our book was entirely stereotyped. 
His volume has become so rare, that I was unable to procure a copy during my late stay 
at Paris, 1854-5. A portion, however, was originally published under the title of "Icono- 
graphie des races humaines," in the Illustration, Oct. and Nov., 1847: and another formed 
part of the interesting discussions of the Societe Elhnologiquc de Paris, on the " Distinctive 
Characteristics of the White and of the Black races;" Seance du 25 Juin, 1847. (See the 
Bulletin of that Society, parent of those in London and New York, Annee 1847, Tome lr, 
pp. 181-206, and 284.) G. R. G. 



88 



ICONOGRAPHIC RESEARCHES 



Fig. 1. 



nationalities. 2 But, whilst you judiciously selected the most charac- 
teristic reliefs of Egypt and Assyria from the classical works of 
Champollion, Rosellini, Lepsius, Botta, and Layard; all Etruscan, 
Roman, Hindoo, and American antiquities were excluded from the 
"Types;" and I felt somewhat disappointed when I found, that as to 
your Greek representations you were altogether mistaken. You 
published, on the whole, five busts 3 belonging strictly to the times 
and nations of classical antiquity, but there is scarcely one among 
them on which sound criticism could bestow an unconditional 
approval. 

You may find that I am rather hard upon you, as even your critic 
in the Athenaeum Francais* objected only to one of them. Still, ami- 
cus Nott, amicus GrLiDDON, sed magis arnica Veritas ; and I hope that 
if you have the patience to read my letter with attention, you will 
yourselves plead guilty. 

The busts which I am to review are the alleged portraits of Lycue- 
gus, the Spartan legislator, of Alexander the Great, of Eratos- 
thenes, of Hannibal, and of Juba I., king of ISTumidia. 

I. As to the great Lacedsemonian lawgiver, you borrowed his por- 
trait from Pouqueville, 5 who took it from 
Ennio Quirino Visconti. 6 It cannot be 
traced farther back. The celebrated 
Italian archaeologist, publishing that head 
of a marble statue in the Vatican, freely 
acknowledges that he has scarcely any 
authority for attributing it to Lycurgus, 
by saying that he thinks the statue might 
be a portrait of the famous one-eyed legis- 
lator, — inasmuch as the conformation of 
the left eye and cheek is different from 
the right side of the head ; and, according 
to him, such want of symmetry charac- 
terizes a man blind of one eye. 7 I leave 

1 Blumenbach read a lecture : De veterum urlificium anatomies perili<e laude limitanda, cele- 
branda vero eorum in charactere gentilitio ezprimendo accuratione, at Gottingen, on the 19th of 
March, 1823, but unhappily it never was published. The notice in the Gottingen Gelehrle 
Anze.igen 1823 (p. 1241,) mentions only that he dwelt upon the correctness of the represen- 
tations of negroes, Jews, and Persians, on ancient monuments; and remarked that no effigy 
of the Mongolian type has ever been found on them. Prichard devotes two pages (235 and 
236 of his lid volume), to the remains of Egyptian painting and sculpture ; but he ignores 
Rosellini's work, and quotes from the antiquated Denon and the Description de VEgypie. 

3 Types of Mankind, p. 104 and 136. 

4 Athencsum Francais, Paris, 25 March 1854, p. 264. 

» TJnivers pitloresque, Grece, pi. 84 ; — Types, p. 104, fig. 4. 

* Iconographie grecque, I. pi. VIII. 2. ' Ibid. p. 131 of the Milan edition. 




ON HUMAN RACES AND THEIR ART. 89 

it altogether to your critical judgment whether such an argument is 
sufficient for baptizing the old statue and calling it Lycurgus, whilst 
the deformity of the face might he the result of the clumsiness or 
inadvertence of the sculptor, or might represent any other half-faced 
personage. But even had Visconti proved that the effigy in ques- 
tion was really meant for Lycurgus, being a copy of the statues men- 
tioned by Pausanias, 8 still, the features could not be taken for a real 
portrait, nor could they have any value for ethnology, since, impos- 
sible as it is to fix the date of Lycurgus accurately, it is universally 
agreed that he lived at the close of the heroic and before the dawn 
of the Instorical age, when art was nearly unknown to Greece. A 
chasm of at least three centuries separates him from the earliest 
reliefs and coins we possess. It is therefore preposterous to believe 
in portraits of Lycurgus in the present sense of the word. Accord- 
ingly, Visconti admits that the portrait in question was created (!) — 
like that of Homer, — on national traditions by artistic imagination. 
The Greeks, with their strongly developed feeling for beauty, were 
not at all shocked by such ideal portraits ; their artists, down to the 
time of Alexander the Macedonian ; and even beyond his epoch, did 
not care much for material likeness, and were only intent upon 
making the expression of the features answer to the traditional cha- 
racter of the person represented. Thus, for instance, they created 
the effigies of the " seven sages," and of JEsopus, which once adorned 
the Villa of Cassius, and now form one of the chief attractions of 
the Villa Albani at Rome. 9 The most celebrated of those imaginary 
portraits is the magnificent bust of Homer, 10 equally known in 
antiquity and in modern times ; for Pliny 11 remarks, speaking of this 
custom, that " even effigies which do not exist, are invented, and 
excite the desire to know the features not transmitted, as is the case 
with Homer." Pausanias proves that in his time there were portraits 
of Lycurgus existing ; of course invented in a similar way : but we 
may safely state that, even the created effigies of the old law-giver 
were not of a constant type. The Spartans, at the epoch of their 
complete subjection to Rome, began to adorn their copper coins with 
the head of Lycurgus, inscribing them with his name in order that 
no mistake should be possible ; but Visconti, who published two of 
them, 12 says, that they do not resemble one another. 

Thus we arrive at the conclusion that there is no certainty and 
but little probability about the head published by you, as to its 

• Pausanias, lib. iii. c. 14. 9 Visconti, Iconographie grecque, 1 pi. ix. x. xi. xii. 

" The best of them is at the Studj at Naples; a good one in the British Museum, 
li Historia Natures, xxxv. \ 2. " Visconti, Icon, gr., 1 pi. viii. 5, 6. 



90 



ICONOGRAPHIC RESEARCHES 




having ever, before Visconti, been imagined to represent Lycurgus ; 
and that in no case could it be taken for anything else than a fancy- 
portrait, not more to be trusted than the statue of Columbus, 
commonly called the " ninepin-player," before your Capitol, or the 
relief portrait of Daniel Boone in the Rotunda at Washington. 
II. Tour portrait of Alexander the Great, likewise from Pou- 
queville, 13 is by far more authentic than the 
pretended likeness of Lycurgus. The origi- 
nal marble bust, of which you give a copy, is 
now placed in the Louvre at Paris, as a me- 
morial of Napoleon I. ; who received it as a 
present from the Spanish Ambassador, the 
Chevalier dAzara. The accomplished Che- 
valier caused a panegyrical dedicatory in- 
scription to be sculptured on the side of this 
bust, before presenting it to the modern 
Alexander. The Bourbons, unconsciously 
following the traditions of the Emperor Cara- 
calla, and of several Egyptian Pharaohs, or- 
dered the mention of their obnoxious prede- 
cessor to be obliterated on this monument ; but traces of the destroyed 
inscription sufficiently record the resentment and bad taste of those 
who had " rien oublie ni rien appris." The bust was originally found 
near Tivoli, the ancient Tibur, in the year 1779, bearing the inscrip- 
tion 

AAEIANAP02 

*iAinnnY 

MAKEA 

The form of the letters shows, according to Visconti," that this 
excellent piece of sculpture could not have been contemporaneous 
with the conqueror of Persia ; and that it probably belongs to the 
last epoch of the Roman Republic, or to the beginning of the Empire. 
Still, as the features of the Macedonian king were in his life-time 
immortalized by such eminent artists as Apelles, Pyrgoteles and 
Lysippus ; and since his portraits served as seals and emblems of coins 
soon after his death, it may seem tolerably certain, that the marble 
bust in question gives us really the likeness of the conqueror. Yet 
there remains one difficulty about it. The bust having been found 
in a mutilated state, the broken nose was restored, without consulting 
the coins of Lysimachus, one of the generals and successors of 
Alexander, who had the portrait of his late master put on them. 



1 Grece, pi. 85 -.—Types, p. 104, fig. 



11 Icon, grecque, II. page 47. 



ON HUMAN RACES AND THEIR ART. 91 

Thus the restoration altered the features a little, a somewhat longer 
nose being attached to the bust, than the earlier effigies on coins, 
statues, and mosaics warrant. "With the slight exception, therefore, 
that the tip of the nose is too long and too pointed, the portrait in 
the "Types" ought to satisfy sound criticism. Still, Staatsrath 
Koehler, the renowned but presumptuous Russian archaeologist, 
hypercritically rejects the Azara-bust, as of no use to iconography; 15 
but as he omits the reasons for his harsh sentence, he must allow us 
to be so malicious, and to infer, from the date of his essay, 16 written 
during the Russo-Persian war, that he was disappointed at not being 
able to discover a likeness between the bust of the great Macedonian 
and the would-be inheritor of his schemes, the late Czar Nicholas : 
at the same time that French archaeologists maintain that Alexander, 
Augustus, and Ramesses, bear a striking likeness to Napoleon I. 

But if the Russian archaeologist went too far on the side of hyper- 
criticism, the author of "Inscriptions of the British Museum," and 
the arranger of the Egyptian Court in the Sydenham Crystal Palace, 
err considerably more on the other side ; having been taken in by 
one of the most barefaced archaeological impostures of modern 
times. In 1850, a 4to volume (360 pages text and LXI plates) was 
published at Didot's by Mons. J. Barrois, under the suspicious title 
of " Dactylologie et Langage Primitif;" in which pi. LLX gives 
"the portrait of Alexander taken during his life (represents de son 
vivant) from a bas-relief painted in four colours by Apelles, (!), and 
found in 1844 under the sand of a subterraneous tomb at Cercasore 
on the Nile." Since this wonderful book was printed for private 
circulation, and did not get into the book-market, criticism remained 
silent; but the portrait having been introduced into the Crystal 
Palace, we must protest against the clumsy forgery which attributes 
an Egyptian bas-relief to Apelles the Greek painter. Besides, though 
its style is Pharaonic, the eye is foreshortened in the Greek way ; 
the Egyptian cartouche is false ; whilst the Greek inscription, 
wrongly spelt, 17 is neither Egyptian nor Greek, and the form of its 
letters is partly archaic, partly Latin. I was shocked at the very 
first sight of such a cast exhibited among copies of the best remains 
of Egypt ; and afterwards learned from Mr. Gliddon, that it is gene- 
rally known in Paris, how the relief (with its companion, which 
purports to represent Heph^estion), had been manufactured ex- 

" Abhandlung iiber die geschniltenen Steine, &o. St. Petersburg, 1851, p. 10, — referring 
to his essay in Bottiger's Archceologie und Kunst, Band 1, page 13. 
11 The inscription runs as follows : 

ALEK^ANDP* 
YIO* AMOYN* 



92 



ICONOGRAPHIC RESEARCHES 



Fig. 3. 




pressly to entrap M. Barrois, the wealthy amateur, who does not 
believe at all in Champollion, and consequently bought it for 6000 
francs. It was certainly beyond the expectation of the French 
forgers that they should cheat two English archaeologists also. 
IH. Eratosthenes of Cyrene in Africa, the famed Greek librarian 
of king Ptolemy Evergetes at Alexandria, the 
greatest Astronomer, Geographer, and Chrono- 
logist of his time, would indeed deserve a place 
of honor in any ethnographical publication ; but, 
unhappily, there exists no antique likeness of 
that eminent man, although the Chevalier Bunsen 
prefixed the ideal drawing of a Greek bust to the 
second volume of his "JEgyptens Stelle in der 
"Weltgeschichte." 18 Yet this effigy is altogether a 
modern fancy -portrait, which originates solely 
from the desire of the learned Chevalier to ex- 
press his veneration for the Sage of Cyrene. I 
have suspected that it is not through accident, but 
by design, that the snub-nose of the German edition has been twisted 

into a somewhat aquiline form for 
Longman's English translation of 
the same work. Possibly, Bun- 
sen, in fear lest his authority might 
introduce a false Eratosthenes into 
good society — as really has hap- 
pened in the " Types," — took this 
indirect method of unmaking the 
creature of his own imagination. 

IV. The portrait of Hannibal 
was copied for the " Types," on the 
faith of the "Univers pittoresque," 
(Afrique ancienne, Carthage), a col- 
lection of several works by differ- 
ent authors of different merit. 
Thus, for instance, next to the 
description of Ancient Egypt by 
Champollion-Eigeac, and of China by Pauthier, we find Italy 
described by the shallow Artaud, and Greece by Pouqueville. 
However, the alleged portrait of the Carthaginian hero did not 
answer your ethnographic expectations in any way, not being of the 



Fig. 4. 




18 Hamburg, 1845, frontispiece. Compare the one in Egypt's Place in Ufiiversal History, 
London, 1854, II., and p. xxi. The same genius for invention has supplied Arehfeology 
■with an equally-authentic portrait of Manetho: — Op. cit., Drittes Buck, frontispiece. 



OK ETTIAN RACES AND THEIR ART. 93 

Shemitic cast; and you recognized at once the highest Caucasian 
type so strongly marked, in his face as to lead to the suggestion, 
" that if his father was a Phcenico-Carthaginian, one would suspect 
that his mother, as among the Ottomans and Persians of the present 
day, must have heen an imported white slave, or other female of the 
purest Japhetic race." 19 This remark, embodying an acknowledg- 
ment of the Japhetic cast of the features, was happily added to the 
"portrait;" which can he found on some elegant silver coins accom- 
panied by a Phoenician inscription. From the time of Fulvius 
Ursinus 20 it was always taken for the efUgy of Hannibal, until Pel- 
lerin, 21 and Eckhel, m proved that these coins are not Carthaginian, 
but Cilician and Phoenician. "In 1846," says the reviewer of 
"Types," in the Atheneeum Frangais, "the Due de Luynes found out 
that it was the portrait of a Satrap of the king of Persia, who 
governed Tarsus in the time of Xenophou; and thus," he adds, "in 
the effigy published by Messrs. Gliddon and Nott, type, country, 
epoch, and race, are all mistaken" ! M A sweeping conclusion indeed ; 
still, it is not complete enough ; seeing, we may add, that the reviewer 
himself is likewise mistaken. Had he studied the Essay of the Due 
de Luynes with sufficient care, he would have found that the head, 
formerly believed to be the effigy of Hannibal, and as such prefixed 
to most of the editions of Silius Italicus, is not at all a portrait, but 
the ideal representation of a hero ; since it is not only found on the 
silver coins of Dernes of Phoenicia (or rather, according to "W. H. 
Waddington, of Datames of Cilicia), 24 but likewise on the coins of 
Pharnabazus, the powerful Satrap of Phrygia and Lydia, son-in-law 
to Artaxerxes Mnemon. It cannot, therefore, be meant for either 
of them ; so much the less, as there is no example of any Satrap 
stamping coin with his own portrait. 

Visconti, in his Iconogrcvphie grecquef 5 attributes a totally different 
bust to Hannibal. Fully aware that the effigy on the above-men- 
tioned silver coins could not represent the illustrious Carthaginian, 
he did not like to lose the illusion that we possess such an interesting 
portrait; especially as the elder Pliny complains 25 that "two statues 
were erected to Hannibal in the city, since so many foreign nations 
had been received into communion with Pome, that all former dif- 
ferences between them were abolished." Accordingly, Visconti 
attributes a small bronze bust to the greatest enemy of the Romans ; 

■* Types of Mankind, p. 136, fig. 37; and Southern Quarterly Review, Charleston, S. C, Oct. 
1854, p. 294, note. M Atheneeum Francois, Mars, 1854, p. 264. 

M Imagines illustr. virorum, pi. 63. •* Atheneeum Frangais, Fevrier 1856, p. 12. 

" Recueil, iii. p. 59. ,s Vol. iii. pi. xvi. 

" Doctrina nummorum veterum, iii. p. 412. K Hist. Nat. xxxiv. \ 15. 



94 ICONOGRAPHIC RESEARCHES 

because, having been found at Pompeii together with the bust of 
Scipio Africanus, it might have been its companion. He discovers 
an African cast in the features of the bust, although he does not 
enable us to understand what African peculiarity he means ; and he 
forgets that Hannibal ought to portray the true Shemitic, not any 
African type. Visconti refers likewise to the peculiar head-dress of 
the bust, as being analogous to that of king Juba; but Juba was a 
Numidian, (inheriting some Berber blood, probably,) not a Cartha- 
ginian by lineage ; and the resemblance is altogether imaginary. 
Lastly, he identifies the features of the bronze with those of a fine 
bearded and helmeted head often found on gems, 27 and traditionally 
ascribed to Hannibal, because one of the copies bears evidently the 
half-effaced inscription HA . . . BA . .^ Unfortunately for Visconti, 
the gems and the bronze bust have not one single feature in common 
between them ; and we are even able to trace the origin of the tradi- 
tion and of the inscription mentioned by the renowned author of the 
" Iconographie " — to a rather modern date. There exists a cele- 
brated colossal marble statue in the ante-room of the Capitoline Mu- 
seum, which had always puzzled antiquaries. It represents a bearded 
warrior, with a stern and majestic countenance ; and would have 
been taken for Mars, did we not know, that all the statues of the god 
of war, with the exception of the earliest archaic representations, 
were beardless. Another designation was therefore wanted; and 
inasmuch as among the adornments of the magnificent armour of 
the colossus, two elephant heads occupy a pi'ominent place, he was 
called Pyrrhus, and sometimes Hannibal, — both generals having 
made use of elephants in their wars against Rome. The gems men- 
tioned by Visconti are evidently antique copies of the head of the 
Capitoline statue, from which they obtained the name. As to the 
inscription of the Florentine gem mentioned by Gori, we can affirm 
that it is a mediaeval forgery; because, on another repetition of the 
same head, 29 we find an analogous imposition, viz : the same Phoeni- 
cian letters which are struck on the Cilician coins of Datames, and 
were transferred from the medal to the gem by some mediseval 
engraver under the (false) belief that they read: "Hannibal." Be- 
sides, — the Capitoline statue and the gems resembling it are no por- 
traits at all ; they have ideal features, and represent Zeus Areios, the 
martial Jupiter, as beheld on the coins of the town Iasus in Caria, 30 

" Gori. Mus. Flor., 11, 12. ■ Gori, Inscriptions per Etrur., 1 pi. 10, p. 4. 

M Winokelmann, Pierres gravies du feu Baron Stosch, p. 415, nos. 43:— Raspe, Catalogue, 
p. 559, No. 9598. 

30 Streeee, Abhandl. der philologischen Classe der Munchner Academie, Theil 1, Tafel 4, 
No. 5. 



ON HUMAN RACES AND THEIR ART. 



95 




no less than on several unpublished bronze statuettes in different 
collections. 

V. It is more difficult to object to the portrait of Juba I., king of 
Nuniidia ; the original of the head published by you 31 being the type 
of a silver coin which bears the 

Roman inscription " Juba Rex." Flg ' 5- 

Still, an anonymous archaeologist, 
(Steinbiichel,) 32 suggests, that this ef- 
figy, with its peculiar African head- 
dress, might represent an African Ju- 
piter, rather than a king, since his 
features are somewhat ideal, and the 
sceptre on the shoulder of the bust is 
an attribute of Jupiter, or of Juno, 
exceptionally only given to kings. 
As your object in exhibiting the por- 
trait of Juba was principally to show, 
to some illiterate Philagthiopians, that 
the inhabitants of Northern Africa 
were not negroes, the explanation of 

Steinbiichel becomes a still stronger argument for your views. If 
it can be maintained, then the published head is not the effigy of an 
individual Mauritanian king, by descent and marriage closely allied 
to several Greek dynasties (for instance, to the Ptolemies), but is the 
representative type of the population of the northern shores of 
Africa ; and the slight modification of the Arab features, observed in 
his face, becomes, therefore, a new argument for the affinity of Ber- 
ber and Shemitic races. The peculiar head-dress of the bust is men- 
tioned as African by Strabo, 33 who says that the same costume pre- 
vailed all along the northern coast of Africa up to Egypt, where it 
borders on Libya. Silius Italicus describes it very characteristically 
as a rigid bonnet formed by long hair overshadowing the forehead. 34 
We see it on the triumphal arch of the Emperor Constantine, as dis- 
tinguishing the Numklian auxiliary horsemen ; 35 and it seems that it 
extended even beyond the limits mentioned by Strabo, since it is 
found upon Egyptian reliefs representing Nubians as well as full- 
blooded Negroes ; for instance, compare "Types," page 249, and figs. 
166, 167, 168, 169, 170, and 171. 

VI. Besides these effigies belonging to the domain of Greek art, 

31 Types of Mankind, p. 136, fig. 38: — Afrique Ancienne, Carthage. 
ffl Katalog einer Sammlung geschnittener Steine, Wien, 1834, p. 11, No. 144. 
33 Strabo, xvii. p. 528. *■ Belloki, Arcus triumph. 

" Pcnicorum, lib. 1, v. 404 




96 ICONOGRAPHIC RESEARCHES 

we find in the " Types" 36 the Egyptian portrait of the famous Cleo- 
patra, which undoubtedly gives us a most charming effigy of this 

refined, sensual, intriguing Queen; 
Fi s- 6 - last scion of an illustrious Mace- 

donian race, who had witnessed at 
her feet Julius Csesar and Mark An- 
tony, and who for a short time might 
well have believed herself the mis- 
tress of the Eastern world.' Never- 
theless, doing full justice to the 
Egyptian artist, we cannot help re- 
marking that, though all the Egyp- 
tian effigies of this Queen, through- 
out her ancient realm, resemble one 
another perfectly — just as the por- 
trait of Queen Victoria has remained 
entirely unaltered on all her gold sovereigns for the last twenty 
years, — Cleopatra's Greek coins show a female head of entirely dif- 
ferent character ; which, if really her portrait, gives us but a poor idea 
of the taste either of Julius Csesar or of M. Antony. This difference 
between the Greek coins and Egyptian effigies, common to all the 
Ptolemies, is rather puzzling, and has until now not yet been satis- 
factorily explained; but Lepsius is expected to treat this question 
fully and frankly in the monographic portion of his great publica- 
tion. 17 In the mean time it is only fair to remark, that the native 
Egyptian portraits of some of these kings, ex. gr. Physcon, agree 
far better with their historical character, than do their effigies on the 
Greek coins ; which are all somewhat idealized, until we reach this 
last Cleopatra, who was evidently a much finer specimen of a Queen 
in reality, than she appears on her medals. 

Having done the work of demolition to my best abilities, allow 
me now to review the human races in respect to their aptitude for 
Art, and to inquire into the distinct and typical characteristics of 
national art among the different types of men, — a study that will 
establish the following facts : 

I. — ■ That whilst some races are altogether unfit for imitative art, 
others are by nature artistical in different degrees : 

II. — That the art of those nations which excelled in painting and 
sculpture, was often indigenous and always national"; losing not 

36 Op.cit., p. 104, fig. 8 : — Rosellini, Monumenti dell' Egitto, M. R., XXII., fig. 82. I 
notice your judicious alteration of the eye. 

" Cf., in the interim, Lepsius, Veber einigeErgebnisseder JEgyptischen Denkmaler fur die 
Kennlniss der Ptolemiiergeschichte, Berlin, 1853, pp. 26, 29, 52. 



ON HUMAN RACES AND THEIR ART. 97 

only its type but likewise its excellence by imitating the art of other 
nations : 

HI. — That imitative art, derived from intercourse with, or con- 
quest by, artistic races, remained barren, and never attained any 
degree of eminence, — that it never survived the external relations to 
which it owed its origin, and died out as soon as intercourse ceased, 
or when the artistic conquerors became amalgamated with the 
unartistic conquered race : 

' IV. — That painting and sculpture are always the result of a pecu- 
liar artistical endowment of certain races, which cannot be imparted 
by instruction to unartistical nations. This fitness, or aptitude for 
art seems altogether to be independent of the mental culture and 
civilization of a people ; and no civil or religious prohibitions can 
destroy the natural impulse of an artistical race to express its feelings 
in pictures, statuary, and reliefs. 

Tours, very truly, 

F. P. 

London, St. Alban's Villas, Highqate Rise, 
October, 1856. 



98 GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 



I. — GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 

" Iconoqraphia statuas onmis generis, protomas, picturas, nrasivaque 
opera describit. Hanc sexcenti celebres opifices olim coluerunt. Imaginum 
amove, inquit Plinius, ftagrasse quosdam testes sunt el Atticus ills Ciceronis, edito 
de his volumine, et Marcus Varro benignissimo invento insertis voluminum suorum 
Joscundilati, nan nominibus tanium septingeniorum illustrium, sed et aliquo modo 
imaginibus, non passus intercidere figuras, aut vetustatem cevi contra homines 
valere." (Fabricius, Bibliographia Anliq., 1716, p. 124.) 

"Whenever the metaphysical Germans speculate about the philo- 
sophy of history, they invariably draw a broad distinction between 
the progressive races (Culturvolker) — to whom mankind is indebted 
for civilization, for the advancement of sciences, for all the forms of 
political administration of society, and for the moral elevation of 
the soul, — and the passive races, who scarcely possess any history of 
their own. All the white and yellow, and a few brown and red 
nations, are put down among the former; the majority of the 
Browns, the hunter-tribes of the Reds, and all the Blacks, being 
classed among the latter. But again, among the progressive races 
there is a very remarkable difference as regards their part in history. 
The Egyptians and Assyrians, the Shemitic races of Phoenicia, 
Palestine and Arabia, the Persians, Greeks, Etruscans and Romans, 
and lastly the Teutonic and neo-Latin nations, whether pure or 
blended with one another and with Celtic elements, took in succes- 
sion the lead of mankind ; whilst the pure Celts, the Sclavonians, 
the Einnie, Turkoman, Tartar and Berber races, remained in the 
background. "We need not say that, going one step farther, we find 
the mixed populations of Great Britain and of North America 
(commonly but wrongly called the Anglo-Saxon race), and the equally 
mixed population of France, to claim to be at the head of the 
modern progressive races ; scarcely to admit the equality of the Ger- 
man proper; and to be fully convinced of their own superiority over 
Italians and Spaniards, Dutch and Scandinavians, Celts and Scla- 
vonians, Hungarians and Einns, rejecting altogether the pretensions 
of Turks, Arabs, Persians and Hindoos, to civilization. This scale 
of national inequality has evidently been construed with regard to 
the political power, the commercial spirit, the literary activity, and 
the application of the results of science to manufactural industry 
among the different races. Considered from the point of view of 
imitative Art, — of painting and sculpture, — the result will be some- 



GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 99 

what different : and whilst it is certain that art has never flourished 
but among the progressive races, we shall find that nations to whom 
we are indebted for some of the most important discoveries, and to 
the highest truths revealed to mankind, are altogether deficient in 
art, — as, for instance, the Shemites without exception ; that others, 
although wielding the most extensive political power, such as the 
Romans of old, the Scandinavian Northmen, the Anglo-Saxons, the 
Sclavonic races, never attained a high development of painting and 
sculpture, and were surpassed by the Greeks of yore, and by the 
Italians and Spaniards, the Germans and Dutch. History teaches 
us that eminence in painting and sculpture is not the result of either 
high mental culture or political power, and that it does not always 
accompany the refinement and wealth of nations. "We find it growing 
out of a peculiar disposition of some nations, predestined as it were for 
art; whilst other races, living under the same social, climatic, and 
political conditions, never rise artistically to represent the outward 
world in colors or in plastic forms. And again, among the artistical 
nations we meet with the most remarkable differences in treating 
the same subjects. Some strive for the most scrupulous reproduc- 
tion of nature, and cling to faithful imitation; others are creative, 
embellishing whatever they touch : some show a deep understanding 
and love of nature ; others concentrate their power exclusively on 
the representation of the human body : some excel by the brilliancy 
and harmony of their coloring ; others charm by their correctness in 
plastical forms : but all of them express their nationality, their pecu- 
liar relation to God, nature and mankind, throughout their works. 
Therefore, even an inexperienced eye catches the difference between 
Egyptian and Assyrian, Indian and Chinese, Greek and Etruscan, 
Italian and German, French and Spanish, art: and the artistically- 
educated student feels no difficulty in discriminating the minute 
distinctions of schools, in each national art ; and generally discovers 
any attempt at forging pictures and statues. The inherent and 
indelible nationality of every monument of art is, in fact, the only 
safeguard against imposition ; since it is just as impossible for 
Gibson or Powers to sculpture an antique statue, and for Sir Charles 
Eastlake or Mr. Ingres to paint a Eaphael (or even a Carlo Dolce, or 
any second-rate Italian picture), as it would have been impossible for 
Alfieri to write a play of Shakespeare, and for any New Englander to 
become the author of a tragedy which could pass for the work of 
Corneille. Still, to establish the fact that art is always national and 
not cosmopolitan, we must pass in review the great artistic races 
from the time of the Egyptian pyramids down to our own days — a 
period of some five thousand years. 



100 GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 



II. — EGYPTIAN ART. 

AiiyvjMovS' Isvai, ho7a>%riv bhbv o^yaxiriv it. 

(Homer, Odvss., iv, 481.) 
"It only remains to say "with Homer, 
To visit Egypt's land, a long and dangerous way." 

(Strabo, lib. xvii.) 

The earliest of all monuments of art carry us back to the cradle of 
our civilization, Egypt, of which we are scarcely accustomed suffi- 
ciently to appreciate the real importance to the history of mankind. 
We speak here not only of its political power and high culture under 
the Pharaohs, nor only of the literary labors of the critical Alexan- 
drines under those Ptolemies who were fond to be protectors of 
Greek science ; but we allude likewise to the fact that, long after 
Egypt had merged into the Roman empire, became converted to 
Christianity, and lost all tradition of independence, still its peculiar 
national character was not swamped, nor its tough energy broken. 
It manifested itself strongly enough in the Athanasian controversy, 
in the Monophysite schism, in the many saints and legends of Chris- 
tian Egypt, and in the most important establishment of anachoret 
and monastic rule which originated in the Thebais, and thence 
spread all over the world, as an evidence of the vitality of that 
nation and of the indelibility of its moral type. 

At the very dawn of history we meet in Egypt with statues and 
bas-reliefs which, according to the hieroglyphic inscriptions, are 
certainly contemporaneous with the builders of the pyramids ; 
though it is rather difficult to designate the precise century before 
our era to which they belong, because the Egyptians made no use of 
any conventional system or astronomical cyclus for their Chronology. 
Mariette's discoveries in the Serapeum at Memphis have proved 
that no Apis-cyclus (equal to 25 years) was ever known to the Egyp- 
tians, 38 as formerly believed by scholars from the interpretation of a 
passage in Plutarch. As to the Sothiae cyclus, it was certainly 
known, but its use for chronology remains more than doubtful. 39 
The Egyptians possessed no historical era ; they dated their public 
documents by the years of each king's reign. With such a 
system the least interruption of the dates vitiates all the series. 

38 Mariette, Renseignments sur les soixanie-quatre Apis, in the Bui. archeol. de V Aihenaum 
Franqaia, May- — Nov., 1855: — Alfred Maury, Des travaux modernes sur l'Egypte 
Ancienne;" Revue des Deux 3Iondes, Sept., 1855, pp. 1060-3. 

39 Buhsen (JEgyptens Stelle, iii. p. 121, seqq.) tries to prove a Sothiao Era of Menephthah ; 
but is not borne out by any astronomical dates on the monuments. Vide also the critical 
discoveries of Biot, infra, Chap. V. 



GENERAL REMARKS OK ICONOGRAPHY. 101 

Unfortunately for our knowledge of Egyptian chronology, 40 the list 
of Dynasties by Manetho has reached us only in mutilated extracts, 
and the ciphers annexed to the names of the sovereigns have evi- 
dently been tampered with. They are not the same in the several 
extracts of Eusebius, Syncellus, and Africanus ; nor do they tally 
with the original hieroglyphic documents. So much, notwithstand- 
ing, we can say with mathematical certainty, — now that the com- 
plete chronology of the XXUhd, or Bubastite, Dynasty has been 
reconstructed by Mariette from the documents of the Serapeum at 
Memphis, — that the 'first year of the reign of Psammeticus I., 
answers to the 94th year of the era of JVabonassar, or to the Julian 
year 654 B. C. The same series of documents places the beginning 
of the reign of Tirhaka, — ■ ally to king Hezekiah against Senna- 
cherib of Assyria, — towards 695 B. C. 41 But here the dates may be 
already uncertain to the extent of one or two years ; and beyond 
them the consecutive series of precise numerals ceases altogether. 
Some further dates have been astronomically determined, but the 
intermediate figures cannot be taken for more than approximate. 
For the XXJJnd dynasty we obtain a synchronism, and a means of 
rectifying chronology, through the conquest of Jerusalem by She- 
shonk L, which happened in the 5th year of Behoboam, king of 
Judah. 43 But even this synchronism does not yield an exact date, 
inasmuch as the chronology of the Book of Kings presents some 
difficulties not yet satisfactorily resolved. 43 Accordingly, Newman 
places the capture of Jerusalem in the year 950 B. C. ; 44 Bunsen in 
the year 962 ; 45 and "Winer in the year 970. 46 At any rate, it is certain 
that king Sheshonk began to reign before the middle of the tenth 
century, B. C. 

An astronomical fact, the heliacal rising of the dog-star, under 
Harnesses JJJ., of the XXth dynasty, recorded in a hieroglyphical in- 
scription at Thebes, defines the epoch of this king, and assigns his 
place, according to the calculation of M. Biot, to the 13th century B. 
C. ; or just to the same period which had been ascribed to him before 
the discovery of this inscription, solely on the approximating calcula- 
tion of the lists as rectified by the monuments. 

40 See for the following, principally De Rouse's Notice Sommaire, Muse'e de Louvre, p. 
19 seqq. 

41 The Hebrew chronology makes it nearer to B. C. 710, and is scarcely reconcilable with 
the Egyptian computation about this synchronism. 

42 Cf. Brugsch, Reiseberichte aus jEgypten. &c, Berlin, 1855 — "Die Halle der Bubas- 
titen-Konigs " at Karnac, pp. 141-4. 

43 Newman, History of the Hebrew Monarchy — Appendix to Chapter IV., on Chronology. 

44 Op. cit. p. 151 and 160. « ^gyptens Stelle, iii. p. 122. 

46 Biblisches Woerterbuch, voce Israel. So likewise Sharpe, Historic Notes on the Books of 
the 0. and N. Testaments, London, 1854, pp. 04, 88. 



102 GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 

For the XLXth dynasty, we have seemingly again a synchronism, 
that of Moses with Ramesses LT., and with Menephthah LT. ; hut it is 
of little value for exact dates, hecause the duration of the govern- 
ment of the Hebrews by their Judges is very uncertain. Biot's 
astronomical calculation is more valuable, with the aid of which we 
may establish that Seti I., father of Ramesses the great, lived about 
1500 B. C — [say 15th century B. 0.]; and hence that the XVIIth 
dynasty began to reign towards the eighteenth century B. C. Never- 
theless, as the Vicomte de Rouge, (whose authority we follow in 
preference to other Egyptologists, since he expresses himself most 
cautiously in dealing with chronological figures, and avoids hypo- 
theses) says, "it would not be astonishing if we should be here 
mistaken to the extent of one or two centuries, inasmuch as the 
historical documents are vitiated, and the hieroglyphical monuments 
incomplete." 

"Thus we have reached," continues de Rouge, "the time of the 
expulsion of the Shepherds, beyond whom no certain calculation is 
as yet possible from the monuments known. The texts do not agree 
how long these terrible guests occupied and ravaged Egypt, and the 
monuments are silent about them. However, their domination 
lasted for a long time, since several dynasties succeeded one another 
before the deliverance, and that is all we know about it. ISTor are 
we better informed concerning the duration of the first empire, and 
we have no certain means for measuring the age of those pyramids 
which bear evidence of the grandeur of the first Egypt. Neverthe- 
less, if we remember that the generations which built them are 
separated from our era, first by the eighteen centuries of the second 
empire, then by the very long period of the Asiatic invasion, and 
lastly by several dynasties of numerous powerful kings, the age of 
the pyramids will not lose anything of its majesty in the eyes of the 
historian, although he be unable to fix it with exact precision." 

It is to such an early period of the history of mankind that some 
of the statues and reliefs of Egypt can now be traced back with cer- 
tainty; and even they do not present us with the rudiments of an 
infantine art, but are actually specimens of the highest artistic char- 
acter. Like Minerva springing forth from the head of Jupiter, a 
full-grown armed virgin, Art in Egypt appears, in the very earliest 
monuments, fully developed, — archaic in some respects, but not at 
all barbarous. 

Through the kindness of MM. de Rouge", Mariette, Deveria, and 
Salzmann, and of Chev. Lepsius at Berlin, and their regard for Mr. 
Gliddon, we are enabled to publish a series of royal and princely 
effigies of the first or Old Empire, carefully copied, often photographi- 



GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 103 

cally, from these original statues and reliefs at the Louvre and other 
Museums. They are the earliest monuments of human art known 
to us ; being portraits of the Egyptian aristocracy at a time preceding- 
Abraham by many centuries. They enable us to form a correct idea 
of Egyptian art in its first phasis, before it became fettered by a 
traditionary hieratic type. In an ethnological respect, they give us 
the true features of the original Egyptians : and it is very remarkable 
that many statues and reliefs, later by more than two thousand 
years, bear exactly the same character; that, again, two thousand 
years subsequently have not changed the national type, — the Fellah 
(peasant) of the present day resembling his ancestors of fifty cen- 
turies ago, viz : the builders of the pyramids, so closely, that his 
Nilotic pedigree never can be seriously questioned henceforward. 

The character of the Egyptian race is most distinctly expressed 
upon its monuments throughout all the phases of its history ; and 
these sculptures of the IVth dynasty differ from those of later ages 
merely in details, not in spirit. Ernest Kenan, the great Shemitic 
philologue, describes that character in the following words: 

"The earliest [Cushite and Hamitic] civilizations stamped with a 
character peculiarly materialistic ; the religious and poetical instincts 
little developed; the artistical feeling rather weak; but the senti- 
ment of elegance very refined ; a great aptitude for handicraft, and 
for mathematical and astronomical sciences; literature practically 
exact, but without idealism; the mind positive, bent on business, 
welfare, and the pleasures ; neither public spirit nor political life ; 
on the contrary, a most elaborate civil administration, such as Euro- 
pean nations never beeame acquainted with, until the Roman epoch, 
and in our modern times." *' 

The Egyptians were eminently a practical people, of so little 
imagination, that in religion they conceived no heroic mythology. 
Whilst their gods were personified abstractions, all of them, with 
the only exception of the Osirian group, stand without life or history. 
In literature the Egyptians never rose above dry historical annals, 
religious hymns, proverbial precepts, poetical panegyrics, and liturgi- 
cal compositions. Epic and dramatic poetry was feeble, 48 romance 

47 Histoire et Systeme compare des Langues Semiliques, Paris, 1855; Ie. partie, p. 474. 

^ The publication of M. de Rough's critical translation of the Sallier Papyrus, containing 
the poetic recital of the Wars of Ramses, 14th century, B. C, against the Asiatic Sheta, or 
Kheia (recently read to the Imperial Institute), will prove that the metrical style of these 
Egyptian canticles frequently resembles Hebrew psalmody. Meanwhile, see some brief 
specimens of hieroglyphical poetry in Birch, Crystal Palace Catalogue, Egypt, 1856 ; pp. 
266-8. 

3 



104 GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 

simple, 49 philosophical speculation tame, 50 whilst critical history seems 
to have been unknown to them. Induction teaches us that the art 
of such a race must be analogous ; truthful, but narrow ; practical, 
but of no high pretensions; and indeed we find, upon close observa- 
tion, that it displays very little variety in its forms ; but within its 
narrow range it is distinguished, however, by the utmost fidelity and 
truthfulness. Ideal heroic types are entirely foreign to Egyptian art; 
we find scarcely any scenes purely mythological, in the abstract sense 
of the term (that is, as admired in Hellenic and Etruscan art), among 
their numerous reliefs or paintings ; the representations of godhead 
and subordinate divinities being always brought into connexion with 
sacrifices and oblations, which almost seem to have been the only 
object of the nation's religion. The king, his pomp, processions, 
and battles, and the individual life, daily occupations, sports and 
pastimes of the Egyptians, remain the favourite subjects of the 
artists who, for more than two thousand years of routine, constantly 
returned to that source, without ever exhausting it, always marking 
their composition with the stamp of truth, and preserving the great- 
est regard for individuality. Accordingly, the statues, whenever 
they represent men, and not gods, are portraits intended to give 
the real, and not the embellished and idealized features of the men 
represented. But, whilst we meet with the greatest variety in 
respect to the faces, the posture of- the statues remains altogether 
stereotyped during all the times of Egyptian history. 

Statuary had, in the valley of the Nile, very few forms of expres- 
sion ; about six or seven, which were repeated over and over again, 
all of them of the most rigid symmetry, without any movement. No 
passion ever enlivened the earnest features, no emotion of the soul 
disturbed the decent composure and archaic dignity imparted by the 
Egyptian sculptor. "No warrior was sculptured in the various atti- 
tudes of attack and defence; no wrestler, no discobolus, no pugilist 
exhibited the grace, the vigour, the muscular action of a man ; nor 

49 As a sample, see De Rough's French rendering of a hieratic payprus which presents 
sundry curious analogies with the story of Joseph, — Revue Archeologique, 1852; vol. ix., 
pp. 385-97. 

60 To judge, that is, by the "Book of the Dead," (Lepsittb, Todtenbuch der JEgypter nach 
dem Hieroglyphischen Papyrus in Turin, Leipzig, 4to, 1842) or as Bkugsch (Sai'-an-Sinsin, sive 
Liber Metempsychosis veterum JEgypliorum, Berlin, 4to, 1851, p. 42) restores Champollion's 
name for it, the "Funereal Ritual," — wherein, amid the recondite puerilities of a celestial 
lodge, with its ordeals, quaint pass-words, and ministering demons, it is evident that an 
Egyptian's idea of a "Future State" in Heaven never soared above aspirations for a repe- 
tition of his terrestrial life in Egypt itself! Be it noted here that M. de Rouge 1 has found 
the chapter " On life after death" on a monument of the XHth dynasty ; thereby establish- 
ing the existence of large portions of this Ritual in ante-Abrahamic days. 



GENERAL REMARKS OK ICONOGRAPHY. 105 

were the beauties, the feeling, and the elegance of female forms dis- 
played in stone : all was made to conform to the same invariable 
model, which confined the human figure to a few conventional 
postures." 51 

Of groups they knew only two, both of them most characteristic. 
Sometimes it is the husband with the wife, seated on the same chair 
on terms of perfect equality, holding one another's hand, or putting 
their arms round one another's waist, in sign of matrimonial happi- 
ness, evidently founded upon monogamy and perfect social equality 
between the sexes. 52 Sometimes again it is the husband, in his 
character of the head of the family, quietly sitting on a chair, accom- 
panied by the standing figures of his wife and children, sculptured 
as accessories, and considerably smaller in size than the husband 
and father. 

As to the single statues, they are either standing erect, the arms 
hanging down to the thighs in a straight line (though occasionally 
the right hand holding a sceptre, whip, or other tool, is raised to the 
chest), the left foot always stepping forward ; or the figure is seated, 
with the hands resting on the knees, or held across the breast. 
Another attitude is that of a person kneeling on the ground, and 
holding the shrine of some deity before him. The representation of 
a man squatting on the ground and resting his arms upon his knees, 
which are drawn up to his chin, is the most clumsy of the Egyptian 
forms, if the most natural posture to the race, being perpetuated to 
this day by the Fellaheen when resting themselves ; whilst the statues 
in a crouching position are the most graceful for their natural naivete. 
If we add to these few varieties of positions the stone coffins, imita- 
ting the mummy lying on its back, and swaddled in its clothes, we 
have exhausted all the forms of Egyptian statuary. Specimens of 
these six attitudes, all of them equally rigid and symmetrical, being 
found among the earliest monuments of the empire from the IVth 
to the XLTIth dynasty, it cannot be doubted that Egyptian statuary 
added no new form to their primitive sculptural types during the 
long lapse of nearly thirty centuries, which wrought certainly some 
variety into the details, but not upon the forms. In fact, the statue 

W Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson, Popular account of the ancient Egyptians, II. 272. There 
are some partial exceptions to the rigor of this rule, such as the "Wrestlers at Benihassan," 
the "Musicians at Tel-el-amarna," "Ramesses playing chess at Medeenct-Haboo," the 
same monarch "spearing the Scythian chief" at Aboosimbel, an occasional group in grand 
battle-tableaux, various scenes of negro captives, &c. ; but they appear to be accidental, 
or perhaps instinctive, efforts of individual artists to escape from the conventional trammels 
prescribed by theocratic art. In the folio plates of Rosellini, Champollion, Cailleaud, Prisse, 
and Lepsius — especially the last two authorities — such instances may be found. 

52 Idem, II. 224. 



106 GENERAL EEMAEKS ON ICONOGEAPHT. 

was in Egypt never emancipated from architecture. 53 It was sculp- 
tured for a certain and determinate place, always in connection with 
a temple, palace, or sepulchre, of which it became a subservient 
ornamental portion, an architectural member as it were, like the pair 
of obelisks placed ever in front of the propyleia, or the columns sup- 
porting a pronaos. This poverty of forms, and their constantly 
recurring monotony, make the inspection of large Egyptian collec- 
tions as tiresome to the great bulk of visitors, as the review of a 
Russian regiment is to the civilian ; one figure resembles the other, 
and only the closer investigation of an experienced eye descries a 
difference of style and individuality. 

The bas-reliefs were not, for the Egyptians, so much independent 
works of art, as architectural ornaments, and means for conveying 
knowledge, answering often the purpose of a kind of vignettes or 
illustrations of hieroglyphical inscriptions. They record always some 
defined, historical, religious, or domestic scene, without pretension 
to any allegorical double-meaning, or esoteric symbolism. Beauty 
remained with their hierogrammatic artists less important than dis- 
tinctness, the correctness of drawing being sacrificed to convention- 
alisms of hieratic style ; but, on the other hand, a general truthful- 
ness of the representation was peculiarly aimed at. The unnatural 
mannerism of the Egyptian bas-relief manifests itself principally in 
the too high position of the ear, 54 and in representing the eye and 
chest as in front view, whilst the head and lower part of the body are 
drawn in profile. 65 Nevertheless, this constant mannerism and many 
occasional incorrectnesses are blended with the most minute appre- 
ciation of individual and national character. It is impossible not at 
once to recognize the portraits of the kings upon their different 
monuments ; and we alight on reliefs where some of the figures are 
so carelessly drawn as to present two right or two left hands to the 
spectator, yet combined with such characteristic effigies of negroes,, of 
Shemites, of Assyrians, of Nubians, &c, that they remain superior to 
the representations of human races by the Greeks and Romans. 
This general truthfulness applies to Egyptian art from the very first 
dawn of history, throughout all the subsequent periods, down to the 
time of the Roman conquest. But whilst the principal features of 
art remained stationary, the eye of the art-student finds many 
cbanges in details, and these constitute the history of Egyptian art. 

53 Cf. Wilkinson, Architecture of the Ancient Egyptians, London, 1853. 

64 Mobton, Cran. JEgypt., Philad., 1844, pp. 26-7; and "inedited MSS." in Types of Man- 
kind, p. 318: — Pruner, Die UeberbkibselderAltayyptishchenMenschenrage,Mimchen,lS4:(i,ii.6. 

55 For a ludicrous example, see the " 37 Prisoners at Benihassan," in Rosellini, M. R. 
XXVI — VIII ; of the remote age of the Xllth dynasty. 



GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 



107 



The proportions of the statues in the time of the Old Empire [say 
from the 35th century b. c, down to the 20th, 56 ] are short and heavy; 
the figures look, therefore, somewhat awkward; hut, on the whole, 
they are conceived with considerable feeling of truth, and executed 
with the endeavour to obtain anatomical correctness. The principal 
forms of the body, and even its details, the skull, the muscles of the 
chest and of the knees, are nearly always correctly sculptured in close 
but not servile imitation of nature. The shape of the eye is not yet 
disfigured by a conventional frame, nor is the ear put too high ; but 
the fingers and toes evidently offered the greatest difficulties to the 
primeval Egyptian artists. They commonly failed to form them 
correctly ; the simplicity and exactitude displayed in sculpturing the 
face and body scarcely ever extended to the hands and feet, which 
are blunt and awkward. 

The earliest of all the statues now extant in the world, as far as 
we know, is the efhgy of Kam-ten, or Homten, a "royal kinsman" 
of the md dynasty, found in his tomb at Abooseer, and now in the 
Berlin Museum. The following wood-cut [7] is a faithful reduction of 
this statue's head, characterized by a 
good-natured expression, without any 
mannerism or conventional type about 
the features ; the eye is correctly, and 
the mouth naturally drawn ; not yet 
twisted into the stereotyped unmean- 
ing smile of the later periods. 

It is interesting to compare the 
head of this statue with the low-relief 
portrait [8] of the same prince from the 
same tomb, in order to perceive the 
difference between the artistic con- 
ception of a statue and of a relief 
in Egypt. The relief portrait is evi- Kam-ten, Statue 



Fig. 7. 




66 As previously stated, in the present impossibility of attaining, for times anterior to the 
XVIIth dynasty, any precise chronology, we shall make use herein of the vague term cen- 
turies, when treating on events anterior to the age of Solomon, taken at B. C. 1000. The 
numerical system of Chev. Lepsius furnishes the scale preferred by us, which is defined in 
Types of Mankind, p. 689. His arrangement of Egyptian dynasties may be consulted in 
Briefe aus JEgyplen, JEthioplen unci der Halbinsel des Sinai, Berlin, 1852, pp. 364-9; of 
which the elegant English translation by the Misses Horner (Bohn's Library, 1853) contains 
the later emendations of this learned Egyptologist. 

6 * Communicated in lithograph by Chev. Lepsius to Mr. Gliddon ; together with our sub- 
sequent Nos., 8, 9, 10, and other heads that space precludes us from inserting; but for the 
important use of all which, in these iconographic and ethnological studies, we beg to tender 
to the Chevalier our joint acknowledgments. 



108 



GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 




Kam-teu, Belief. 
Fig. 9. 



dently more conventional. It is not a free artistical imitation of 
Fig. 8. nature, the hand of the sculptor heing 

fettered by traditionary rules. This 
conventionalism of the reliefs not 
being applicable to statues, is an evi- 
dence that sculpture in Egypt began 
with the relief, which again grew out 
of the simple outline. The principal 
difference between the two portraits 
is, that the eye is not fore-shortened 
in the relief, whilst the lips are 
too long; still, the peculiar raising 
of the angles of the mouth is not 
conventional in the first period of 
Egyptian art. 

The red granite statue of prince 
Bet-mes, [9] in the British Museum, 
(No. 60, A,) an officer of State, 
"king's relation," of the same 
period, displays a similar artistical 
character; clumsy proportions, but 
a close observation of nature, 
without any tendency to embellish 
or to idealize. It is, what it was 
intended to be, a faithful portrait. 
The homely relief-head [10] of an- 
other "royal relative," Ey-meei, of 
the IVth dynasty, from the Berlin 
Museum, possesses such a striking 
individuality of character that, in 
spite of the conventional repre- 
sentation of the eye, we cannot 
doubt for a moment its resem- 
blance to this royal kinsman 
of king Cheops - Suphis, whose 
tomb is the great pyramid of 
Geezeh. 

We now have the pleasure of 
submitting to the reader, in a 
series of lithographic plates, por- 
traits as yet unique in the history 
Et-meei, Relief. of Art, which for antiquity, inte- 

rest, beauty, and rareness, surpass everything hitherto known. 




Bet-mes, Statue. 
Fig. 10. 




pin. 



m 





M.Solzmannpiioto6.'P.aris 



Ancient Scribe' (Ante,. PI I.') -Profile 





- JSJraK 



Same head, altered into a modern Fellah. 



Giidikn.resterarFlilai 



F SDTival &. Co. lila press PhiT 



GENERAL REMARKS N" ICONOGRAPHY. 109 

Particulars concerning the unrivalled and still-inedited discoveries, 
during the years 1851-54 at Memphis, of M. Auguste Mariette, 
now one of the Conservateurs of the Louvre Museum, are supplied 
by our collaborator Mr. Gliddon [Chapter V. infra]. With that 
frank liberality which is so honorable to scientific men, MM. de 
Rouge, Mariette, and Deveria, not merely permitted Mrs. Gliddon 
to copy whatever, in that gorgeous Museum, might become available 
to the present work ; but the last-named Egyptologist kindly pre- 
sented her husband with the photographic originals (taken by M. 
Deveria himself from these scarcely-unpacked statues, — May, 1855,) 
from which our copies have been transferred directly to the stone, 
without alteration in any perceptible respect. In these complaisant 
facilities, the very distinguished photographer of Jerusalem, M. Aug. 
Salzmann, also volunteered his skilful aid ; and we reproduce [see 
PI. LL] the facsimile profile of the " Scribe," due to his accurate 
instrument. Not to be outdone in generosity towards their trans- 
atlantic colleague, Chev. Lepsius, who had just been surveying these 
" nouveautes archeologiques" at the Louvre, subsequently forwarded 
from Berlin, to Mr. Gliddon in London, a complete series of archaic 
Egyptian portraits, drawn on stone also from photographs, which 
included likewise copies of those already obtained from M. Mari- 
ette's Memphite collection. Such are some of those unrequitable 
favors through which we are enabled to be the first in laying docu- 
ments so precious before fellow-students of ethnology. Their power- 
ful bearing upon the question of permanence of type in Egypt during 
5000 years, — upon that of the effects of amalgamation among dis- 
tinct types, in elucidation of the physiological law that the autoch- 
thonous majority invariably, in time, absorbs and effaces the foreign 
minority ; and as supplying long-deficient criteria whereby to analyze 
and compare the ethnic elements of less historical nations than the 
Egyptians, — these interesting points fall especially within the pro- 
vince of Dr. ZSTott ; and he has discussed them in his Prefatory Re- 
marks to this volume. 

With these brief indications, we proceed to test our theory of the 
principles that characterize the Art of different nationalities ; calling 
to mind, with regard to these most antique specimens of all statuary, 
that, until their arrival at Paris in the autumn of 1854, it had 
scarcely been suspected that the primordial Egyptians attained the 
art of making statues " ronde-bosse" much before the XLTth dynasty 
[about 2200 b. c.]. The authors of " Types of Mankind," in their 
wide investigation of monographic data, were unable to produce any 
Nilotic sculpture more ancient than bas-reliefs. 58 Exceptional doubts, 

58 Op. oil., pp. 241-3, PI. I.— IV. 



110 GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 

to this current opinion on the relative modernness of Egyptian 
statuary, were then entertained chiefly by Mr. Birch — who had 
already classified, as appertaining to the Old Empire, various archaic 
fragments in the British Museum, — by Chev. Lepsius, when publish- 
ing a few mutilated statues among the early dynasties of the Denk- 
maler, — and by the Vicomte de Rouge, who wrote in 1852 ; 59 " Trois 
statues de la galerie du Louvre (nos. 36, 37, 38) presentent un excel- 
lent specimen de la sculpture de ces premiers ages. Dans ces mor- 
ceaux, uniques jusqu'iei et par consequent inestimables, le type des 
hommes a quelque chose de plus trapu et de plus rude ; la pose est 
d'une grande simplicity; quelques parties rendent la nature avec 
verite ; mais Ton sent deja qu'une loi hieratique a regie les attitudes 
et va ravir aux artistes une partie precieuse de leur liberte." 

It must, therefore, be gratifying to the authors of the precursory 
volume to the present, to find their doctrine, "that the primitive 
Egyptians were nothing more nor less than — EGYPTIANS," 80 so 
incontestably confirmed by a group of statues which did not reach 
Paris for six months after the publication of their researches ; and 
we may now rejoice with those archaeologists, whose acumen had 
already foreshadowed the discovery of beautiful statuary belonging 
to the early days of the pyramids, that, henceforward, the series of 
Egyptian art continues, in an unbroken chain, from the 35th century 
B. C. down to long after the Christian era. 

Prince Sepa [Plate HI., fig. 1], and his wife ISTas, or ISTesa, [fig. 2], 
are the first we shall examine among these statues of the Louvre ; 
from Lepsius's copy. They are likewise somewhat clumsy as regards 
the general proportions ; but parts of the body, for instance the 
knees, are sculptured with an anatomical correctness superior to 
that of the monuments of the great Ramses. The statue of Shbmka 
[Plate IV.] "superintendent of the royal domains" (IVth or Vlth 
dynasty), seated between the small-sized standing figures of princess 
Ata, his wife, and their son Knem, is an excellent illustration of 
incipient elongation together with greater elegance of the artistical 
canon. In spite of the awkward composition, it attracts our atten- 
tion powerfully, since the face teems with life and individuality; 
whilst the forms are correct in the main, but lamentably stumpy 
and clumsy about the bauds and feet. [See Plate V, fig. 2.] 

The head of a Priest, Pher-nefer, or Pahoo-er-nefer [Plate V., 
fig. 1 ], " Superintendent of the timber-cutters and of agriculture," 
found together with Shemka in the same sepulchre, is uncommonly 

69 Notice dee Monuments exposes dans la galerie d'antiquitSs eigypliennes (Salle du rez-de-chaus- 
sSe), au MusSe du Louvre, Paris, 1852, pp. 7-8. 
«> Types of Mankind, p. 245. 



.-~ :- I 



PI. III. 







.,# 






Sepa. 



'■.■:'■ .'■■."■-;... 






I 



ill 



: 



■•■ 




; : -& 
^ 




II ■ ' ■ 
I 

4 I '+ v*" 




"\ 



! I iff ff ' ' ' 



,M. 



Nesa. 

'Louvre Museum. 





PL IV. 




. 




Knem. Skhem-ka. Ata 

(Luuvre Museum.) 



GENERAL REMARKS OK ICONOGRAPHY. Ill 

well moulded; but the crouching statuette of a "Scribe," — cele- 
brated at the Louvre as "le petit bonhomme" — is the crowning 
masterpiece of primitive art revealed through Mariette's exhuma- 
tions. It is from this venerable tomb of the Vth dynasty, 5000 
years old, which the later constructors, (above 2000 years ago,) of the 
ancient Avenue of Sphinxes leading to the Memphite Serapeum had 
cut through and walled-up again. The material is white limestone, 
colored red ; which even to its trifling abrasions is reproduced as a 
most appropriate frontispiece to this work [Plate I.]. The profile 
view [Plate II., fig. 1] exhibits the excellence of its workmanship, 
no less than the purest type of an ancient Egyptian. Beneath it 
[fig. 2], Mr. Gliddon has repeated the same head, with the sole 
addition of the moustache and short beard, and the mutation of the 
head-dress into the quilted-cotton skull-cap of the modern peasantry ; 
and thus we behold the perfect preservation of a typical form of man 
through 5000 years of time, in the familiar effigy of a living Fellah ! 

"We are not reduced to mere conjectures," comments the Conservator of the Imperial 
Louvre Museum, "concerning the figure of the crouching Scribe, placed in the middle of 
the hall (Salle civile.) 61 It was found in the tomb of Skhem-ka with the figures collected 
together in the hall of the most ancient monuments (Salle des Monuments.) It appertains, 
therefore, to the Vth or the Vlth dynasty. The figure, so to say, is speaking : this look 
which amazes was obtained by a very ingenious combination. In a piece of opaque white 
quartz is encrusted a pupil of very transparent rock-crystal, in the centre of which is 
planted a little metallic ball. The whole eye is fixed in a bronze leaf which answers for 
both eyelids. The sand had very happily preserved the color of all the figures in this tomb. 
The movement of the knees and the slope of the loins are above all remarkable for their 
correctness . all the traits of the face are strongly stamped with individuality ; it is evident 
that this statuette was a portrait." 

These, with the beautiful head of another Egyptian, long m the 
Louvre, but unclassed until 1854, [Plate VI.] ^ of perhaps the same 
period, exceed in artistic interest all the monuments of the Nile-val- 
ley ; and the speaking expression of their countenances invariably 
catches the eye of every visitor of the Egyptian Gallery at Paris. 
Not that they approach ideal sculptured beauty, such as we are 
accustomed to meet with in Greek statuary ; on the contrary, there 
is not a spark of ideality in either of the two representations ; their 

61 De Rouge, Notice Sommaire des Monumens egypliens exposes dans les galeries du Mush du 
Louvre, Paris, 18mo., 1855, p. 66. One further observation, instead of being any way em- 
bellished in our Plate I., our copy, obtained through the heliotype, is defective in the legs; 
which, projecting in advance of the upper part of the body, are heavier and less propor- 
tionate than in the stone original ; but possessing no measurements for their reduction, we 
have not felt at liberty to deviate from M. Deveria's photograph. 

62 The following is M. Deveria's note on this gem of antique art: — "Buste provenant 
d'une statue de l'ancien art memphite, contemporaine des pyramides. Pierre calcaire, pein- 
ture rouge, grandeur naturelle." Paris, Louvre Museum, 30th May, 1855. 



112 GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 

type is neither grand nor handsome ; but they are truthful and most 
lively portraits of Egyptians, stamped with such a striking individu- 
ality, as to leave the impression that they must have resembled their 
originals, notwithstanding that the imitation of nature is with them 
not at all painfully scrupulous, and rather evinces considerable 
artistical tact in the execution. The correctness of the position of 
the ear in these early Egyptian monuments is peculiarly interesting, 
since it confirms the observation of Dr. Morton, before alluded to, 
that its misplacement on the later and more ordinary monuments is 
not founded upon strict imitation of nature, but that it belongs alto- 
gether to conventional hieratic mannerism. 

The relief portrait of king Men-ka-her, of the Vth dynasty [Plate 
~VTL) — [say, about 30 centuries b. c] certainly deserves a place of 
honor as the earliest royal etEgy in existence, not mutilated in its 
features. 63 It was found, 1851-4, by M. Mariette, on the lower side 
of a square calcareous stone employed by later hands in a construe 
tion of the XlXth Dynasty [14th century B. c] in the Serapeium of 
Memphis. The stone belonged originally to a different monument, 
probably destroyed by the Hyksos, the ruins of which were thus 
adopted for building materials by a posterior and irreverent age, — 
just as Mehemet Ali and his family have destroyed Pharaonic and 
Ptolemaic temples for the construction of barracks and factories, out 
of stones Id scribed with the signs of a much higher civilization than 
that of Egypt's present rulers. 64 It is remarkable that the ear of 
Men-ka-her is placed too high on tbis relief, whereas on the relief of 
the "royal daughter" Heta (IVth Dynasty), lithographed by Lep- 
sius for the Denkmaler, it is entirely correct. 

The greatest pains have been taken to present a correct facsimile 
of this ante-Abrahamic Pharaoh's beautiful face. The original was 
stamped, drawn, and colored at the Louvre, by Mrs. Gliddon ; and 
the shade of paper on which it is lithographed, is intended to resemble- 
that of the stone, which has been divested of its pristine colors. 

Under the X 1 1 tb Dynasty [b. c. 22 centuries] the expression of 
statues becomes peculiarly refined, and the short and clumsy propor- 
tions are more elongated. "It seems," says De Eouge, 65 "that in 
the course of centuries the race has become thinner and taller, under 
the influence of climate," — or perhaps by the infusion of foreign 

63 Those of Shupho and others at Wadee Magara are rather effigies than likenesses, and 
are too abraded to be relied on. 

64 Gliddon, Appeal to the antiquaries of Europe on the destruction of the monuments of Egypt, 
London, 1841: — Prisse d'Avennes, Collections d'Antiquites egyptiennes au Kaire, ReTue Ar- 
ch^ologiqne, 16 Mars, 1846. 

65 Notice Som., p. 24: — Id., Rapport sur les Coll. egyptiennes en Europe, 1851, p 14. 



■ 






•?> 



Pahou-er-nowre. 






5 
1 



Pl.V. 



Skhem-ka. [ Profile.) 

i Li/iwre Museum.) 




PI. VI. 



.-*■-■ J 



m 



" ^- fa..'.. ^. 






(Louvre Museum. 



GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 113 

Shemitic blood, suggests the ethnologist. I do not dare to decide 
this question, but I simply state the fact, that not only in Egypt but 
likewise in Greece, and later again at Constantinople, the archaic 
representations were positively shorter ; and that each successive 
canon of art extended the legs as well as all the lower parts of the 
body in relation to the upper ones. Thus the Selinuntian reliefs are 
shorter than the statues of ^Egina ; which again are shorter than the 
canon of Polycletes ; whilst the canon of Lysippus is still longer. 66 
The barbarous figures upon the triumphal arch of Constantine are so 
short that they resemble dwarfs ; at the same time that the human 
body under Justinian and his successors becomes, on the reliefs, by 
full one-eighth too long. 

Contemporaneously with the more elegant proportions of the sta- 
tues of the "XTTth Dynasty, the column makes its appearance in 
Egyptian architecture. In the hypogea of Beni-Hassan we behold 
even the prototype of the fluted Doric column. 67 The bas-reliefs of 
this Dynasty are more beautifully and delicately carved than they 
ever were at other dates in Egypt ; the movement of the figures is so 
truthful, and, in spite of the conventional formation of the eye, chest, 
and ear, so artistically conceived, that we are led to expect much 
more from the progressive development of Egyptian art than it really 
accomplished. The glorious dawn was not followed by the bright 
day it promised. Art culminated under Sesortasen I. [22 cent. b. a], 
the splendid leg of whose granite statue is at Berlin. It was delicate 
and refined, but the feeling of ideal beauty remained unknown to the 
Egyptian race, and the freedom of movement in the reliefs was never 
transferred to the statues, nor did the relief become emancipated 
from the thraldom of hieratic conventionalism in the details of the 
human body. The development of art ever continued to be imperfect 
and unfinished in the valley of the Nile. 

There are but very few statues of this period (XTTth Dynasty) 
extant in the collections of Europe ; monuments closely preceding 
the invasion of the Hyksos, and therefore more exposed to their 
ravages, belong to the rarest specimens of Egyptian art. The 
(inedited) head of prince Amenemha, [11] governor of the west of 
Egypt, in the time of the XTT th Dynasty, copied from his dark-basalt 
statue in the British Museum, and the portrait of king Nefer-Hetep 
I., of the XLTIth Dynasty [Plate VLTJ, fig. 2, from the Denkmaler~], 
may give those interested in these minute comparisons an idea of the 
beauty and delicacy of that period, whilst with Amenemha even the 

66 See principally K. 0. Mijller, Handbuch der Archceologie, <S 92-4, 96, 99, and 322 ; and 
Pliny, Histor. Nat., xxxiv. 19, 206. 

61 Lepsius, Colonncs-piliers en Egypte, Annal. de l'lnst. Arche'ol., Rome, 1838. 

8 



114 



GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 



Fig. 11. 




Amenemha — Statue. 



toes are artistically represented. King Eefer-Hetep's ear, however, 

is placed too high, the earliest instance 
of such an abnormity in an Egyptian 
statue. 

The invasion of the nomad Hyksos, 
between the XTTTth and XVXTth Dynas- 
ties, whether Arab and Phoenician She- 
mites, as commonly believed, or perhaps 
Turanians (Scythians, Turkomans), as 
we might guess from the fact that they 
were a people of horsemen, 68 interrupted 
the development of Egyptian art and 
civilization for several centuries. Their 
reign is marked by destruction and ruins, 
not by works of art or of public utility ; still their irruption benefited 
the valley of the Mle through their introduction of the most impor- 
tant of all auxiliary domesticated animals, the horse, unknown to 
primeval Arabia, and to Egypt previously to the Hyksos, but appear- 
ing on the reliefs of the Dynasty which overcame the invaders. 

The XVTIth Dynasty of Aahmes 69 and his successors snapped the 
foreign yoke asunder, and expelled the nomades. Art revived again. 
The restoration in public life was as thorough-going as that of Erance 
under the Bourbons ; the reign of the foreign intruders was altogether 
ignored, and scarcely mentioned in the records but for its overthrow. 
In their canons ro of art, this New Empire tried to imitate the style 
of the XLTth and XTTT th Dynasty; but the spirit which manifests 
itself on the monuments of the XVDZth Dynasty is different from 
that of the earlier periods. Instead of the refined elegance which 
reigned under the Sesortasens, we encounter more grandeur in the 
New Empire, — somewhat incorrect and conventional, and less atten- 
tive to nature than in the earlier monuments, but always impressive. 
During the victorious period between Thutmosis I. and Bexen-Aten, 

68 Pickering, The Races of Men, vol. ix. of the XT. S. Explor. Ezped., 1848. •' On the 
introduced plants and animals of Egypt:" — Gliddon, Otia JEgypliaca, London, 1849, p. 50. 

69 The Hyksos are beginning, at last, to emerge from historical darkness. "La lecture 
du papyrus No. 1 de la collection Sallier a reVele" dernierement a M. de Rouge' une des men- 
tions longtemps cherch^es. Le papyrus s'est trouve" etre un fragment d'une histoire de la 
guerre entreprise par le roi de la The'baide contre le roi pasteur Apapi. Cette guerre se ter- 
mina sous Amosis (Aahmes), le monarque suivant, par l'expulsion des strangers." 
(Alfred Maury, Revue des Deux Mondes, Sept. 1855, p. 1063). 

70 1 use the term "canon," in the sense adopted by Lepsius (Auswahl, Leipzig, fol. 1840 
— Plate " Canon der iEgyptisehen Proportionen "), and since so well classified into three 
epochas of artistic variation in the DenJcmaler; — by Birch (Gallery of Antiquities selected 
from the British Museum, Part II., PI. 33, p. 81 ;) — and by Bonomi, on the canon of Vitru- 
vius Pollio (The Proportions of the Human Figure, London, 8vo., 1856). 



<e sf 



. 









PI. VII. 



;■ 






\ 



Men- ka-her. _ V* Dynasty. 



( Louvre Museum.' 



GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 



115 



recently identified as Manetho's Achencheres, it nearly rose to beauty, 
attaining its culmination under the reign of Amenophis the ELI. 
Though the eye is enclosed in a peculiar conventional frame, while 
the lips invariably smile, the muscles of the chest, belly, and arms, 
are less distinctly marked, and the knees are incorrect; yet, notwith- 
standing these defects, the individuality of the monarchs and princes 
whose statues adorn our Museums is most expressively rendered, par- 
ticularly among some of the collection at Turin. Colossuses begin 
to be sculptured; and the idea of grandeur which pervades these 
monuments seeks an expression in external size. 

The following portraits in wood-cut, reduced from Lepsius's beau- 
tiful lithographs, sufficiently illustrate the style of the XVIIth Dyn. 



Fig. 12. 



Fig. 13. 





Thotmes I. 



Thotmes III. 



which, in the Chevalier's chronology, comprises the epoch of Abra- 
ham. I regret, however,, that the engraver, unskilled in Egyptian 




116 GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 

style, lias failed to reproduce the harmonious delicacy of the originals. 
They can be consulted in the Denkmaler. 71 

Besides these four royal heads none is more interesting for the 

ethnologist than a fifth (P late VUI, fig. 
Flg- 16 ' 1], not only for the beautiful carving 

of the expressive features of the 
Queen-mother of that Dynasty, but 
peculiarly because it proves with how 
little foundation Nofre-Ari has been 
taken for a negro princess ! She was 
always recorded with great veneration 
by her descendants, and often por- 
trayed by them in company with 
king Aahmes, the founder of the 
Dynasty and liberator of Egypt, and 
in many of those reliefs her face is 
colored black, 7 ' 2 owing to some reason 
Akhen-aten. unknown to us ; her features, however, 

as well in reliefs as in statues, belong 
to that " Caucasian" class termed Shemitic. In the reign of the 
heretic Bexen-Aten, Akhenaten, the monotheistic worshipper of 
the sun's disk — whom some imagine to be Joseph's Pharaoh. — art 
is still more individual and characteristic, — so much so, as to border 
on caricature and ugliness ; for instance, in the portrait of the king 
himself; 73 [16] of whom a most beautiful statuette adorns the Salle 
historique du Louvre. 

71 Also, from Rosellini's copies, in Types of Mankind, pp. 145-51. 

72 Thus for instance in Osburn, Monumental history of Egypt, II., Frontispiece — reduced 
from IiEPSius, Denkmaler aus JEgypien, Abth. III., Bl. 1. 

[Compare her likeness in Types of Mankind, p. 134, fig. 33; and p. 145, fig. 45; with 
note 123, p. 718. Nestor L'Hote has somewhere conjectured, that, when this sacred 
queen is painted black, she appears after death in the character of " Isis funfebre" — figura- 
tive of her nether world espousal bythe black Osiris, lord of Hades; and this idea, of a 
" black Isis," was perpetuated, until last century, through our European middle-ages, in the 
many basaltic statues of that goddess, represented suckling the new-born Horus, imported 
from Egypt at great cost, which superstition consecrated in many Continental churches as 
images of the black Virgin and her Son. Cf. Maury's Lcgendes picuses du Moyen-Age, 
Paris, 1843, p. 38, note 2; and Millin.— G. R. G] 

73 types of Mankind, p. 147, fig. 55; pp. 170-2; and notes Nos. 151, 193-7. 

[More recent researches, here again, are removing some of the unaccountable embarrass- 
ments which the strange personage, in his name, epoch, and physiological peculiarities, has 
occasioned, for 25 years (L'Hote, Lellres ecrites d'figypte en 1838 el 1839, Paris, 1840; pp. 
53-78), among Egyptologists. It now seems certain, 1st, (Brugsch, Reiseberiehle, p. 188: 
— Maury, Revue des Deux Mondes, Sept., 1855, p. 1068: — Mariette, Bulletin Archeologigue 
de V Athenceum Francois, June, 1855, pp. 56—57), that, instead of Bexen-alen, his name 
should be read Akhenaten ; through which melioration he becomes assimilated to the two 
.Ax/mxtyii of Manetho's lists; — and 2d, possible, that his "anomalous features," as Nott 



PI. VIII. 




Aahmes-nofh-ari. 



■Si 







i'/ 



>* 



*"■ 



;"' 









Nefer-hetep I. 

( Berlin Museum .) 



GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 117 

Under the long reign of the great conqueror Ramesses LT., the 
Sesostris of the Greeks, as well as under his successor Menephtah, 
II. (possibly, as Lepsius considers, the Pharaoh of the Exodus), there 
is a considerable falling off from the accomplished forms of the pre- 
ceding periods. Egyptian artists now indulge merely in external 
grandeur, whilst expression and individuality are neglected. The 
taste for colossal statuary of enormous size, which always announces 
' an inroad of barbarism into art, prevails in the time of the great 
Conqueror. The artist no longer aims to create satisfaction, but 
only to excite wonder in the heart of a spectator. The overcoming 
of mechanical difficulties becomes his highest goal ; — a certain sign 
that engineer's work is more appreciated by the people than artistic 
merit. It is remarkable that the deterioration of style, which thence- 
forward continues for many centuries, appears just under the reign 
of Ramesses II., who brought Egypt into close contact with Asiatic 
nations through matrimonial alliances 74 and by conquest: in confirm- 
ation of which Asiatic infiltration, we perceive that, about his 
time, several words, avowedly Shemitic, were introduced into the 
body of the Egyptian language, 75 and Asiatic divinities were im- 
ported into the Egyptian pantheon; thus for instance Atesh, or 
Analha, the goddess of love, adored on the banks of the Euphrates, 
had temples dedicated to her at Thebes ; 76 Baal entered into Ni- 
lotic theognosy; Astarte soon after had a Phoenician temple at 
Memphis ; the goddess Kioun-t, with her companion Renpo, appears 
on steles. 77 But this intercourse with foreign nations, and phara- 
onic domination over a portion of Asia, exercised no good influence 

and I designated them, in Types, proceed from emasculation; otherwise, that, at some period 
of his adult age, he became (not voluntarily like Origen, who was imbued with Matthew 
xix. 12) an Eunuch; which probable circumstance would also explain the condign ven- 
geance wreaked by him on the god Amun and its votaries, to whom he doubtless owed his 
treble voice. My own experiences during 28 years in the Levant entirely corroborate the 
view taken [loc. cit.) by Marietter — 

" Nous avons, de notre temps m6me, quelques exemples de ces alliances. Dans ce cas, 
les infortunes que la civilisation musulmane admet dans son sein a. de si riSvoltantes condi- 
tions, £pousent des veuves, leurs compatriotes ou leurs allie'es, aux enfants desquelles ils 
transmettent les b<ine'nces des charges eleve'es que, malgre' leur mutilation, il leur est permis 
de remplir. II est probable que si Akhenaten gprouva re'ellement le malheur dont ses traits 
Eemblent re'veMer l'eVidence, ce fut pendant les guerres d'Ame'nophis III au milieu des 
peuplades du Sud.' L'usage de mutiler les prisonniers et les blesses est, parmi ces peu- 
plades, aussi ancien que le monde." — G. R. G.] 

74 He married the daughter of his greatest enemy, the king of the Khetas, (Hittites ?), 
Shemitic Asiatics. 

75 Bikch, Crystal Palace Catalogue, p. 251. 

76 De Rodge, Notice sommaire, p. 16. 

77 Lanci, Letlre & M. Prisse a" Avenues, Paris, 1847, pp. 17—20, PI. II.: — and Prisse, 
Continuation des Monuments de Champollion, 1848, fol. 



118 



GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 



Fig. 17. 




on Egyptian art. It is at this period that the misplacement of the 

ear becomes habitual with statues. The 
elegant youthful Ramesses of the Tu- 
rin Museum, and the excellent colossus 
from the so-called Memnonium at Thebes, 
(Belzoni's), now in the British Mu- 
seum, are nevertheless well sculptured; 
reminding us of the better school of de- 
sign ; but the colossus at Metrahenny 
(Memphis), 78 and principally the gigantic 
statues of Ibsambul, 79 [17] begin to be 
heavy and incorrect, remarkable only for 
their monstrous size. The gradual decline 
is marked by the position of the ear: right 
on the earlier statues, it is too high at Me- 
trahenny, and resembles horns at Ibsambul. 
External grandeur, however, cannot make up for the decline of 
artistic feeling and want of careful finish. If we examine the monu- 
ment of Ramesses, we get involuntarily the impression that the artists 
of this period were always hurried on by royal command, without 
ever having sufficient time fully to complete their task. A sketchy 
roughness is always visible in the later works of Ramesses, blended 
with a conventional mannerism. Art has degenerated into manu- 
facture. 

The reliefs of Ramesses Eld (XXth dynasty), and the following 
Ramessides, together with the monuments of Sheshonk, and his 
(XXIId) dynasty, are still less significant. They look dry and dull in 
spite of a more minute and laborious, but spiritless and petty execu- 
tion. During the Shemitic (or Assyrian) XXIId, 8 ' and succeeding 
foreign dynasties, down to that called ^Ethiopian in Manetho's and 
other lists, [about b. c. 972 to 695] but evidently not negro, inasmuch 
as the reliefs of Tirhaka are "Caucasian" and somewhat Shemitic, 81 
the infusion of foreign blood and contact with foreign art were still 
more detrimental to the Egyptian style. Babylonian representations 



Ramesses II. 



18 Bonomi, Transactions of R. Soc, of Literature, London, 1845 : — Lepsius, Denkmaler, 
Abth. III., bl., 142, e. b. 

' 9 Cf. Lepsius, Op. cit., Abth. III., bl. 190. The best popular design of these four pro- 
digious statues is in Bartlett's Nile Boat, 1849 ; the one most resembling Napoleon I. is 
that of Roselmni, M. R., pi. VI., fig. 22 ; reduced in the above wood-cut. Compare 
that in Champollion's folio Monuments de VEgypte de la Nubie. 

80 Birch, Trans. R. Soc. Lit., III. part I. 1848, pp. 184-70; Latard, Nineveh and its Re- 
mains, 1848; Discoveries in the ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, 1853; for ample corrobora- 
tions: — confirmed by Mariette, Op. cit., pp. 89-96. 

81 Types of Mankind, figs. 69, 70, 71. 



GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 119 

became fashionable on articles of toilet or furniture, — for instance on 
combs and spoons, — but indigenous art remained lifeless; tbe Baby- 
lonian innovations barren and without lasting results. It is worthy 
of notice, that about the time of the Bubastite (probably Babylonian) 
XXIId dynasty, a revolution occurred likewise in hieroglyphical 
writing, a great number of ideographs having assigned to them a 
phonetic value. 82 Mariette's fresh discovery of the never-before iden- 
tified cartouche of Bocchoris, is also noteworthy in connection with 
this period of Egyptian annals. 83 

"With the Saitie kings, (XXYIth dynasty, began 675 b. a), a 
national reaction sets in, again accompanied by a new development 
of sculpture, under Psametik I. and his successors. During this 
period of "renaissance," every effort was made to restore the insti- 
tutions and ideas of the long-buried IVth dynasty of Cheops. The 
forms remain the old ones, but the details become more charming 
though less grand than in the monuments of the XVTIth dynasty. 
The artists rectify the position of the ear, although extending it too 
much in the upper part; they abandon the conventional frame of the 
eye; they study nature in preference to the traditional canon; the 
forms of the human body become less rigid, the muscles are better 
rounded and more correctly drawn, and a naturalistic tendency 
supersedes the conventionalism of the preceding epoch of decay. 
Colossal statues are still sculptured, but not of such monstrous pro- 
portions as under Ramesses ; at the same time that the number of 
small, charming, sculptures, full of vigour and (Egyptian) grace, 
increases considerably. They are easily recognized by their finish 
and sharp precision of workmanship ; the aim of the artist being 
neatness and elegance; as distant from the somewhat conventional 
grandeur of the XVTIth and XV 111th, as from the refined delicacy 
of the XTTth, or the honest truthfulness of the ffid and IVth dynas- 
ties. The following inedited head, now in the Louvre, is a most 
excellent specimen of the style of the Sa'ites. It is of a greenish 
basalt, and was found broken off from the rest of a full-length figure, 
by M. Mariette, amid some ruins of the Serapeum at Memphis, in 
the midst of fragments belonging to the XXVIth dynasty. He gave 
a plaster-cast of it (now in my cabinet) to Mr. Gliddon, from which 
the annexed wood-cut [18] has been drawn. No doubt as to its being 
& portrait; becaiise the Egyptian sculptor aimed always to reproduce 
individuality without idealizing, and possessed both eye and hand to 

82 Birch, Crysl. Pal. Catalogue, p. 243. 

83 It is to be hoped that the munificence of France in fostering archaeological discoveries 
will, ere long, place us in full possession of these new data. 



120 



GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 



copy nature with fidelity. 



Fig. 18. 




It corresponds in style to the superb torso 
of Psametik II. found at Sais, 
and long in the public library 



at Cambridge. 81 



Saitio Head. 



This second revival of Egypt 
was not confined to sculpture. 
"We see once more, as in the 
time of Eamesses and Osorchon, 
(XVIHth and XXIId dynasties, 
i. e. in the loth and 10th cen- 
turies b. c.) a most striking 
parallel between the intellectual 
and artistic life of the nation. 
The new naturalistic phase of 
Egyptian art coincides with an 
analogous, most important step 
in civilization, viz : the introduction of the Demotic alphabet, which 
for its phonetical character 85 or comparatively greater simplicity than 
either the hieratic or the hieroglyphical writing, must have favoured 
the diffusion of knowledge, by promoting epistolary intercourse 
amongst the Egyptians. It will, therefore, scarcely surprise anybody 
to learn that more than two thirds of the papyri in the Museums and 
collections of Europe, appertain to the period of Psameticus and his 
successors, although abundant papyric documents are extant of a 
far earlier epoch. 86 

Egyptian art lost its Saitic freshness, owing to the Persian conquest 
(b. c. 525), but the naturalistic style continued down to the reign of 
the Macedonian dynasty of Ptolemies. Under them Egyptian civili- 
zation came for the first time into immediate relation and uninter- 
rupted daily contact with a foreign high-culture, although the radical 
difference between the Egyptian and Greek race prevented amalga- 
mation on a larger scale. The Egyptian was too proud of hia 
millennial civilization to condescend to learn anything from the 
Greek, whom he called a child in versatility, as well as in the his- 

M Yobke and Leake, Egyptian Monuments of the British Museum, London, 1827 ; p. 17, 
PI. XIII. 

85 Burgsch, Grammutiea Demotica, 1855 ; together 'with this Savant's various publica- 
tions, cited by Birch, Cryst. Pal. Catalogue, p. 209 : — also Types of Mankind, Table of the 
"Theory of the order of development in human writings," pp. 630—1. 

86 They are innumerable. Among the oldest and most beautiful is Prisse's folio Hieratio 
Papyrus lilgyptien, Paris, 1849, — "sans hesitation le plus ancien manuscrit connu dans le 
monde entier ;" containing, with others, the royal oval of SeNeWROU (or Senofre), a king 
of old Hid dynasty (De Rouge, Inscription du Tombeau d'Aahmes, chef des Nautoniers, le. 
partie, Paris, 1851, p. 76). 



GENERAL REMARKS ON' ICOHOGRAPHY. 121 

torical age of his nation. " Solon, Solon ! you Greeks are always 
children," says Plato's priest of Sais, in the celebrated bold 
romance on the Atlantic Isles. Still, the Hellenic spirit could not 
remain wholly without influence. Alexandria assumed a cosmopoli- 
tan character, in which Greek elements predominated ; and the 
Ptolemies, surrounded by Greek poets, artists, and philosophers, 
enjoyed the resplendent evening of Greek culture on the foreign soil 
of the Miotic Delta. Indeed, it has been accurately observed that 
"Alexandria was very Greek, a little Jewish, and scarcely Egyptian 
at all." 87 With artistic display, unparalleled in the history of man- 
kind, they celebrated the festivals of the Olympian gods, whilst with 
princely expenditure they secured all the treasures of Greek litera- 
ture, as if they entertained a presentiment of the approaching doom 
of Hellenism. But whenever they went up the Mle, visiting Mem- 
phis, Thebes, and upper Egypt, they became again Pharaohs — "ever 
living, lords of diadems, watchers of Egypt, chastisers of the foreigners, 
golden hawks, greatest of the powerful kings of the upper and lower 
country, defenders of truth, beloved of truth, approved of the sun, 
beloved of Phtah." Their costume and titles, their sacrifices and 
oblations, the style of their decrees and dedications, are substantially 
the same as on the monuments of the ancient Pharaohs. But though 
it seems as if the national character and public life of Egypt itself 
had not undergone any material change, the Ptolemaic works of art 
reveal the slow action of Hellenism. Mariette's unexpected discovery, 
in 1850, of a hemicych formed of the Greek statues of Pindar, Lycur- 
gus, Solon, Euripides, Pythagoras, Plato, ^Eschylus, Homer, Aristotle, 
&c, in excavating the Memphite Serapeum, is a wonderful proof 
of the manner in which Hellenic ideas travelled with the Greeks up ' 
the Mle. Still, the elaborate attempts to attain Greek elegance and 
refinement, within the old traditional forms, resulted only in degra- 
dation ; producing a hybrid style, inferior to any of the former phases 
of Egyptian art. The last known monuments creditable to native 
statuaries, are thus referred to by the late Letronne 88 ; — "the 
second is a bust in rose-granite, of Mctanebo, preserved in the 
British Museum (Birch, Arundale and Bonomi, Gallery of Antiquities, 
PI. 45, fig. 166), of very beautiful workmanship ; the third is that 

87 Ampere, Voyage et Recherches en JSgypte el en Nubie; Revue des Deux Mondes, 1846, 
2d article. 

88 La civilisation tgyptienne depuis V elablissement des Grecs sous Psammeticus jusqu' a la 
conqulte d' Alexandre. (Extrait de la Revue des Deux Mondes, 1 Fev. et 1 Avril, 1845, 
p. 50.) This refined specimen of art — which singularly corresponds in execution to the 
Sailic head above figured (No. 18) — -may be seen on a large scale in the Description de 
VEgypte (Antiq. V. PI. 69, figs. 7, 8) ; and on a smaller in Lenormant's Mus'ee des Anli- 
quites egypliennes, Paris, fol., 1840. 



122 GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 

mutilated but admirable statue, in green basalt, found at Sebennytus, 
(Millin, Monuments inedits, I. p. 383), and wbicb decorates tbe ' salle 
du zodiaque ' of tbe Bibliotheque royale [nationale, publique, or inrpe- 
riale, — as tbe case may be]. Tbis torso, for tbe purity and fineness 
of Egyptian style, yields in notbing to tbe most noble remains of 
Egyptian sculpture : and I cannot forget tbat one of tbe skilful! est 
archeologues of our day, not being able to cast doubt upon tbe name 
of Nectanebo, wbicb tbis statue bears, sustained tbat this name bad 
been added, 'apres-coup,' to a statue of tbe time of Sesostris or of 
Menepbtba; a gratuitous supposition, rendered altogether useless 
through the observations contained in this memoir." 

The only passable relics, of tbe times of the Lagidse, now extant, 
are the rose-granite statues of Philadelphia and Arsinoe at the 
Vatican ; and they are poor enough. 

Indigenous art degenerated, however, still more under the Roman 
dominion, 80 languishing under the Julian and Elavian emperors, 
and becoming quite rude and barbarous soon after Hadrian : — the 
last hieroglyphic royal ovals, found in Egypt, belong to the Emperor 
Decius. 90 Indigenous Egyptian civilization and art, both connected 
with and founded upon hieroglyphics, expire about the same time. 

Such is the brief history of Egyptian art ; peculiarly remarkable 
for the constancy of its general character during a period of more 
than thirty-five centuries, no less than for its isolated and exclusively 
national development. The influence of foreign art and culture 
upon Egypt was always slight and prejudicial; whilst, with the ex- 
ception of Meroe on the upper Mle — an Egyptian colony maintain- 
ing itself only so long as its original Egyptian blood remained 
pure, 91 — no foreign kingdom or people ever accepted the civilization, 
the hieroglyphics and the art of Egypt, notwithstanding that the 
Empire on the Mle was superior in culture to all those neighboring 
nations with whom the Pharaohs came into contact. Phoenicia, 
Assyria, Persia, and perhaps even Greece and Etruria, borrowed 
some forms of' their art from Egypt; but these loans are, on the 
whole, trifling, and insufficient to stamp the art of those nations with 
an Egyptian character. In Assyria, as in Greece and Etruria, art 
developed itself nationally, and in each region may always be con- 
sidered as indigenous. 

89 Gad's folio Antiquilh de la Nubie, Denon, and the Great French work, contain abundant 
examples of this decline. 

90 Lepsius, Vorlaufige Nachricht Uier die Expedition, Berlin, 1849, p. 29. 

91 For proofs, — Abeken, Rapport, in Bulletin de la Societe de Geographic, Paris, Sept., 
1845, pp. 171-2, 174, 179:— Lepsius, Briefe, 1852, pp. 140-9, 204, 217-9, 239, &c. : while 
ocular evidence of this Ethiopian degradation of art may be obtained in the Denkmiiler, 
Abth. VI. bl. 2, 4, 9, 10. 



GENERAL REMARKS ON ICONOGRAPHY. 123 

"We have selected, for illustrating our sketch of Egyptian art, 
statues in preference to reliefs, which are always somewhat repug- 
nant to the taste of the public, on account of the peculiar conven- 
tional formation of the eye, drawn in front-view on profile heads. 
Besides, Types of Mankind already contains copious specimens of 
Egyptian royal relief-likenesses, from Aahmes, the restorer of Egypt, 
down to Menephtah, the probable Pharaoh of the Exodus, including 
also the Sheshonks (SMshak), Shabaks and Tirhakas, so familiar to 
the readers of the Bible. The authority of those portraits (taken 
principally from Rosellini) is sufficiently established by the inscrip- 
tions which accompany them on the original sculptures ; their faithful- 
ness may easily be tested in any of the large collections of Europe, and 
principally in Egypt, among the monuments ; for it is a remarkable 
fact, that wherever a relief was sunk into the rock, recording the 
deeds of some individual Pharaoh, whether on the pylones of the 
temples, along the walls of tombs, and amid palatial decorations, or 
chiselled upon some tablet on the remotest borders of the Empire, 
his features, painted or sculptured, are always the same, and may be 
recognized everywhere throughout Egypt. It has, therefore, often 
been asked, by what means Egyptian artists could attain such a uni- 
formity at a time when no coins were as yet struck, and the art of 
engraving likenesses (not seals, &c.,) was unknown. It was very 
plausibly suggested, that an official pattern of the royal physiognomy, 
carved in wood, may easily have been circulated all over the valley 
of the Mle. The Roman emperors probably neglected the continu- 
ance of such customs, perhaps under belief that their coins might 
convey a sufficient idea of their features. The Egyptians, however, 
remain unacquainted with the portraits of their Roman rulers, whose 
effigies on Egyptian and lower-Nubian monuments are altogether 
conventional, without any attempt at portraying individuality and 
resemblance to the Roman Autocrats ; whose very name, as we see at 
Kalabshe and at Dendera, was often unknown to natives of the Nile. 92 
As a collateral confirmation of the suggestion about the circulation 
of regal portrait-patterns, we refer to some analogous preceedings 
under Queen Elizabeth, which we translate from the French of the 
Abbes De la Chau and Le Blond, 93 not being able to lay our hands 
upon the original document mentioned by them. 

" The excessive sensitiveness of Queen Elizabeth about beauty," say the learned French 
archaeologists, " gave birth to a most peculiar order in council, signed by the secretary 

92 Letronne, "Sur 1'absence du Mot Autocrator" — Mtmoires el Documents, Paris, 1849, 
pp. 1-8: — Champollion-Figeao, Fourier el NapoUon, l'£gyple el les cent jours, Paris, 1844, 
pp. 63-5. 

63 Pierres gravies du Cabinet Orleans, II. p. 1 94. 



124 THE ART OF THE SHEMITES. 

Cecil, and promulgated in 1563. All the painters and engravers were prohibited by it to 
continue making portraits of the Queen, until some good artist should have made a truthful 
likeness, to serve as model for all the copies to be made in future, after the model has, upon 
examination, been found to be as good and exact as it could be. It is further said that the 
natural desire of all the subjects of the Queen, of every rank and condition, to possess the 
portrait of H. M., having induced many painters, engravers, and other artists, to multiply 
copies, it has been found that not one of them has succeeded in rendering all the beauty and 
charms of S. M. with exactness, much to the daily regret and complaints of her well-be- 
loved subjects. Order was, therefore, given for the appointment of commissioners (the 
French text says ' experts ') to inquire into the fidelity of the copies, and not to tolerate 
any iDne, marked by deformity or defects, from which, by the grace of God, Her Majesty 
was free." 

Iii conclusion, let us rejoice with our collaborator, M. Maury, that 
" the school of Champollion, therefore, feels every day the ground 
more steady beneath its tread ; every day it beholds those doubts dis- 
sipating which at first offered themselves to its disciples in the face 
of denials made by jealous or stubborn minds. ***** It is to this 
' monumental geology ' (after all) that we are indebted for the demon- 
stration of the two great historical laws that dominate over all the 
annals of Egypt; viz: the permanence of races, and the constant mo- 
bility of tongues, beliefs, and arts, — two truths which are precisely the 
inverse of that which had been for a long time admitted." 94 



III. — THE ART OF THE SHEMITES. 

The term " Shemitic " (or Semitic), as it is popularly applied to 
certain races, languages, and types of physiognomy, has no reference 
to the genealogy or rather geography of the Xth chapter of Genesis, 
since it includes the Phoenicians, who, according to this old docu- 
ment, are descendants of Ham ; whilst Elam, Assur and Lud, sons 
of Shem, must be classed among races different in character and lan- 
guage from what most scholars, since Eichhorn, have been accus- 
tomed to call Shemitic. This word is now constantly used to desig- 
nate the Syro-Arab nations; that is to say, the Syrian, Phoenician, 
and Hebrew tribes (including Edom, Moab, Ammon, Midian, and 
the Nabatseans of Harran), and the Arabs both Yoktanide (Himyarite 
and ^Ethiopian) and Ishmaelite or Maadic. All those tribes and 
nations form a most striking contrast to the Arian or Japetide races, 
in language as well as in their national character. 

It is difficult to over-state the influence of the Shemites on human 

91 Des travaux modernes sur TJSgypte Ancienne, Revue des Deux Mondes, Sept. 1855, p. 
1078. 



THE ART OF THE SHEMITES. 125 

civilization. Hence it has been said without exaggeration, that all 
the moral and religious progress of mankind may be summed up in 
the combined action of the Arian and Shemitic races : the former 
being the continuous warp, the latter the intersecting woof. 05 Whilst 
the civilization of Egypt, too proud to seek proselytes, remained iso- 
lated and spell-bound within the limits of its Mle-valley, the culture 
of the Shemites was eminently prolific and propagandist. Though 
they never exceeded thirty millions in number, 96 still their peculiar 
restlessness and commercial tendency, their migrations, deportations, 
colonizations, and wars of conquest, which dispersed them all over 
the ancient world, multiplied, as it were, their number by locomo- 
tion, and brought them into a kind of ubiquitous contact with most 
of the progressive races of mankind. The Japetides (Indo-Europeans, 
Arians, Iranians,) surpass the Shemites at least ten times in extent; 
yet, nevertheless, their civilization is deeply and lastingly affected 
by, and indebted to, the Shemites, without having been able to 
absorb and to transform them by amalgamation. Down to our days 
the Shemite race maintain their peculiar type so constantly, that their 
pedigree is still unmistakably stamped upon their features ; and it 
is a curious fact that among the lower classes in central and north- 
eastern Europe, the consciousness of a difference of race remained so 
strong both with Shemites and Japetides, as often to prevent amal- 
gamation, even where the difference of religion had ceased. 

There are principally three nations among the Shemites which 
have become of the highest importance for the history of mankind. 
To the Phoenicians, — those first explorers of the Mediterranean and 
eastern Atlantic, — merchant-princes, manufacturers, and colonizers 
of antiquity — we owe the phonetic Alphabet, and probably the 
coinage of money. East and South to Phoenicia dwelt the Hebrews, 
who, though numerically few, have by their monotheism become 
the basis of modern civilization ; whose financial genius moreover 
continues to be felt in all the great money-marts, upon which their 
invention of bills of exchange has concentrated the mobilized pro- 
perty of the world. Further to the South we meet with the Arabs, 
destroyers of idolatry, conquerors of northern Africa, civilizers of 

95 Bunsen, JEgyptms Sidle, preface, xii. 

s 6 According to Renan's, rough estimate, their actual number is the following: — 

In Arabia proper, about 6,000,000 

The Syrians and Arabs of Asiatic Turkey 6,000,000 

The Arabs of Africa: Egypt, Barbary, Morocco, Sahara, Sudan.. 10,000,000 

Shemitic Abyssinians 3,000,000 

Jews all over the world 4,000,000 

— (Hisloire el Systeme compare" rles languas almitiquee, p. 41.) 



126 THE ART OF THE SHEMITES. 

the Black races, and merchants all along the shores of the Indian 
ocean. 

All these carriers of civilization never knew the feeling of plastic 
and pictorial beauty. Painting and sculpture were proscribed among 
the Hebrews and Arabs by the most sacred precepts of religion, 97 
whilst art never became national with the Phoenicians; who bor- 
rowed its forms in turn from Egyptians, Assyrians and Greeks, and 
often relapsed into their original barbarism of taste. But before we 
subject Shemitic art to a closer consideration, let us throw a glance 
on the peculiar civilization of that highly gifted race whose fortunes 
were always connected with the history of mankind, and whose 
culture modified Indo-European civilization repeatedly and in many 
respects. 

M. Ernest Renan, in his History of the Shemitic languages, 98 
describes the character of the Shemites in the most eloquent words, 
which, however, we must restrict in application to the Hebrew and 
Arab tribes, inasmuch as they evidently are incomplete as regards 
the Phoenicians and Syrians. Besides, we are bound to remind the 
reader that the author, carried away by the flow of his eloquence, is 
apt to over-state his case. We quote the following passage : 

"Without predetermining the important question of the primitive unity or diversity of 
the Arian and Shemitic languages, we must say that, in the present state of science, the 
Shemitic languages must be considered as corresponding to a distinct division of mankind. 
In fact, the character of the nations speaking them, is marked in history by as original fea- 
tures as the languages themselves, which served as a formula and boundary to their mind. 
It is true that it is less in political than in religious life that their influence has been felt. 
Antiquity shows them scarcely playing any active part in the great conquests which swept 
over Asia: the civilization of Nineveh and Babylon, in its essential features, does not belong 
to nations of that race, and before the powerful impulse given by a new creed to the Arab 
tribes, it would be in vain to seek the traces of any great Shemitic empire in history. 
But what they were unable to do in the sphere of external power they accomplished in the 
moral sphere, and we may, without exaggeration, attribute to them at least one half of the 
intellectual work of humanity. Of the two symbols of the mind striving for truth, science 
or philosophy remained entirely foreign to them; but they always understood religion with a 
superior instinct; they comprehended it, I may say, with a sense peculiar to themselves. 
The reflecting, independent, earnest, courageous, in one word the philosophical research 
of truth, seems to be the heir-loom of that Indo-European race, which, from the bottom of 
India to the extreme West and North, and from the most remote ages to modern times, has 
always sought to explain God, and man, and the world, by reasoning; and accordingly left 
behind it — as landmarks of the different stations of its history — systems of philosophy, 
always and everywhere agreeing with the laws of a logical development. But to the She- 
mitic race belong those firm and positive intuitions which removed at once the veil from 
Godhead, and without long reflection and reasoning reached the purest religious form 

97 Exodus, xx., 4; Deuteron, V., 8: — Throughout Mohammed's Kur'an these prohibi- 
tions abound. 

98 Bistoire generate et Sysieme compare' des langues semitiques. Ouvrage couronne' par 
l'lnstitut. Imprimerie Imperiale, 1855. Vol. i. p. 3, seqq. 



THE ART OF THE SHEMITES. 127 

antiquity ever knew. The birthplace of philosophy is India and Greece, amidst an inquisi- 
tive race, deeply preoccupied by the search after the secret of all things ; but the psalm and 
the prophecy, the wisdom concealed m riddles and symbols, the pure hymn, the revealed 
book, are the inheritance of the theocratic race of the Shemites. This is above all others 
the people of Godhead ; it is the people of religions, destined to create them and to carry 
them abroad. And indeed, is it not remarkable that the three monotheistic religions, 
which until now have acted the most important part in the history of civilization, the three 
religions marked by a peculiar character of duration, of fecundity and of proselytism, so 
thoroughly interlaced with one another as to appear like three branches of the same tree, 
like three expressions unequally correct of the same idea,— is it not remarkable, I repeat, 
that all the three were born among Shemitic nations, and have started from among them 
to pursue their high destinies ? There is but a few days' journey from Jerusalem to Mount 
Sinai, and from Sinai to Mecca. 

"The Shemitic race has neither the elevation of spiritualism known only to India and 
Germany, nor the feeling for measure and perfect beauty bequeathed by Greece to the 
neo-Latin nations, nor the delicate and deep sensitiveness characteristical of the Celts. 
Shemitic conscience is clear, but narrow ; it wonderfully understands unity, but cannot 
comprehend multiplicity. Monotheism sums up and explains all its features. 

" It is the glory of the Shemitic race to have in her earliest days arrived at that notion 
of Godhead which aJJ the other nations had to adopt on her example and on the faith of her 
preaching. She has never conceived the government of the world otherwise than as an 
absolute monarchy; her "Theodicy" has not advanced one single step since the book of 
Job ; the grandeur and the aberrations of Polytheism remained foreign to her. No other 
race can of itself discover Monotheism; India, which has philosophized with so much 
originality and depth, has, up to our days, not grasped it ; and all the vigour of the Hellenic 
spirit could not have sufficed to lead mankind to Monotheism without the co-operation of the 
Shemites ; but we can likewise state, that the Shemites would not have mastered the dog- 
ma of the unity of Godhead, had they not found its germ in the most imperious instincts of 
their souls and of their hearts. They were unable to conceive variety, plurality, or sex, in 
Godhead : the word goddess would be the most horrible barbarism in Hebrew." All the names 
by which the Shemites ever designated Godhead :- El, Eloh, Adon, Baal, Elion, Shaddai, 
Jehovah, Allah, even if they take the plural form, imply the supreme indivisible power 
of perfect unity. Nature, on the other hand, has little importance in Shemitic religions, — 
the desert is monotheistic. Sublime in its immense uniformity, it revealed immediately the 
idea of the infinite to men, but not the incessantly productive life, which Nature, where she 
is more prolific, imparts to other nations. This is the reason why Arabia was always the 
bulwark of the most exalted monotheism ; for it would be a mistake to seek in Mohammed 
the founder of monotheism in Arabia. The worship of the Supreme God (Allah ia&la) was 
always at the bottom of Arabian religion." 

" The Shemites never had mythology. The clear and precise way in which they conceived 
Godhead as distinct from the world, not begetting and not begotten, and having no like, 
excluded that grand poetry in which India, Persia, Greece [and the Teutonic races], gave 
vent to their imagination, leaving the boundaries between God, mankind, and nature, unde- 
fined and floating. Mythology is the expression of pantheism in religion, and the Shemitic 
spirit is the most antagonistic to pantheism. What a distance between the simple concep- 

99 The author forgets, apparently, the goddesses of Syria and Phoenicia, the female idols 
destroyed by the Arabs upon their conversion to Islam, and the Shemitic adoration of the 
Baetyles (Beth-El), the shapeless stones so often figured on coins. The black stone of the 
Kaaba belongs to the same class, and reminds us nearly of Fetishism. [Fresnel, when 
consul at Djidda, sent his slave to Mecca, and learned from him that, although the pilgrims 
had nearly kissed off the features, the stone still preserves the remains of a human face! 
(IVme Lettre, "Djeddeh, Jan. 1838."— Journal Asiatique.)—G. R,. G.] 



128 THE AET OF THE SHEMITES. 

tion of a God, distinct from the world, which he forms according to his will, as a vase is 
moulded by the hands of the potter, and those Indo-European theogonies, attributing a 
divine soul to Nature, conceiving life as a struggle, and the world as a perpetual change, 
thus carrying, as it were, the ideas of revolution and progress among the dynasties of 
Gods! 

" The intolerance of the Shemites is the natural result of their monotheism. Indo-Euro- 
pean nations, before their conversion to Shemitic ideas, never considered their religions as 
an absolute truth ; they took them rather for a family heir-loom, and remained equally 
foreign to intolerance and to proselytism. 100 It is, therefore, exclusively among Indo-Euro- 
peans that we meet with freedom of thought, with a spirit of criticism and of individual 
research. The Shemites, on the contrary, aspiring to realize a worship independent of any 
provincial variations, were led in consistency to declare all other religions than their own 
to be mischievous. In this sense, intolerance is a Shemitic fact, and a portion of the in- 
heritance, good and bad, which this race has bequeathed to mankind. 

"The absence of philosophical and scientific culture among the Shemites maybe derived 
from that want of breadth and diversity, and therefore of an analytical turn of mind, which 
characterizes them. The faculties begetting mythology are, in fact, the same which beget 
philosophy. Stricken by the unity of the laws governing the world, the Shemites saw in the 
development of things nothing but the unalterable fulfilment of the will of a superior being ; 
they never conceived multiplicity in nature. But the conception of multiplicity in the universe 
becomes polytheism with nations which are still in their infancy, and science with nations 
that have arrived at maturity. This is the reason why Shemitic wisdom never advanced 
beyond the proverb and the parable, — points of departure for Greek philosophy. The books 
of Job and Ecclesiastes, which represent the highest culmination of Shemitic philosophy, 
turn the problem over and over again in all directions, without advancing one step nearer 
to the solution ; to them the dialectic and close reasoning of Socrates is altogether wanting: 
even when Ecclesiastes seems to approach a solution, it is only in order to arrive at 
formulas antagonistic to science, such as "Vanity of vanities" — -"nothing is new under 
the sun," — "he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow," — formulas the result of 
which is, to enjoy life, and to serve God: and indeed these are the two poles of Shemitic 
existence. 

" The Shemites are nearly entirely devoid of inquisitiveness. Their idea of the power 
of God is such, that nothing can astonish them. To the most surprising accounts, to sights 
most likely to strike him, the Arab opposes but one reflection, "God is powerful!" whilst, 
when in doubt, he avoids to come to a conclusion, and after having expounded the reasons 
for and against, escapes from decision by the formula 'God knows it!' 

" The poetry of the Shemitic nations is distinguished by the same want of variety. The 
eminently subjective character of Arabic and Hebrew poetry results from another essential 
feature of Shemitic spirit, the complete absence of creative imagination, and accordingly 
of fiction. 

"Hence, amongthese peoples, we may explain the absolute absence of plastic arts. Even 
tho adornments of manuscripts by which Turks and Persians have displayed such a lively sen- 
timent for color, is antipathetic to the Arabs, and altogether unknown in countries where 
the Arab spirit has remained untainted, as for instance in Morocco. Music, of all the arts 
most subjective, is the only one known to Shemites. Painting and sculpture have always 
been banished from them by religious prohibition ; their realism cannot be reconciled with 
oreative invention, which is the essential condition of the two arts. A Mussulman to whom 
the traveller Bruce showed the painting of a fish, asked him, after a moment of surprise : " If 
this fish, on the day of judgment, rises against thee and accuses thee by saying, Thou hast 

100 This does not exclude their rigor against apostasy or infidelity at different periods of 
their history, since it implied an attack upon their national existence. With the Greeks, 
for instance, religion was intimately connected with nationality, and their nationality being 
exclusive, (for every foreigner was a barbarian.) proselytism became impossible. 



THE ART OF THE SHEMITES. 129 

given me a body, but no living soul, what -wilt thou reply V The anathemas against any 
figured representation,. repeated over and over again in the Mosaic books, and the icono- 
clastic zeal of Mohammed, evidently prove the tendency of those nations to take the statue 
for a real individual being. Artistic race's, accustomed to detach the symbol from the idea, 
■were not obliged to act with such severity." 

Kenan's remarks, as already mentioned, apply principally to the 
monotheistic branches of the Shemitic race, at their secondary stage 
of development : he ignores the peculiarities of the Phoenician nation, 
yet mankind owes nearly as much to the polytheistic branch of the 
Shemites, in spite of their voluptuous and cruel worship, including 
human sacrifices and indescribable abominations, so denounced in 
Hebrew and later Arabian literature, — as to their southern brethren 
of higher and purer morals. According to the authors of antiquity, 
as well as to all modern philologists, the pure phonetic alphabet is 
an invention of the Phoenician mind. 101 All the different phonetic 
alphabets of the world, — perhaps with the exception of the cuneatic 
and Hindoo (Lat and Devanagiri) writing, — have originated from the 
Phoenician letters ; the Arian nations of course eliminating the She- 
mitic gutturals, and replacing them by their own peculiar modifica- 
tions of the sound. The hieroglyphics of Egypt remained confined 
to the Nile-valley ; the Devanagiri to the two Indian peninsulas and 
their dependencies ; the cuneiform character to the basin of the 
Tigris and Euphrates, and to the highland flanking it to the east ; 
whereas the Phoenician alphabet and those derived from it have been 
diffused over all the white race, not only Shemites, but Japetides and 
Turanians ; and this fact practically proves the diffusion of Shemitic 
influence. 

Second in importance only to the phonetic alphabet, is the inven- 
tion of coined money, which is again Phoenician ; although the Isle 
of ^Egina and the empire of Lydia made rival claims to the priority 
of the invention. 102 But ^Egina, the small island between Attica 

101 Compare for authorities: Types of Mankind, "Palasographic excursus on the art of 
writing, by Geo. R. Gliddon ;" and Renan, Op. cit., I. p. 67. " L'ecriture alphabetique est 
depuis une haute antiquity le privilege particulier des Semites. C'est aux Semites que 
le monde doit l'alphabet de 22 lettres." 

102 The earliest standard of coinage and of weights and measures in Greece was certainly 
that of iEgina, the invention of which was attributed to Pheidon, king of Argos, and lord 
of -33gina. Still, criticism cannot but take Pheidon for a semi-mythical person, and the 
authorities about his epoch are irreconcilably at variance with one another. The Parian- 
marble chronicle places him about 895 B. c. : Pausanias and Strabo between 770-730 B. c, 
whilst Herodotus (VII. 27) connects him with events which took place [ about 600 B. c. 
Ottfeied Muller, therefore (Dorier, iii. 6) assumes two Pheidons ; and Weissenboko 
suggests Pausanias may have placed him originally in the 26th Olympiad, which, by an error 
of the copyist, became the 6th in the extant MS. Whatever be the epoch of Pheidon, so 
much is certain, that the iEginean standard of weights and measures is not his invention. 
Boeck, in his " Metrologische TTntersuchungen," has established the fact that it was borrowed 
from Babylon ; Pheidon can therefore have only introduced it into Greece. 

9 



130 THE ART OF THE SHEMITES. 

and the Peloponnesus, though rich in silver-mines, possessed neither 
colonies nor extensive and uninterrupted foreign commerce, which 
alone can have given rise to the desire of a circulating medium of 
currency. • Lydia, equally devoid of colonies and foreign extensive 
commerce, had not even a supply of gold before the conquest of 
Phrygia. The first money could not have been struck by any but 
a merchant nation. Neither Pharaonic Egypt, nor the empires of 
Assyria and Babylon, nor the Hebrew kingdoms, knew the use of 
coins. They weighed the gold and silver as the price for commodi- 
ties bought and sold; but they never tried to divide it into equal 
pieces, or to mark it according to its weight and value. It was at a 
comparatively late period, scarcely prior to the seventh century 
before our era, that gold and silver were struck by public authority, 
to be the circulating medium. Alcidamas, the Athenian rhetor of 
the fourth century B. c, tells us, that " coins were invented by the 
Phoenicians, they being the wisest and most cunning of the Barba- 
rians ; — out of the ingot they took equal portions and stamped them 
with a sign, according to the weight, the heavier and the lighter." m 
— 'OSvSaevs xaTa itpoSoti'iag riaXau,-/](5ou<:. — (See Alcid.) 

Such are the lasting benefits mankind owes to the Shemitic race, 
which, besides, was in antiquity the forerunner of Indo-European 
civilization on the Mediterranean, and along the Eastern shores of 
the Atlantic, and subsequently again in Hindostan and Java during 
the middle ages. Even now it paves the way for European culture 
and commerce in the Soodan, and central Africa. These highly gifted 
carriers of civilization never rose, notwithstanding, to any eminence 
in imitative arts, and were unable to invent or establish a national 
style of painting or sculpture. As to the Hebrews and the Arabs, 
this deficiency is often attributed to the prohibitions of the Penta- 
teuch and the Kur'an : but it will probably be safer to derive the 
prohibition from the want of artistical feeling among the nations for 
whom the law was framed. Besides, the Arabs, even before Mo- 
hammed, had few or no idols of human form, no plastical art and 
no pictures ; at the same time that the Kur'an could not prevent the 

103 The standard weights of Nimrood, in the British Museum, carry now even the Babylonian 
talent further back, to Assyria, and it is not unimportant that their inscriptions are either 
purely Phoenician, or bilingual. — As to coinage, it is everywhere originally connected with 
the standard of weights : it is its result, its most practical application to silver and gold as 
measures of value. The standard of measures must have preceded the standard of coinage, 
and cannot be a contemporary invention. Pheidon may indeed have been the first who 
struck coin in Greece, and have introduced coinage together with the Babylonian standard 
of measures and weights from Phoenicia ; but the Greek tradition which attributes to him 
the invention both of the standard' of weights and of coinage, is as illogical as regards 
coins, as it is historically false as regards weights. 



THE ART OF THE SHEMITES. 131 

Perso-Aflghan Mussulmans, both the SheeS and the Sunnee, to con- 
tinue drawing and painting, and even sculpturing reliefs. Down to 
the present day, portraits are painted at Delhi and Cabool and Tehe- 
ran by true believers, without any religious scruples ; whereas the 
Arab envoy of the Sultan of Morocco to Queen Victoria, whose 
daguerreotype was taken without his knowledge at Claudet's in Re- 
gent Street, felt himself both insulted and defiled for having had 
his form " stolen from him," as he expressed himself. 

With the polytheistic branch of the Shemites, sculpture and paint- 
ing were not prohibited by religion ; and still no national style of 
art ever developed itself among the Syrians and Phoenicians, notwith- 
standing their wealth and industry, and love of display. 

The extent and number of the monuments of art in Syria, Phoe- 
nicia, Palestine, and Idumsea, and of those remains which, by their 
Phoenician or Punic inscription, are designated as Shemitic, is not 
at all insignificant ; although, measured by the standard of Egyptian, 
Greek, or Etruscan antiquities, they are, indeed, comparatively small. 
Still, these monuments form together no homogeneous class, charac- 
terized by certain peculiarities common to them all. Nothing but 
the place where they were found, or the Phoenician characters with 
which they are inscribed, designates them as Shernitic. They might 
all have been made by foreigners : Egyptians, Assyrians, Greeks, 
Etruscans, or barbarians. Of the ruins still extant, Petra, the rock- 
town of the ISTabatseans, exhibits late Greek ; Baalbek (Heliopolis) 
and Palmyra, late Roman forms of architecture. The rock-tombs 
of Jerusalem were evidently excavated by artists perfectly conversant 
with the Dorian column, who remained faithful to the Hellenic spirit 
of art, notwithstanding that they introduced grapes and palm-trees, 
and some oriental forms, into the decoration of their rock-structures. 

As to Shemitic statues and reliefs, the most important among them 
undoubtedly is the black basahVsareophagus of Eshmunazar, king of 
Sidon, discovered in February, 1855, near Sayda, the old Sidon. The 
French Consul, M. Peretie, acquired it, and sent it to France, where 
it has been deposited in the Louvre, as a worthy companion to the 
kingly monuments of Egyptian Pharaohs and Assyrian .monarchs. 
The Phoenician inscription of the sarcophagus, read and analyzed by 
the Due de Luynes, 104 is one of the most striking expressions of She- 
mitic feelings. It runs as follows : 

104 Mr. Dietrich of Marburg, Dr. Riidiger, Prof. Land, and others, likewise published 
translations of, and observations on, this inscription, independently of the French Duke, 
•whose translation, however, was read at the Institute previously to the publications of the 
learned Germans. Besides, his Memoir, published in 1856, is by far more complete as 
regards the analysis of the inscription, and the geographical, philological, and historical 



132 THE ART OF THE SHEMITES. 

" In the month of Bui, in the fourteenth year of the reign of me, Eshmunazar, king of the 
Sidonians, son of king Thebunath, king of the Sidonians, the king Eshmunazar spake and 
said : 

" Amidst my feasts and my perfumed wines, I am ravished from the assembly of men to 
pronounce a lamentation and to die, and to remain lying in this coffin, in this tomb, in the 
place of sepulture which I have constructed. 

•' By this lamentation I conjure any royal race and any man, not to open this funeral 
bed, not to search the asylum of the faithful (for there are effigies of gods among them,) 
not to remove the cover of this coffin, not to build upon the elevation of this funeral bed, 
the elevation of the bed of my sleep, even should some one say : ' Listen not to those who 
are humiliated, (in death) : for any royal race, or any man who should defile the elevation 
of this funeral bed, whether he removes the cover of this coffin, or builds upon the monu- 
ment which covers it, may they have no funeral bed reserved for themselves among the 
Rephaim (shadows) : may they be deprived of sepulture, leaving behind them neither sons 
nor posterity : and may the great Gods (Alonim) keep them confined in hell. 

" If it be a royal race, may its accursed crime fall back upon their children up to the 
extinction of their posterity. 

" If it is a (private) man who opens the elevation of this funeral bed, or who removes the 
cover of my coffin, and the corpses of the royal family, this man is sacrilegious. 

" May his stem not grow up from the roots, and not bring forth fruits ; may he be marked 
by the reprobation among the living under the sun. 

" For, worthy to be pitied, I have been ravished amidst my banquets and my perfumed 
wines, to leave the assembly of men, and to pronounce my lamentation, then to die. 

"I rest here, in truth, I, Eshmunazar, king of the Sidonians, son of king Thebunath, 
king of Sidonians, son of the son of king Eshmunazar, king of the Sidonians, and with me, 
my mother Amestoreth, who was priestess of Astarte, in the palace of the queen, daughter 
of king Eshmunazar, king of the Sidonians, who built the temple of the great Gods, the 
temple of Astarte at Sidon, the maritime town, and we both have consecrated magnificent 
offerings to the goddess Astarte. With me rests also Onchanna, who, in honor of Eshmun, 
the sacred God, built Enedalila in the mountain, and made me magnificent presents; and 
Onchanna, who built temples to the great Gods of the Sidonians, at Sidon, the maritime 
town, the temple of Baal-Sidon, and the temple of Astarte, glory of Baal, so that in recom- 
pense of his piety, the Lord Adon Milchon granted us the towns of Dora and Japhia, with 
their extensive territories for wheat, which are above Dan, a pledge of the possession of the 
strong places which I have founded, and which he has finished as bulwarks of our bounda- 
ries endowed for the Sidonians forever. 

" By this lamentation I adjure every royal race and every man, that they will not open 
nor overthrow the elevation of my tomb, that they will not build upon the construction 
which covers this funeral bed, that they will not remove my coffin from my funeral bed, in 
fear lest the great God should imprison them. Otherwise may that royal race, those sacri- 
legious men and their posterity, be destroyed for ever !" 

The inscription leaves no possible doubt that we have the coffin of 
a king of Sidon before us; and still, if it had been found without an 
inscription, nobody would have doubted its Egyptian origin. 105 The 
mummy-shaped form of the .coffin is identical with the basalt-sarco- 
phaguses of the XLXth dynasty ; and the peculiar conventional 
beard, the head-dress, the necklace, and the hawk-beads of Horus on 

disquisitions connected with it. — (Memoire sur le Sarcophage et V inscription funeraire d'Esmu- 
nazar, roi de Sidon, par H. d' Albert de Lutnes, Paris, 1856, p. 8, 9. [Equally Shemitic 
in spirit, is the Punic "sacrificial ritual" of Marseilles, as rendered by De Saulcy (Mem. 
de I' Acad. R. des Inscrip., .1847, XVII., 1= partie.— G. R. G.] 

106 [See "Inscription Pheniciemie sur une Pierre a libation dn Se'raphe'ura de Memphis," 
by the Duo de Ldynes, Bui. Archeve de V Alhenceum Franco-is, August-Sept., 1855. — G. R. G.] 



THE ART OF THE SHEMITES. 



.33 



the shoulders of the king, all completely correspond with the three 
coffins of the family of king Amasis, sent by Abbas Pasha as a 
present to the Prince of Leuchtenberg. We are, therefore, author- 
Fig. 19. 




EsMUNAZAR. 



ized to infer with the Due de Luynes that Esmunazar was a contem- 
porary of Amasis. And indeed, we find that Apries of Egypt, about 
B. c. 574, invaded Phoenicia, captured Sidon, and probably reduced 
this very king to a state of dependency on Egypt; which might 
account for the Egyptian style of king Esmunazar's coffin, unless 
we can prove that Phoenician sculpture was always a daughter of 
Egyptian art. Such an assumption might be maintained by the Pha- 
raonic style of the type of some brass coins of the island of Malta, 
undoubtedly a Phoenician colony. But although the dress of the 
female head which we distinguish on those coins, is evidently Egyp- 
tian, and its ornament is the royal "Atf," — the crown of Osiris and 
other deities, composed of a conical cap, flanked by two ostrich 
feathers with a disk in front, placed on the horns of a goat, — still, 
the reverse of the medal presents an entirely different style, viz : an 
imitation of Assyrian art. It is a kneeling man with four wings. 
But the coin of Malta is not the only instance of Assyrian style on 
Phoenician monuments. Br. Layard has published several cylinder 
seals with the Phoenician name of the proprietor, engraved in Phoeni- 
cian characters. 106 The lion-shaped weights in the Br. Museum, found 
in the palace of Nimrood, 107 bear, likewise, Phoenician inscriptions ; 
but they cannot fairly be taken for works of Shemitic artists. They 
prove only, by their bilingual inscription, that there were two diffe- 
rent nationalities in the empire, and that the system of weights and 
measures must have been peculiarly important to the Shemitic portion 
of its inhabitants — no other instances of bilingual official inscriptions 

100 Layard's Nineveh and Babylon, p. 606: — Luynes, Sarcophage, p. 59. 

107 Layard's Monuments of Nineveh, 1st series, pi. 96: — Nineveh and Babylon, p. 605. 



134 



THE ART OF THE SHEMITES. 



Fig. 20. 




MOABITE. 



having been discovered among the remains of Assyria. "We are 
compelled, therefore, to dismiss the idea that Phoenician art was a 
development of Egyptian style, and must infer that the Shemites 
borrowed their artistical forms from the neighboring nations. Thus, 
the so-called Moabite relief, from Redjom el-Aabed, published by 
De Saulcy, 108 is closely allied in style to the Assyrian reliefs ; and it 

might be taken for the work of 
the proud conquerors of Palestine, 
were not the type of the face, and 
the absence of the characteristi- 
cal long-flowing Assyrian tresses 
rather Shemitic. Again, the 
lost Scriptural and mysteriously- 
engraved gems Urim and Thum- 
mim, which adorned the breast- 
plate of the Hebrew high-priest, 109 
bear philologically such an affi- 
nity to the Egyptian Urseus and 
Thmei, judicial symbols of power 
and truth, that, as some Egyptolo- 
gists have suggested, they might 
Without laying too great stress 
on this suggestion, which cannot be either proved or disproved, we 
must admit, that at the latest period of the Hebrew monarchy, the 
imagery of the prophets, — for instance, the vision of Ezekiel, — is 
entirely Assyrian. The eagle, the winged lion, lull and man, which 
finally became the symbols of the four Evangelists, 110 are now pretty 
familiar to us by the Assyrian reliefs of the Louvre and of the British 
Museum. So are the revolving winged orbs of the prophets ; evidently 
the same symbolical emblems which, among the Egyptians, designated 
Hoe-hat, the celestial sun, 111 and were transferred to Nineveh and 
Persepolis as the symbol of the Feruers or Guardian Angels. 

™Voyage dans les Terres bibliques, 1853, Atlas, pi. XVIII : — Types of Mankind, p. 530. 
109 Lanoi, La Sagra Scrittura illustrata, Roma, 1827; pp. 209-235, and Plates: — Idem, 
Lellre a H.Prisse, pp. 84-5. 

no [-<< j; s t vitulus Lucas, leo Marcus, avisque Johannes, 
Est homo Matthasus, quatuor ista Deus ; 
Est homo nascendo, vitulus mortem patiendo, 
Est leo snrgendo, sed avis ad summa petendo." 
(Sjobekg, Pa' Arch'dologisska Sallskapets kostnad och Forlag, Stockholm, 1822, p. 43): — 
Munter. (Sinnbilder und Kunstvorstellung der alien Christen, Altona, 1825, p. 25, pp. 44-5,) 
gives the patristic citations from Irenseus, Augustine, Jerome, &c. " Rident autem Judsei et 
Arabes," adds old Gaffakelm. — G. R. G.] 

111 \_Oiia JSgypliaca, pp. 95-6 : — Types of Mankind, p. 602. I re-allude to this because I 
find in Basnage (Hist, of the Jews, p. 248) that the texts of Isaiah and Malachi were 
explained by the sun "with wings" as far back as 1701. — G. R. G.] 



have been borrowed from Egypt. 



THE ART OF THE SHEMITES. 



135 



Fig. 21. 



But the Phoenicians had no peculiar predilection for the forms of 
art connected with the civilization of hieroglyphics, or of the cunei- 
form character. Unable themselves to create a national style of art, 
they adopted Grecian art instead. The types of all the coins of 
Phoenicia and Cilicia, whether "autonomous" or inscribed with the 
name of the Persian Satraps, are Greek as regards the style ; so too 
are the medals of the Carthaginian towns of Sicily, vying in beauty 
with the best Syracusan medals. "Their elegance," according to 
Gerhard, 111 "is a proof, not of proficiency, but of the absence of 
national art, since there only can a foreign style be introduced, where 
it has no national forms to displace." Even the Cypriot-head, dis- 
covered by Ross and published by Gerhard, 112 is in its principal forms 
entirely Greek, reminding us of the 
earliest Hellenic style ; and it is therefore 
classed by Gerhard among the specimens 
of archaic Greek sculpture, although 
found on an originally Phoenician island, 
because we know of no other instance of 
a similar style of Shemitic art, at the 
same time that the Greek reliefs of Seli- 
nus are analogous to it. 

The soil of Carthage and of northern 
Africa, over which Punic domination 
extended, has not yielded any monu- 
ments of Carthaginian art, all such traces 
of Punic civilization having been com- 
pletely swept away by the Roman con- 
quest and its superimposed civilization. Accordingly, it is to Spain 
and to Sardinia that we have to look for specimens of Carthaginian 
art. But the bronze statuettes disinterred from the Punic mounds of 
Sardinia {Nuraghe) 113 are so barbarous and unartistical, that we might 
have ascribed them to indigenous tribes, had we not found entirely 
analogous idols on some islands of the Archipelago, 114 and at Mount 
Lebanon. David Urquhart, M. P., the well-known oriental traveller 
and diplomatist, brought five such statuettes from among the 
Maronites, discovered during his stay in Syria, which now enrich 
my collection of antiquities. Similar monuments were procured 
from ancient Tyre by the late M. Borel, French Consul at Smyrna. 




Ctpkiot Venus. 



111 Uber die Kunst der Phcenicicr, Berlin, 1848, p. 21. 

112 Ibidem, pi. VIII. 2, " Kyprische Vemisidole." 

« 3 Cf. De la Marmora ( Voyage en Sardaignede 1829 <J 1836,) for plates and descriptions. 
u * Gerhard, loco citato. 



136 



THE ART OF THE SHEMITES. 



"We publish some of these bronzes as specimens of the original and 
unadulterated Sbemitie art. 

The first, in fig. 22, is a statuette with some Egyptian touches; but 

Kg. 22. 




Moloch, (Pulszky Coll.) 

the next, and fig. 23, are of progressive barbarism — all characterized 
by the peculiar head-dress in the shape of a horn, the " exalted horn " 
of the Scriptures, which, down to the present day, has endured in the 
national ornament of the Druse females. The ugliness of these, no 
less than of the Sardinian statuettes, — scarcely reconcilable with com- 
monly received ideas about the wealth and display of the merchant- 
princes of Sidon and Tyre, and the power of Carthage, — ought not to 
throw a doubt upon their Shemitic origin; for, according to Herod- 
otus, 115 ugly and distorted representations were not excluded from 
among the Phoenician forms of godhead. 

"5 Hekodotds, IH. 37. 



THE ART OF THE SHEMITES. 
Fig. 23. 



137 




Eshmun, (Puhzhj Coll.) 

" Winckelman's guess," says Gerhard, in his often quoted essay, "that elegance might 
have been the principal feature of Phoenician art, is not borne out by the extant idols ; these 
are rude and intended to strike terror, like the idols of Mexico. 116 .... All the oriental ele- 
ments in Greek and^Etruscan art," he continues, "formerly attributed to Phoenician influ- 
ence, can be traced to quite different countries of Asia, first to Candaules and Croesus of 
Lydia, but if we ascend to the source — to Babylon and Nineveh. According to the remains 
of Phoenician monuments, the merit of this nation must be restricted to the clever use of 
some peculiar materials, for instance, bronze, gold, and ivory, glass and purple ; and to 
their mediating assistance afforded to the higher art of inner Asia, by copying their forms, 
and by carrying them to the west." 

The Shemites being destitute of higher national art, it is to the 
Egyptian and Assyrian monuments that we are indebted for the pre- 
servation of the ancient Shemitie cast of features, which has remained 
unchanged for thirty and more centuries. 117 We could not have 
recognized them in the works of their own artists, who either imi- 

116 Gerhard, op. cil., p. 17, 21. 

u ' See examples in Types of Mankind, chapter iv. "Physical History of the Jews." 



138 THE NATIONS OF THE 

tated the Egyptians, Assyrians, and Greeks, or relapsed into com- 
plete barbarism, but never felt any inward impulse of their own to 
reproduce nature in sculpture and painting. 

Our researches on Shemitic art clearly establish the fact, that, highly 
gifted races may be unartistic, and that neither wealth nor love of 
display, neither inventive genius nor culture, can create art among 
them. 



IV. — THE NATIONS OF THE CUNEIFORM "WRITING. 

The country lying east of the homestead of the Shemites, 
embracing the plain of Mesopotamia, and the bighlands flanking the 
Tigris up to the Persian desert, was in antiquity always the seat of 
great empires, — expanding principally towards the west, often threat- 
ening and sometimes subduing the Asiatic coast of the Mediterra- 
nean, and- extending its influence to Europe. The populations dwell- 
ing along the Euphrates and Tigris, and on the Armenian and Per- 
sian table-land — were not homogeneous. Cushite, Shemitic, Arian, 
and Turanian elements struggled here against one another : the scep- 
tre of the "West Asiatic empire often changed hands amongst them, 
but always within the limits mentioned above; being transferred 
from Nineveh to Babylon, from Babylon to Ecbatana and Persepolis ; 
again to Seleucia, thence to Ctesiphon, and at last to Bagdad. The 
national peculiarities of this empire have remained in many respects 
a puzzle for the ethnologists. "What was the precise character of the 
languages of Assyria and Babylonia — what the seat of the Scythians 
who invaded the empire, and ruled it for twenty-eight years ; and 
what the national type of the Medes, and perhaps even of the Par- 
tisans, — are difficulties not yet solved, which require further investi- 
gation. 

All modern chronologists and philologists agree about the ancient 
Persians, that they were pure and unmixed Japetides, or Indo- 
Europeans ; so much so, that the name by which they themselves 
called their race — Arians or Iranians — has been adopted for designa- 
ting the peculiar family of the white race to which they belong. 
The Medes 118 and the Parthians, on the other side, are classed among 
the Turanians, or Scythians, or Turk-Tartars. As to the Assyrians 
and Babylonians, the following is the result of the latest researches : 

The Chevalier Bunsen, — whose eminently suggestive works will 
remain of the highest value, even when a more thorough knowledge 
of the subjects he treats may have modified many of his hypotheses 

118 According to Stkabo, the difference of the Mede and Persian languages was a dif- 
ference of mere dialect: still, our scholars unanimously designate the Scythian (or Tura-" 
nian), second inscription of Behistun, by the word Median. 



CUNEIFORM WRITING. 139 

and conclusions ; Max Muller, the well-known Sanscrit scholar ; 
and Lepsius, the celebrated Egyptologist; are the foremost of a 
school which tries to find out a union between the Shemitic and the 
Arian races, and to derive all the languages of Europe and of Asia 
from one common original stock. According to their theory, the 
languages of the old world may be classed into four distinct families : 
Hamitic or Cushite, Shemitic, Turanian (including the Chinese, the 
Turk-Tartars and Malays,) and Arian. Proceeding farther, they 
assert that the Hamitic is but an earlier form of the Shemitic, whilst 
the Arian is for them nothing more than the development of the 
Turanian. Having reduced the four families to two, they seek a 
union between the Shemitic and Arian, and believe they have 
found the traces of this original unity, first in the ancient Egyptian, 
and again in the Babylonian and Assyrian. 119 

However, these conclusions are rather speculative hypotheses than 
acquired scientific facts. Lepsius acknowledges that the Coptic 
forms a branch as distinct and as distant from the Shemitic, as the She- 
mitic is from the Arian ; whilst Bunsen and Max Muller admit the 
same, by placing that which they call the sacred language of Assyria 
and Babylonia " between Hamitism, or the ante-historical Shemitism 
in Egypt, and the historical Shemitic languages;" 120 and again, by 
stating that "the cuneiform inscriptions of Babylon exhibit to us a 
language in the transition from primordial to historical Shemi- 
tism." 121 

Renan, on the other hand, cannot imagine how any Shemitic 
language could have been written in a non-Shemitic alphabet : 

"In early antiquity, language and alphabet are inseparable: the cuneiform characters 
may have been adopted by nations having no alphabet of their own ; but how should the 
imperfect, ideographic, system of Assyria and Babylon have served for writing languages 
which had a more developed system of writing of their own ?" 

Besides, according to him, the national history of the Assyrians 
and Babylonians has no Shemitic characters. 

"Shemitic life is simple and narrow, patriarchal, and hostile to centralization. The 
Shemite disUkes manual labor, and the patience' and discipline — such as raised gigantic 
structures like those of Egypt and Assyria, — are wanting with him. At Nineveh, on the 
contrary, we meet with a great development of material civilization, with an absolute 
monarchy, with nourishing imitative art, with a grand style of architecture, with a mytho- 
logy impregnated with Arian ideas, with a tendency to see an incarnation of Godhead in 
the king, and with a spirit of conquest and centralization." 

119 Bcnsen and Max MBxlek, Outlines of the Philosophy of History : — Lepsius, 1st, Anord- 
nung und Verwandlschaft des Semilischen, Indischen, Altpersischen und Allcethiopischen Alpha- 
betes; and lid, XTrsprung und Verwandlschaft der Zahlworter. 

120 Sippolylus, III, p. 183, seqq. : — Outlines, I, p. 183, seqq. 
la Livre I, Chap. II. <S 3, 4. 



140 THE NATIONS OF THE 

The Chaldeans of Babylonia, with their magnificent robes, riding 
on high-spirited horses, and wearing high tiaras, as described by 
Ezekiel, 122 are therefore, for B,enan, not Shemites, but a branch of 
the ruling race of Assyria; which, according to him, was Arian. 
As to the names of the kings : Tiglath-Pilesar, Sennacherib, Sargon, 
Evil-Merodach, Markodempal, &c. — they are contrary to the funda- 
mental laws of the Syro-Arabic languages, and cannot be reduced to 
Sbemitic roots. But again, most of the towns and rivers in Assyria 
and Babylonia have Shemitic names; whence he infers that the 
bulk of the population in Mesopotamia must have been Shemitic, 
but subject to a conquering race of Arians, which formed a military 
aristocracy and a religious caste, both summed up in the person of 
the absolute king. 

We cannot but admit the force of Benan's reasoning ; and his con- 
clusion about the two nationalities in Assyria and Babylonia 123 (that 
is to say, about the Shemitic character of the bulk of the people with 
a ruling race of Iranians), is supported by the Shemitic and bilingual 
inscriptions on some Assyrian monuments already noticed. This 
view of a mixed population inhabiting Mesopotamia, sufficiently ex- 
plains the semi-Shemitic peculiarities of the languages of the cunei- 
form inscriptions on the monuments of Nineveh and Babylon : and 
the reasoning of the learned author of " the Genesis of the Earth 
and of Man," leads to the same result when he observes, — " a mixed 
language obtaining in one country indicates a mixture of races ; and 
the grammar of that language, by its being unmixed or mixed, is an 
index to the number and power of one race in comparison with the 
other at the period of the formation of the mixed language." 124 Ac- 
cording to this rule, the Assyrian aud Babylonian, instead of forming 
the "transition between ante-historical and historical Shemitism," 
must be considered as the result of the mixture of Shemitic and 
Arian elements, at any rate not anterior to historical Shemitism. 
The monuments of art discovered in Assyria and Babylonia lead to 
the same conclusion, viz : that the ruling classes were Arian, since all 
the sculptures connected with cuneiform inscriptions bear the same 
Arian character at Nineveh as well as at Persepolis. In fact, the 
civilization and the fundamental ideas about political government 
and provincial administration are identical among all the nations 
making use of the cuneiform character, though we must admit dif- 

122 Chapter XXIII. 

12 3 Gesenius had, long before Kenan, insisted upon the northern origin of the Chaldeans 
as a conquering raoe in Babylonia, different from the bulk of the population. 

124 Edited by R. Stewart Poole, Edinburgh, 1856, p. 155: — compare Types of Mankind, 
1854, voce " Elam," pp. 533-4. 



CUNEIFORM WRITING. 141 

ferent degrees of development. The Babylonian inscriptions abound 
with ideographic groups reminding us of the hieroglyphics of Egypt, 
whilst the Arians of Persia borrowed the phonetic system from the 
Shemites, but retained the form of the wedge. As to their artistic 
capacities, the Assyrians occupy the highest rank, in some of the bas- 
reliefs of Sardanapalus second only to the Greeks. Some of the Per- 
sepolitan seals are likewise of a high, chaste, and sober style of art, ■ 
peculiarly charming by the introduction of picturesque folds into the 
heavy Assyrian garments. The Babylonians, with whom tbe Shemi- 
tic element always preponderated, were little artistic ; inscriptions 
were more copious with them than reliefs, and their sculptures are 
without exception rude in execution, and monotonous in conception. 
It is difficult to speak about the origin or the early history of 
Assyrian art. The earliest mention of the empire occurs in the 
hieroglyphic annals of Thutmosis HE, the great conquering Pharaoh 
of the XVIIth dynasty, about the seventeenth century, b. c, who 
caused his victories to be recorded on a slab deciphered by Mr. 
Birch. 135 "We hear of the defeat of the king of Naharaina (Mesopo- 
tamia) ; or of the chief of Saenhar, (Shinar) bringing as tribute blue- 
stone of Babilu, (lapis-lazuli from Babylon). Under Amenophis m, 
we find Asuru, Naharaina and Saenhar, again among the conquered 
countries. 126 And, as corroborative of the truth of the hieroglyphical 
records, Egyptian scarabs with the engraved names of these two 
kings have been found in various parts of Mesopotamia. 127 At a 
somewhat later period, under the XXth dynasty of the Ramessides, 
the chief of Bakhtan 12B offers his daughter to Ramesses XIV, who 
marries her ; and soon after, about the time when the Ark of the 
Covenant was taken from the Israelites by the Philistines, sent the 
Ark of the Egyptian God, Khons, from Thebes to Bashan, as a remedy 
to his sister-in-law, who was possessed by an evil spirit. 129 The 
intercourse between Egypt and Mesopotamia became soon still more 
close and intimate. 130 We find Pharaoh Pihem, the head of the XXIst 
dynasty, journeying on a friendly visit to Mesopotamia : m moreover, 
his successors and their descendants, — to judge by their names, — 

125 Bikch, The Annals of Thotmes III, vol. v. of the Transactions of the Roy, Soo. 
Liter. — New series, p. 116. 

126 Lepshjs, Lenkmaler III. Bl. 88. 

127 Layard, Nineveh and Babylon, p. 281 : — Types of Mankind, p. 133, fig. 32. 

128 Egyptologists identify Bakhtan with the scriptural Bashan "in upper Mesopotamia," 
as they call it, though it is rather hold to call Mesopotamia the country bordering on the 
tribe of Manasseh. — In consequence, some favor Ecbatana. 

129 Birch, Transactions R. Soc. Lit. IV. p. 16 & f. 
«° Lepsius, Denkmaler III, Bl. 249. 

"» Birch, Transactions R. Soc. Lit. 1848, p. 164 & f. 



142 THE NATIONS OF THE 

are connected with Mesopotamia; inasmuch as the names of Osor- 
kon, (Sargon) Takeloth (Tiglath), Nimrod, and Keromama [Semi- 
ramis,) are altogether un-Egyptian, and strongly Assyrian. About 
this time (9th and 10th century b. c.) ivory combs, and decorative 
sculptures of Assyrian design became fashionable in Egypt, 133 and 
show that the Assyrian style of art was already fully developed. The 
celebrated black marble obelisk of king Divanubar (Deleboras ?), in 
the British Museum, belongs to about the same period, being 
synchronic with king Jehu of Israel (about 820 b. c), and bears no 
peculiar traces of archaism. The archaic human-headed bull and 
lion of Arban, published by Layard, 133 must therefore be placed by 
several centuries before the obelisk, and may perhaps belong to the 
time of the first contact of Mesopotamia and Egypt under the con- 
quering kings of the XVTIth and XVHTth dynasties. 

" Their outline and treatment," says Layard, " are bold and angular, with an archaic feel- 
ing conveying the impression of great antiquity. They bear the same relation to the more 
delicately finished and highly ornamented sculptures of Nimroud as the earliest specimens 
of Greek art do to the exquisite monuments of Phidias and Praxiteles. The human 
features are, unfortunately, much injured, but such parts as remain are sufficient to show 
that the countenance had a peculiar character, differing from the Assyrian type. The nose 
was flat and large, and the lips thick and overhanging, like those of a negro." 

To judge by the drawing of Dr. Layard, knowing the correctness 
of his designs, we must observe that the head of the Arban bull has 
as little of nigritian characters as the head of the colossal sphinx 134 
before the second Pyramid ; which had formerly likewise often been 
compared to a Negro, exclusively on account of the fulness of the 
lips, and the defacement of its nose by Arab iconoclasts. 135 The face, 
however, on both these monuments, has no particular projection of 

132 De Rouge', Notice, p. 16: — established also by Birch, "On two Egyptian cartouches 
found at Nimroud," 1848, pp. 153-60 ; abundantly figured in Layard's folio Monuments of 
Nineveh, 1849. 

133 Nineveh and Babylon, p. 276 & f. 

134 [Since the studies of Lenormant (Musee des Antiquites E~gyptiennes, p. 44), and of 
Letronne (Recueil des Inscriptions Grecques el Latines, II, 1848, pp. 460-86), the epoch here- 
tofore attributed to the Great Sphinx, viz : to Amosis (Aahmes) of XVIIth dynasty, has also 
been carried to the more ancient period of the Old Empire, through the successive explora- 
tions of Lepsius (Briefe, 1852, pp. 42-5), Brugsch (Reiseberichte, 1855, pp. 10-34), and 
more than all by Mariette, who re-uncovered this rock-colossus in 1853. The enigma of 
the " Sphinx," through the latter's researches, has vanished likewise ! It is but "Horus of 
the horizon," i. e. the setting sun. (De Saulct, " Fouilles du Serapeum de Memphis," Le 
Conslitulionel, Paris, 9 Dec. 1854: — Maury, Decouvertes en Sgyple, p. 1074) — G. R. G.] 

135 [Makreezee narrates how the nose of the Sphinx was chiselled away by a fanatical 
muslim saint, about 1378: — Cf. Fialin de Persigny, then "de'tenu a la maison de saute" 
de Doulens," [De la Destination et de T Utilite" permanente des Pyramides de l'E~gypte et de la 
Nubie conlre les Irruptions Sablonneuses du Disert, Paris, 8vo. 1845). — G. R. G.] 



CUNEIFORM WRITING. 143 

the jaws, and the facial angle is open. The fulness of the lips pecu- 
liar to the Egyptian, or negroid type, reminds the man of science only 
of Egypt, not of negroes ; who, in spite of Count de Gobineau's inge- 
nious hypotheses, 136 could not have been the ancestors of the Arian 
monarchs of Mesopotamia. Though all the human-headed hulls of 
Assyria are royal portraits, just as sphinxes of Egypt were likenesses 
of the Pharaohs, 137 still, we are scarcely authorized to draw any con- 
clusion about an Egyptian origin of Assyrian art from the negroid 
(perhaps Arab-Cushite) cast of features of the Arban king: for, in all 
other respects, the colossus exhibits the marked characteristics of 
Assyrian art ; for instance, in the elaborate arrangement of the curls 
and beard, the architectural peculiarity of the five feet of the bull, 
instead of four, together with the exaggeration of the muscles. 
Assyrian art, in its earliest known remains, appears entirely national 
and independent of Egypt ; and it maintains its peculiar type through 
the vicissitudes of several centuries down to the destruction of the 
empire. "We do not mean to say that Egypt exerted no influence 
whatever on Assyria; on the contrary, there are some bronze 
cups and ivory ornaments and statuettes, in the British Museum, 
evidently imitated from Egyptian models; still, the Egyptian ex- 
erted but a temporary influence on the decorative element of the 
Assyrian style, without modifying the art of Assyria, which can best 
be designated by the epithet of "princely." The king, according to 
the reliefs, sums up the whole national life of Nineveh. Wherever 
we look, we meet exclusively with his representations, surrounded 
here with his court, there with his army, receiving tribute and con- 
cluding treaties, leading his troops and fighting battles, besieging 
fortresses and punishing the prisoners, hunting the wild bull and the 
lion of the desert, feasting in his royal halls and drinking wine from 
costly cups. Even the pantheon of Assyria is mostly known by the 
worship, oblations, and sacrifices of the king. The scenes of domes- 
tic life, and of the sports and occupations of the people, which, in 
Egyptian reliefs, occupy nearly as much place as the representations 
connected with royalty, are altogether wanting at Nineveh. There 
are a few slabs that represent domestic occupations — a servant curry- 
combing a horse, a cook superintending the boilers, and the butchers 

136 De Gobineau, in his Inegalite des races humaines, attributes the artistic faculties of any 
race to an admixture of Negro or Mongol blood, although he acknowledges that pure Negroes 
are unartistic. 

137 The union of a human head to a lion in Egypt, and to a bull in Assyria, implies an 
apotheosis : since the lion and the bull were the symbols of Gods, the terrestrial images of 
celestial beings. 



144 THE NATIONS OF THE 

disjointing a calf; 138 but all this is done before tbe tent of tbe king: 
it is tbe royal stable and tbe royal kitchen which we see before us, — in 
fact, " court-life below stairs." The rich Asiatic costume of the 
Assyrians, wide and flowing, decorated with embroidery, fringes and 
tassels, contrasts most strikingly with the prevalent nakedness of 
Egyptian and Greek art. We are always reminded of the pomp, splen- 
dor and etiquette of eastern courts. The proportions of the human 
body are somewhat short and heavy, less animated in their action, but 
more correctly modelled than in Egyptian reliefs. Nothing but an 
occasional want of correctness about the shoulders and the eyes, 
which, in the bas-reliefs, are drawn in the front-view, reminds us of the 
infancy of art or of a traditionary hieratic style. The anatomical 
knowledge, however, with which the muscles are sculptured, even 
where the execution is rather coarse, surpasses the art of Egypt in 
the time of the XVIIth dynasty. The composition is generally 
clear, the space conveniently and symmetrically filled with figures, 
and the relief, to a certain degree, has ceased to be a mere architec- 
tural decoration : on the palace of Essarhaddon, it has even become 
a real tableau. For all this, we cannot appreciate the merit of the 
sculptures, if we pass our judgment upon them independently of the 
place for which they were originally destined. Accordingly, the 
peculiarly Assyrian exaggeration in representing the muscles of the 
body has often been criticized ; 139 since it escaped the attention of our 
modern art-critics, that this fault is only apparent, not real, being 
produced exclusively by the different way in which the bas-reliefs 
were lit in antiquity and modern times. In the hot climate and 
under the glaring sun of Mesopotamia, the palaces were built prin- 
cipally with the view to afford coolness and shade ; and therefore all 
the royal halls were long, high and narrow, in order to exclude the 
rays of the sun. They could, in consequence, but very imperfectly 
have been lighted from above, through apertures in the colonnade 
supporting the beams of the roof. A cool chiaroscuro reigned in all 
the apartments ; and unless the reliefs on the wall were intended 
altogether to be lost to beholders, it was indispensable to have the 
principal lines deeply cut into the alabaster, in order to produce a 
sufficiently-intense shadow for making the composition and its details 
apparent. The Assyrian sculptors, with true artistical feeling, cal- 
culated upon the effect their works were" to make in the king's 
palaces ; but could not dream that their compositions were to be 

188 Bonomi, Nineveh and Us Palaces, p. 228-29 ; an octavo which admirably popularizes tho 
costly folios of Botta and Flandin's Ninive. 
139 Bonomi, Nineveh and its Palaces, p. 315. 



CUNEIFORM WRITING. 



145 



exposed, 28 centuries later, to the close inspection of the critics of our 
day in well-lighted museums. 

When we claim a peculiar national type for Assyrian art, alto- 
gether independent of Egyptian, we do not mean to deny accidental 
Egyptian influence, which, however, could not transform Assyrian 
sculpture into a branch of Nilotic art. The beautiful embossed 
bronze bowls, ivory bas-reliefs and statuettes found at Mneveh, are 
certainly imitations of Egyptian models ; but we encounter similar 
artistical fashions at Rome in the time of Hadrian. They remained 
altogether on the surface, and did not affect the national style. Still, 
we do find some artistic "motives," even on the best reliefs of Nim- 
rood and Khorsabad, which show on the one hand, that the Assyrian 
sculptors were acquainted with some Egyptian monuments of art ; 
and on the other, that this acquaintance ever continued to be super- 
ficial. Thus, for instance, we often meet on Pharaonic battle-scenes, 
with the vulture, holding a sword in its claws, soaring above tbe king, 
as a symbol of victory. The Mnevite artists copied this representa- 
tion, but, unacquainted with its hieratic symbolical meaning, sculp- 
tured the vulture simply as the hideous bird of prey, feeding upon the 
corpses on the battle-field, and carrying the limbs into its eyrie. In 
a similar way, the winged solar disc, the symbol of the heavenly sun, 
was transformed in Assyria into the guardian-angel of the king him- 
self, and transferred at a later age to Persia as tbe Feruer. 

The following representation of 
an Assyrian [24] gives us a fair Fl £- 24 - 

idea of the Arian type of' the ISfine- 
vite aristocracy. It is the head 
of a statue of the God Nebo, in the 
British Museum, bearing across its 
breast an inscription, stating that 
the statue was executed by a sculp- 
tor of Calah, and dedicated by him 
to his lord Phalukha, (Belochus, 
Pul,) king of Assyria, and to his 
lady Sammuramit (Semiramis) queen 
of the palace (about 750 b. a). 

The same general cast of features 
is clearly discernible in an inedited 
portrait of Essareadbon [25] (about 
660 b. c.) taken from the great tri- 
umphal tableau at Kouyundjik, Nebo- 
now in the British Museum. The 

Ninevite artists, — who, about the time of this king, introduced a 
10 




146 



THE NATIONS OF THE 



new feature into relievos by trying to combine landscape and natural 

objects with tbe great bistorical 
compositions, — were perfectly 
aware of tbe differences in tbe 
national types also. Tbe two pri- 
soners at tbe feet of king Assar- 
akbal m, are evidently not Assy- 
rians, one of tbem [26] being a 
Sbemite, tbe otber [27] an inha- 
bitant of tbe table-lands of Arme- 
nia, if not a Kurd. Sir Henry 
Rawlinson deems tbem Susians. 
Still nobler than Essarhaddon 
is tbe Sardanapalus [28] (635 b. 
c.) of tbe British Museum, a truly 
magnificent prince, tbe father of 
tbe king under whom Mneveh 
was destroyed, and who, in the 
Greek histories, is mentioned 
under the same name. His 
Essarhaddon. monuments, lately discovered, 




Fig. 26. 



Fig. 27. 




Shemite Prisoner, (Inedited). 




Kurdish Prisoner, {Inedited). 



and brought to England by Mr. Rassam, are so exquisitely modelled, 
and executed with such a highly-developed sense of beauty, 
that we must rank them among the best relics of ancient art. The 
peculiar hair-dress of the king seems to have served as a model to 
the Lycian sculptor of the Harpy monument of Xanthus, in the 
Br. M. ; and it is remarkable that tbe female bead [29] of an archaic 
coin of Velia, in Italy, shows the same arrangement of tbe hair. Velia 
was a colony from Phocsea, in Ionia, whose high-minded citizens 
preferred abandoning their country, rather than to live under the 



CUNEIFORM WRITING. 147 

sway of the conqueror Croesus. They carried the traditions of 

Fig. 28. Fig. 29. 





Silver Coin from Velia, {Pulszky coll.) 

Asiatic art into Italy, at a time 
when Hellas could not yet 
boast of eminence in sculpture. 
But although the hair-dress 
of the Velian female closely 
resembles and may be traced 
Sardanapams. back to Assyrian models, which 

are about two centuries older, 
still the cast of the features is not the same. It is, as might be ex- 
pected, thoroughly Greek. "Whilst, as a remarkable instance of the 
constancy of national types, the likeness between the modern Chal- 
deans (JSTestorians) and the old Assyrians is unmistakable. To illus- 
trate this properly, we give, side by side, sketches of a Chaldean mer- 
chant of Mosul, and a head from one of the Nineveh sculptures. 140 



Fig. 30. 



Fig. 31. 





Modern Chaldee. Ancient Assyrian. 

Babylon, of whose art but few remains have as yet been dis- 



140 Illustrated London News, May 24, 1856. 



148 



THE NATIONS OF THE 



covered, — mostly cylindrical seals of lapis-lazuli and haematite, and 
some terra-cottas — was less artistical than Nineveh. Its statuary was 
a branch of the Assyrian, not differing in style, hut only in perfec- 
tion. All the Babylonian monuments, without exception, are evi- 
dences of the more Shemitic character of the country ; whither art 
has been imported from Nineveh, without ever becoming thoroughly 
understood. 

A nobler spirit prevailed in Arian Persia. The royal palaces and 

tombs of the Achsemenian 
Fig. 32. kings yield numerous speci- 

mens of Persian art, mostly 
belonging to the great time 
of Persia under Darius Hys- 
taspes and his son Xerxes. 
Nevertheless, one monument, 
which shows the origin of 
art under the Achsemenidse, 
has likewise escaped the ra- 
vages of time, and is proba- 
bly the earliest of all the 
Persian reliefs. "We speak of 
the rock-sculpture at Mur- 
ghab, close to Persepolis, re- 
presenting a man with four 
wings, clad in the long As- 
syrian robe without folds, and 
bearing on his head the Egyp- 
tian crown called "Atf," which 
is the peculiar distinction of the 
God Ohnum. The cuneiform 
inscription, above the sculp- 
ture, says, with grandeur and 
simplicity: "I am Cyrus, the 
king; the Achsemenian."[S2] 
This monument was evi- 
dently, then, erected in honour of Cyrus, but it cannot have been 
sculptured in the life-time of the conqueror, inasmuch as his wings 
(which are the Assyrian attributes of Godhead), and the crown of 
Chnum (which is the Egyptian symbol of divine power), clearly indi- 
cate an apotheosis. The peculiarity of the costume of Cyrus, which 
is purely Assyrian, without folds, forbids us to place the sculpture 
in the time of Darius or his descendants ; whose monuments, with- 




141 Vaux, Nineveh and Persepolis, 4th ed., London, 1855 ; Plate, pp 392-3. 



CUNEIFORM WRITING. 



149 



out exception, are characterized by the Persian folds of the gar- 
ment. 

Thus, then, the relief of Murghab must be the work of Cam- 
btses, who, according to Diodorus Siculus, 142 employed Egyptian 
artists, and was probably the first to introduce art into Persia. Ac- 
cording to the rock-sculpture, bowever, be did not confine himself 
to Egyptians, but transplanted sculptors likewise from Babylonia and 
Assyria to Pasargadss, and dedicated their first work to the lasting 
memory of his illustrious father (about 580 b. c). Thus, we may 
safely state that Persian art is a daughter of the Assyrian, a little 
modified by Egyptian influences, but soon emancipating itself from 
its early traditions by a purely national development, characterized 
by the very high elegance of the drapery '. Bonomi 143 takes the 
Persian style, wrongly, for a deterioration of Assyrian art; but his 
mistake is easily explained, since he formed his judgment upon some 
fragments of a later period, which are now in the British Museum, 
and upon the drawings of Ker Porter and Gore Ouseley. The Perse 
of Flandin, and the Armenie of Texier, seem to have escaped bis 
attention. They are the only ones, notwithstanding, wbicb do full 
justice to the refined taste and the neat execution of the sculptures 
of Persepolis. In comparison with the Assyrian Monuments of 
Sargon and Essarhaddon, they take the same place, as, in Egypt, 
does the elegant style of Psammeticus contrasted with the grandeur 
of the statues of the Amenophs and Thutmoses. We must, however, 
acknowledge that they are inferior to the reliefs of Sardanapalus. 
Although the head of Cyrus (as shown by the more accurate copy of 
Texier 144 [33] here presented,) 
at Murghab, is somewhat 
damaged about the nose, it 
is sufficiently characteristic 
to show its pure Arian type. 
The portrait of Xerxes, 145 [34] 
is a fine specimen of the so- 
termed Greek profile, which 
we ought to call pure Arian. 
The Achssmenidan sculptors 
moreover, were very well ac- 
quainted with the peculiar 
Cyrus. character of the different na- 




Fig. 34 




Xerxes. 



142 Libra 1, capite 46. 

1*3 Nineveh and its Palaces, p. 315. 

144 L' Armenie, la Perse, el la Mesopotamie, II., pi. 84 — "Bas-relief a Mourgab, Cyrus." 

145 Coste and Flandin, Perse Ancienne, pi. 154; but compare the more beautiful copy in 
Texier's Armenie. 



150 



THE NATIONS OF THE 



tional types of the inhabitants of the Persian empire ; as we see 
plainly on the reliefs of the tomb of king Darius Hystaspes, which 
he had excavated in the mountain Rachmend, near Persepolis. The 
king is represented here in royal attire before the fire-altar, over 
which hovers his guardian angel, in the form of a human half-figure 
rising from a winged disc. This group, grand in its simplicity, is 
placed on a beautifully decorated platform, supported by two rows 
of Caryatides, sixteen in each row, representing the four different 
nationalities subject to this king, — besides the ruling Persians, who 
occupy a more distinguished position, flanking the composition on 
both sides, and typified by three spearsmen of the royal guard, and 
by three courtiers who raise their hands in adoration. 

This relief of the sepulchre of Darius in Persia, is one of the most 
valuable documents of ethnology, second in importance only to king 
Menephthah's (Seti I.) celebrated tomb at Thebes recording four 
types of man. 146 "We see here first the sculpture of a Chaldean, stand- 



Fig. 35. "> 




Ltdian. 



Scythian. 



NEGRO. 



Chaldee. 



ing for Assyria and Babylonia ; it is so striking that it cannot be mis- 
taken. Next to the Chaldean stands the negro for the Egypto- 
^Ethiopian empire added by Cambyses to the Persian. It was on the 
Nile that Persia became first acquainted with negroes, and therefore 
chose them for the representatives of Africa ; though the empire of 
the Achsemenidas, ceasing in Nubia and the western Oases, never 
extended over Negro-land, or the Soodan proper. The third sup- 
porter of the platform can be none else than the representative of 
the Scythian empire of Astyages. His peculiarly-round skull, which 
still characterizes the pure Turkish and Magyar blood, designates 
him as belonging to a Turanian race. The last figure in the group 
wears the Phrygian cap, and personifies the Lydian empire of 
Crcesus, of which Phrygia, on account of its rich gold-mines, was 
the most important province. 

Thus, in the rock-hewn tomb of Darius, (about 490 B. c.) at a time 

i« Types of Mankind, p. 85, fig. 1 ; and pp. 247-9. 

i« Texieb, L'Armenie el la Perse, II., pi. 126, "Persepolis — Tombeau dans le roc." 



CUNEIFORM WRITING. 151 

when Greek art was still archaic, Persian sculpture preserved 
five characteristic types of mankind in an admirable work of art, 
as evidences of the constancy of the peculiar cast of features of 
human races. The monumental negro resembles the negro of to-day ; 
the Arian features of king Darius and his guards are identical with 
those we meet still in Persia and all over Europe ; the Turanian (or 
Scythian) bears a family resemblance to many Turks and Hunga- 
rians ; the identity of the Assyrian and modern Chaldean physiog- 
nomy has been mentioned and proved above ; and the Phrygian 
represents the mixed population of Asia Minor, a modification of the 
Arian type by the infusion of foreign blood — Iranian, Scythic, and 
Shemitish interminglings. 

Persian art, as a branch and daughter of the Assyrian, never rose 
to a higher development than under Darius and Xerxes. The dis- 
sensions and the profligacy of the royal house checked the progress 
of art, which remained stationary until Alexander the Macedonian 
destroyed the independence of the empire, and tried to hellenize the 
subdued Persians. His endeavors, continued by the first Seleucidse 
of Syria, were not devoid of results ; because, even when Persia 
recovered its independence and re-appeared in history as the Par- 
thian empire, all its coins bear Greek inscriptions and imitations of 
Grecian types. "We ought not to forget, notwithstanding, that the 
Parthians were probably not Persians proper, but an unartistical Tu- 
ranian tribe, held in subjection by the earlier Persians under their 
Achsemenian kings, which, in its turn, revolting from the yoke, ruled 
the Persians for above four centuries. 

Some specimens of a peculiar style of art have been lately disco- 
vered within the boundaries of the old Persian empire, viz : at Pte- 
riurn and ISTymphse. They were published by Texier ; 148 and it has 
been suggested that they might be Median. The bas-reliefs certainly 
present nothing to suggest any relation to the art of that race which 
originated the cuneiform writing ; nor is a perceptible affinity con- 
spicuous between them and the Egyptian style. Nevertheless, the 
artists who chiselled them knew of the productions of Greek genius. 
The breath of Hellenism has passed over them, as we perceive from 
the following male [36] and female [37] heads. They are, therefore, 
by many centuries posterior to the great Median empire. Still, it 
would be presumptuous to attribute them to any determinate nation- 
ality, since none of the highlands flanking Asia Minor, inhabited then 
by aboriginal tribes, were ever completely hellenized; although they 
were powerfully affected by the genius of Hellas, whose progress 

148 Asie Mineure, PI. 61, 78,—" Bas-relief taille' dans le roc. L'Offrande" — et seq. 



152 NATIONS OF THE CUNEIFORM WRITING. 



Fig. 36. 



Fig. 37. 



never was stopped by "barbarians," but only by the equally pow- 
erful and expanding Sbemitic and 
Arian civilization. The national 
spirit of the Arians in Persia revived 
after five centuries of Greek and heL 
fem'zed-Parthian rule. Ardeschir, 
tbe son of Babek, and grandson to 
Sassan, rose up in rebellion against 
tbe Parthian Arsacides, and broke 
down their supremacy in a long 
protracted war about the beginning 
of the third century of our era (a. d. 
214-226 : obiit, 240). With his tri- 
umph, Persian art revived once 




Goddess from 
Pterium. 



more ; and although it inherited no 



Fig. 38. 



connection with the traditions of 
Achsemenian art, it was again characterized by the peculiar rich- 
ness of the flowing drapery. Sassanide art is at any rate equal, if not 
superior, to the contemporary style of Rome ; indeed, the head of Ar- 
deschir himself, [38] from a rock- 
sculpture at Persepolis, is a -most 
creditable work of art, scarcely 
surpassed by any Roman relief of 
the same period. This "Indian 
summer" of ancient Persian art 
lasted but for a short time ; it de- 
generated under the later kings, 
and was entirely destroyed by the 
Mohammedan conquest, in the se- 
venth century. The Kur'an was 
introduced by fire and sword, and 
became soon the undisputed law 
of the Persian race. Accordingly, 
we might expect the cessation of 
artistical life. But here we meet with a most striking evidence in 
favor of our assertion that art is the result of a peculiar innate ten- 
dency of some races, which cannot be crushed out by civil and reli- 
gious prohibitions. As soon as the Persians recovered their politi- 
cal independence, and fell off from the Arab, Khalifate of Bagdad, 
they continued to draw and even to carve human forms, though they 
never ceased to profess strict adherence to the Kur'an. Their style 




Ardeschir. 149 



119 Texier, Armenie, 1852, ii., PI. 148. 



THE ETRUSCANS AND THEIR ART. 153 

of art changed now for the third time ; but neither the instinct for 
art, nor its habitual practice, has ever yet been destroyed among the 
true Iranian race of Persia. 



Y. — THE ETRUSCANS AND THEIR ART. 

The Etruscans were a mongrel race, the result of the amalgama- 
tion of different tribes, partly Asiatic, partly European, both Italian 
and Greek. Their language was mixed, though it is still greatly 
disputed how far the Greek elements pervaded the aboriginal forms 
of speech. As to the origin of the Etruscans : the most probable 
opinion is, that Lydians from the ancient Torrhebis in Asia emi- 
grated to Italy and became the rulers of the then little-civilized abo- 
rigines, who were either Pelasgic TJnibrians, or a Celtic Alpine tribe, 
which had- previously and gradually migrated southwards. They - 
held the country from the Po to the Tiber, and extended even to (Jf 
southern Italy. Greek immigrants, principally ^Eolians from Corinth, 
settled among them at a somewhat later period, and the mixture of 
these nationalities produced the historical Etruscans. In regard to 
the details, the standard authors on Etruria differ in their opinions. 
Raoul-Pochette takes them for Pelasgi, modified by Lydians; 
whereas 15Tiebu.hr denies the Lydian immigration related by Herodo- 
tus ; the Tyrrhenians being with him foreign conquering invaders, 
but not Lydians. Still, the monuments of Etruria bear evidence 
both to the early connection between Etruria and Lower Asia, and 
to the existence of an unartistic aboriginal population of Umbri, 
Siculi, &c. 

This view is supported by a great orientalist, Lanci, 150 who distin- 
guishes three periods of Etruscan literature : — 1st. When the Phoe- 
nico-Lydian elements arrived in Italy ; 2d., when the Greeks began 
to mix with it, after the advent of Demaratus ; and 3d., when Gre- 
cian mythology, letters, and tongue, preponderated. Similar is that 
of Lenormant, 151 in perceiving three phases of civilization in Etruria 
— " une phase asiatique, une phase corinthienne, une phase athe- 
nienne." If, notwithstanding, we remember how, as late as 1848, the 
whole stock of words recovered from inscriptions amounted to but 
thirty-three ; 152 and that, — besides a few names of deities, like ^ESAR, 
"God" (Osiris ?),— tl^e formula RLL AVTL "vixit annos," CLAN" 

loo Parere di Michaelangelo Lanci inlorno all' Iscrizione Elrusca delta statua Todina del 
museo Valicano, Roma, Aprile, 1837. 

151 " Fragment sur l'etude des vases peintes antiques, Revue Archeol., May, 1844, p. 87. 

152 Denis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, London, 1848, pp. xlii-v, that is to say, such 
words as cannot be explained from Greek and Latin roots. 



-'• 



154 THE ETRUSCANS 

"filius," and SEC "filia," comprised all now known in reality of the 
lost speech of the Tyrrheni ; we may well exclaim with the prophet, 
" it is an ancient nation, a nation whose language thou knowest not." 

"Whatever be the pedigree of the Etruscans, they were a hardy and 
enterprising nation, full of energy and skill, ready to receive improve- 
ments from foreign populations, even if, in their institutions, they 
were rather conservative. History shows them as a free, aristocratic, 
and manufacturing nation, characterized by a marked practical ten- 
dency, by little idealism and feeling for beauty, but much ingenuity 
in applying art to household purposes and to the comfort of private 
life. They were, in fact, the English of antiquity, — but they had not 
the good luck of the British islanders to be surrounded by the sea, 
and thus to have enjoyed the possibility of maintaining and develop- 
ing their independence without foreign intervention. Eew dangers 
threatened the Etruscans from the north : they protected themselves 
sufficiently against the incursions of savage Gauls, by fortifying their 
towns, the cyclopean walls of which are still the wonder of the tra- 
veller. It was principally towards the south that they had to contend 
with powerful foes. The maritime states of Cumse, Corinth, Syra- 
cuse, and Carthage, interfered with the extension of Etruscan naval 
enterprise, and prevented its full development on the Adriatic and 
on the Mediterranean. Still, the Etruscans were strong enough to 
defend their own coast, and to exclude the establishment of indepen- 
dent Greek and Punic settlements on the Tuscan territory. A more 
important and finally fatal enemy arose in their immediate vicinity, 
■ — Rome, with her population of hardy agriculturists, and a senate 
bent upon conquest and annexation. Accordingly, wars recurred 
from time to time, from the foundation of the city until 120 b. c, 
when the Tyrrhenian country was finally annexed to Rome. Never- 
theless, the city on the Tiber had long previously felt the influence 
of the Etruscans in her institutions, laws, and religion. Etruria gave 
kings and senators to Rome. Her sacerdotal rites, her works of 
public utility, the dignified costume of official splendor, and appa- 
rently even that universal popular garb, the toga, were all of Etrus- 
can origin. 

There are principally three features in the history of Etruria, which 
had a peculiar influence on its art. Being of mixed origin themselves, 
the Tuscans displayed a greater receptivity of exotic influences, than 
more homogeneous nations, who feel always' a kind of repulsion 
against foreigners. Being exposed to the attacks of the Gauls, they 
had to live in towns ; and therefore commerce and manufacturing 
industry were of greater importance among them than agriculture. 
Lastly, their history presents no epoch of great national triumphs, ele- 



AND THEIR ART. 155 

vating the patriotism of the people, and inspiring the poet and artist. 
Art being everywhere the mirror of national life, we find these pecu- 
liar features of the Tuscan history expressed in the paintings and 
sculptures of Etruria. They lack originality. The artists borrowed 
their forms of art from all the nations with whom their country came 
into contact. Idealism and a higher sense of beauty remained foreign 
to them ; in consequence, they never reached the highest eminence 
of art. Under their hands, it became principally ornamental and 
decorative, mechanical; and, above all, practical and comfortable 
among these obesos et pingues Etruscos. Whilst temples and their 
propylee are the principal objects of Greek architecture, the walls of 
the town, the bridge, the canal, the sewer, and the highway, charac- 
terize Tuscan art. 

This Etruscan want of originality and peculiar receptivity of foreign 
influences extends not only to the forms, but even to the subjects of 
their paintings and sculpture. They rarely occupy themselves with 
their own myths and superstitions, but deal principally with Greek 
mj'thology as developed by the great Epics and even Tragic poetry 
of Greece. 

All the artistical forms of Etruria were imported from abroad. 
Micali, in his Monumenti Antichi, and Monumenti Inediti, has pub- 
lished so many and such various ancient relics of Etruscan workman- 
ship, that a three-fold foreign influence on Tuscan art can no longer 
be doubted, viz : Egyptian, Asiatic and Greek. Besides these, we 
find that the bulk of the nation must have clung to a peculiar kind 
of barbarous and ugly idols, intentionally distorted like the pateeci of 
the Phoenicians. These deformed caricatures continued to be fabri- 
cated in Etruria to a rather late period : 153 they are an evidence of the 
fact that there was an unartistical element in the Tuscan nation, 
never polished by the Lydian and Greek immigration. The easy 
introduction of foreign forms of art shows likewise that there existed 
no higher national style in Etruria previous to the Tyrrhenian 
influences. 

The most peculiar of all the foreign forms of art among the Tus- 
cans is the Scarabseus, that is to say, the beetle-shape of their sculp- 
tured gems. They must have borrowed it direct from Egypt without 
any Greek inter-medium, since the scarab-form of gems is exceedingly 
rare in Greece, and not of so early a period as the Etruscan scarabsei. 
In Egypt this form was always national, being the most common 
symbol of the creative power of godhead. The Egyptian, beholding 

153 Gerhard, Sformale immagini in Bronzo, Bullelino dell' Institute, 1830, p. 11 ; and Etru- 
rischc Spiegelzeichnurgen, Chap. 1. 



156 THE ETRUSCANS 

the beetle of the Nile with its hind legs rolling a ball of mud, which 
contained the eggs of the insect, from the river to the desert, saw in 
the scarabaaus the symbol of the Creator, shaping the ball of the 
earth out of wet clay, and planting in it the seeds of all life. 154 The 
Egyptian artist often represented this symbol of godhead ; and when 
he had to carve a seal, (the sign of authenticity by which kings and 
citizens ratify their pledged word and engagements,) he cut it on 
stone, which he carved into the shape of a beetle, as if thus to place 
the seal under the protection and upon the symbol of godhead, in 
order to deter people both from forgery and from falsehood. Placed 
over the stomach of a mummy, according to rules specially enjoined 
in the "funereal ritual," it was deemed a never-failing talisman to 
shield the "soul" of its wearer against the terrific genii of Anienthi. 
The Egyptian symbol, however, possessed no analogous religious 
meaning for the Etruscans when they adopted the form of the 
scarabfeus : and even after they had abandoned it, they still retained 
the Egyptian cartouche, which encircles nearly all the works of Etrus- 
can glyptic. 

Besides the scarabsei, we find in Etruria several other Egyptian 
reminiscences, — head-dresses similar to the Pharaonic fashion, 155 and 
even idols of glazed earthenware, entirely of Egyptian shape ; for 
instance the representation of Khons, the Egyptian Hercules ; 156 of 
Onoueis, the Egyptian Mars ; or of sistrums and cats, 157 all of them 
most strikingly Egyptian in their style. 

A certain class of black earthenware vases decorated with stamped 
representations in relief, many of the earliest painted vases, some 
gems mostly of green jasper, and the marble statue of Polledrara 
now in the British Museum, are by style and costume so closely con- 
nected with the monuments of Assyria, that it is now difficult to 
doubt of a connection between Etruria and inner Asia. The disbe- 
lievers in the Lydian immigration explain the Oriental types of 
Etruria by intercourse with Phoenician merchants, and by the im- 
portation of Babylonian tapestry, — -celebrated all over the ancient 
world, — which might have familiarized the Etruscans with the 
Assyrian style and type of art. But the use of the arch in Tuscan 
architecture finally disposes of this explanation, since we learned that 
the arch was known to the Assyrians, but not to the early Greeks. 
It was introduced into the states of Hellas at a rather late period, about 

154 Hoeapollo Nilous, Hieroglyphica, transl. Cory, London, 1840; — "How an only- 
begotten," | X, pp. 19-22. 

155 Monumenti dell' Institute-, vol. 1, pi. XLI. fig. 11-12. 

156 Micalt, Monumenti Antiehi, tav. 45-46. 
15 ' Idem, Monum. Inedili, tav. I, II, XVII, L. 



AND THEIR ART. 157 

the times of Phidias. Had this architectural form heen brought to 
Etruria by the Phoenicians, it would have reached Greece at the same 
time as Italy, or earlier; whereas the contrary is the case. The 
earliest architectural arch we know is in Egypt, and belongs to the 
reign of Eamesses the Great. 158 Monsieur Place and Dr. Layard have 
discovered brick arches in the palaces of Sargon and his successors 
in Assyria, and on the Ninevite reliefs we often see arched gates with 
regular key-stones. Etruria was the next in time to make use of the 
arch. The Lydians, neighbors of Assyria, must have been acquainted 
with arched buildings, and in their new home made a most extensive 
use of this architectural feature for gates, and for sewers ; of which 
the celebrated Qloaca Maxima of Rome, built by the Tarquinii, is the 
most important still-extant example. It is, therefore, rather amusing 
to perceive that Seneca, 159 having before his eyes this monument of his 
country's early greatness, thoughtlessly alleges that Democritus, the 
contemporary of Phidias, invented the principle of the arch and of the 
key-stone. Indeed, the Romans were no great critics : Seneca ex- 
tracted the above-mentioned fact(!)from the Greek author Posidonius, 
and trusted his Grecian authority more than his own knowledge. 
Democritus was probably the man who introduced the arch from 
Italy into Greece, and got the credit of its invention among his vain 
fellow-citizens. 

Of all the foreign influences on Etruscan art, the Greek was the 
most powerful. It soon superseded both the Egyptian and the 
Oriental types. But here we ought not to forget that many of the 
Italic colonies of Grsecia Magna came from Asia, not from European 
Greece, and that the art of Ionia proper and of the neighboring 
countries exercised at least an equal influence on the Italiots with 
that of Greece proper. Our histories of art, hitherto, have not paid 
sufficient attention to the development of art among the Asiatic 
Greeks ; although the monuments discovered and to a certain extent 
published by Sir Charles Fellowes, Texier, Elandin and others, yield 
ample material for a comprehensive work on the subject, which 
might probably show that not only the poetry, history or philosophy, 
of the Greeks, but even their art, had its cradle in Asia Minor. At any 
rate, the numerous colonies of Miletus, Phocfea, Heraclia, Cyme,and 
other states of Ionia and ^Eolis, carried the principles of Greek art 
further than Greece proper. 

As to the Greek influence on Etruria, we have to distinguish two 
if not three periods : the early Asiatic Ionian, which introduced the 

ls8 Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians, v. 1, p. 18, & II, p. 300: — crude brick 
arches are, however, certainly as old as Thotmes III. 
153 Epistol. 90. 



158 



THE ETRUSCANS AND THEIR ART. 



rigid archaic style of the Tuscan bronze-figures ; 16 ° the later Doric 
style, carried to Tarquinii from Corinth by Demaratus, which cha- 
racterizes the potteries of Italy ; and perhaps a still later Attic style, 
chaste and dignified, such as we admire on the best Etruscan vases. 
Inasmuch, however, as all the names of the artists inscribed on the 
vases, the alphabet of the inscriptions, and the style of the drawing, 
are exclusively Grecian, there are many arch^ologists who do not 
attribute them to Etruria, but believe they may have either been 
imported from Greece, or manufactured in Etruria by guilds of Greek 
artists who maintained their nationality in the midst of the Tuscans. 
The national type of Tuscan physiognomies is rather ugly : entirely 
different from the Egyptian, Shemitic, Assyrian or Greek cast. It 
is characterized by a low forehead, high cheek-bones, and a coarse 
and prominent chin. The following wood-cut [38] shows two archaic 
heads from an embossed silver-relief found in Perugia, 161 now in the 
British Museum. The next figure is a fragment of a statue, [89] sculp- 



Fig. 38. 



Fig. 39. 





Etruscan Heads. 



Vulcian Head. 



tured out of a porous volcanic stone called Nenfro. It was found at 
Vulci, and is remarkable for the Egyptian head-dress and Etruscan 
features. 162 The head of Eos, or Aurora, [40] from a celebrated bronze 
now in the British Museum, found at Falterona in the province of 
Casentino, 163 gives a poor idea of the Tuscan feeling for beauty ; still, 
the liveliness of the movement and the excellent execution of the 
statuette cannot but excite our admiration. Another head [41] of a 
bronze figure in the British Museum strikingly exhibits the Etruscan 



160 The Etruscan bronzes closely resemble the archaic Greek figures : still, the peculiar 
Etruscan physiognomy, and the national fashion of shaving the beard, distinguish them 
from the early Greek monuments. 

161 Milmngen, Ancient Inedited Monuments, HE, pi. 

162 Monumenti dell' Institute-, I, pi. XLI ; and Lenoir, Tombeaux Urusgues, Annali dell' Insti- 
tute-, 1832, page 270. 

163 See also Mioali, Mon. Inediti, pp. 86-98, tavola XIII, 1 and 2. 



THE ART OF THE GREEKS. 159 

type of features. These four specimens suffice to show the peculi- 

Fig. 40. Fig. 41. 




Eos. 




Etkuscan. 



arity of, and the difference between, the art of Etruria and that of 
the surrounding nations. It occupies a higher rank than the art of 
Phoenicia, but it is inferior to the Greek, since it remained depend- 
ent upon foreign forms, and was unable to acclimatize itself 
thoroughly in upper Italy. 



VI. — THE ART OF THE GREEKS. 

It was the Greeks, who, among the Japetide nations, occupied the 
most important place in the histoiy of mankind. Though compara- 
tively few in number, they have, during the short time of their 
national independence, done more for the ennoblement of the human 
race, than any other people on earth. It was among the Greeks 
that the genius of freedom, for the first time in history, expanded 
its wings in highly civilized states, even under the most complicated 
relations of aristocracy and democracy, of unity, suzerainty and 
federalism. Under the rule of liberty, the Greek mind dived boldly 
into the sea of knowledge, and along with the treasures of science 
secured that idea of plastical beauty and measure, which pervades 
all the Hellenic life so thoroughly that even virtue was known amongst 
that gifted race only as xciXmaya'hia. ; that is to say, beauty and good- 
ness. The power of Greek genius manifested itself not only by its 
intensity when applying itself to science and art, but likewise by its 
expansion and fertility. All the shores of the Euxine, of lower 
Italy, Sicily, Cyrene, and considerable portions of the Gaulish coast, 
were studded with Greek colonies, proceeding from the mother 



1G0 THE ART OF THE GREEKS. 

country lite bee-swarms, not in order to extend its power, but to 
grow up themselves, and to prosper freely and independently. 
Within the same period, Macedonia, Epirus, and the inner countries 
of Asia Minor, up to the confines of the Shemites, were pervaded 
by Greek influences in art and manners ; and when at last exhausted 
by their unhappy divisions, the Greeks lost their independence, the 
hellenic spirit still maintained itself in art and science ; and, carried 
by Macedonian arms all over the Persian empire and Egypt, con- 
tinued to live and to thrive among nations of a high indigenous 
civilization. Greece, conquered by Rome, as Horace says, subdued 
the savage conqueror, and imported art and culture into the rude 
Latin world. Absorbed ethnically by amalgamation with Roman 
elements, Hellenism survived even the political wreck of Rome, and 
rose to a second though feeble development among the mongrel 
Byzantines, who, well aware that they were not Greeks, although 
speaking the Greek language, never ceased to call themselves 
Romans. Even now their country is called Roum-ili, by the Turk, 
and they call their own language Romaic. Down to our own days, 
Greek genius exerts its humanizing influences over the most highly 
cultivated part of the world, constituting the foundation of all the 
most comprehensive and properly human education. 

The national ebaracter of the Greeks, as expressed in their history, 
is fully developed in their art, which from its very beginning is 
characterized by freedom and movement, restricted by the most 
delicate feeling for measure, and refined by a tendency towards the 
ideal, without losing sight of nature. Progressive in its character, 
Greek art often change its forms of expression, — we may say from 
generation to generation, — with a fertility of genius, easier to be 
admired than explained. In Egyptian, Assyrian, and Persian sculp- 
ture, we noticed successive changes in the details, but scarcely any 
real and substantial progress. Among all those nations, the rudi- 
ments of art were not materially different from their highest develop- 
ment ; whilst in Greece we are able to trace the history of sculpture 
from comparative rudeness to the highest degree of eminence — 
human perfectibility, under the rule of freedom, has never been 
more gloriously personified than in the Greek nation. 

The question of the origin of Greek art has often been raised in 
antiquity as well as in modern times, but the answers are altogether 
contradictory. 

The celebrated Roman admiral Pliny, a "dilettante" who compiled 
his Natural History indiscriminately from all the sources accessible 
to him, preserved the charming story of the Corinthian girl, who 
drew the outline of the shadow of her departing lover's face on the 



THE ART OF THE GREEKS. 161 

wall, aud mentions it as the first artistical attempt. Her father, he 
continues, filled the outline up with clay, and baking it, produced 
the first relief. "We can scarcely doubt that this pretty tale is 
derived from some Greek epigram, which was popular in the times 
of Pliny, for connecting art with love ; but it cannot satisfy criticism. 
"Wmckelman, the father of scientific archaeology, deduced the Greek 
statue a priori from the Herma or bust; forgetting that Hermas and 
busts, where the head has to represent the whole figure, belong to 
the later, reflecting epoch of sculpture. No little boy ever tries to 
draw a head alone, nor can he enjoy its representation ; he looks 
immediately for its complement, the body, without which he thinks 
it deficient. Indeed, busts and Hermas remained unknown to the 
national art of Egypt and Assyria ; moreover, the earliest sculptural 
works mentioned by Greek authors are statues, not busts. So are 
all the Palladia and Dsedalean works, the outlines and general fea- 
tures of which are known from their copies on vases, coins and 
gems. 164 The types of the earliest coins are figures, though soon 
succeeded by heads. Steinbuchel, with apparent plausibility, de- 
rives Greek art from Egypt. Still, it is rather going too far when 
he connects its rudiments with the mythical Egyptian immigration 
of Cecrops to Attica, and of Danaus to Argos, hypothetically placed 
about 1500 B.C., when Egyptian art was highly developed. "What- 
ever be the truth about the nationality of Cecrops and Danaus, so 
much is certain, that imitative art was unknown in Greece for at 
least seven centuries after the pretended date of their immigration; 
since the earliest records of works of art carry us scarcely beyond 
the end of the seventh century, b. c, and the earliest works extant 
do not ascend beyond the first half of the sixth century. Indeed, 
Greece and Grecians existed a long time before they possessed statu- 
aries. 165 (Plutarch, in Numa, says that images were by the learned 
considered symbolical, and deplored. Numa, the great Roman law- 
giver, forbade his people to represent Gods in the form of man or 
beasts ; and this injunction was followed for the first 470 years of the 
republic. 166 ) Another opinion, that Greek art is a daughter of the 
Assyrian, is likewise often hinted at ; but, as already mentioned, the 
earliest works of Greek sculpture are anterior, by a score of years, to 
the bloom of the Lydian empire, by which alone Greece could have 
become acquainted with the art of inner Asia. But though we cannot 
connect the rudiments of Greek sculpture either with Egypt or Assyria 

164 Prof. Edward Gerhard published many of them in his " Centurien." 
ira Pausanias, lib. VIII., and XXII. ; and lib. IX. 

i 86 Varro, apud Auffust.de Oivit. Dei, lib. IV., c, 6: — R. Payne Knight, Symbolical 
Language of Ancient Art and Mythology, London, 1818, p. 71. 
11 



162 THE ART OF THE GREEKS. 

and Babylon, we must still admit the early influence of Egyptian (Saitic) 
and oriental art over Greece. A peculiar school of ancient sculpture, 
to which the invention of casting statues is attributed, developed 
itself in the island of Samos between the 30th and 55th Olympiad 
(657-557 b. c.) extending from the time of Psammeticus of Egypt 
to the epoch of Croesus of Lydia, and Cyrus of Persia ; and history 
contains many evidences of the intercourse of the Samians with the 
kings of Egypt and Lydia, and with the merchants of Phoenicia. 
The types of the coins of Samos, — the lion's head and bull's head, — 
are similar to the Assyrian representations. As to the Egyptian 
influence, Steinbiichel justly lays peculiar stress upon the rude archaic 
type of the silver coins of Athens with the helmeted head of Minerva, 
which was persistently retained by the republic even in the times of 
her highest artistical eminence. It certainly shows the eye, repre- 
sented in the Egyptian front-view, whilst the angle of the lips is 
raised, and smiles in the later pharaonic manner. All the earliest 
coins and bas-reliefs of Greece are characterized by the same pecu- 
liarity, and some of them retained even the Egyptian head-dress in 
slightly modified forms. The anecdote preserved by Diodorus 
Siculus, concerning Telecles and Theodorus of Samos, (who are said 
to have made a bronze statue in two halves, independently of one 
another, which upon being joined were found to agree perfectly),was 
likewise explained by the invariable rules of the Egyptian canon ; 167 
though, according to our views, it has nothing to do with Egypt, and 
owes its origin probably to the traces of chiselling that removed 
the seam of the cast all along the figure, and which being of a diffe- 
rent color from the unchiselled surface of the statue, was mistaken 
for ancient soldering. 

The indubitable connexion of Greece with Egypt, under the Sa'ite 
dynasty, could not fail to have great influence on art. The Greeks 
gained from that quarter their acquaintance with the different 
mechanical processes of sculpture, carving, moulding, casting, and 
chiselling: though, too proud to acknowledge their debt to foreigners, 
they attributed the invention of the saw and file, drill and rule, to 
the mythical Cretan Dsedalus, or to the Samian Theodorus, the 
elder ; at any rate, to artists natives of the Archipelago in proximity 
with Egypt. It seems, indeed, that the opening of Egypt gave a sud- 
den impulse to sculpture and painting among the Hellenes : for nearly 
all the earliest works mentioned by the ancients belong to this period, 
with the exception, perhaps, of the casket of Cypselos, and of the 

167 Diodok., i, 98:— 60 f.:— MUller, Archceologie, \ 70, 4. 



THE ART OP THE GREEKS. 



163 



golden statue of Jupiter, dedicated by Cypselos at Olympia. 168 The 
athletic statues of Arrhachion 169 (53 Olympiad), Praxidamas (58 
01.), and Rhexibios (61 01.), at Olympia, of Cleobis and Biton, at 
Delphi 170 (about 50 01.), of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, at Athens 
(67 01.), all works of the Samian school, (and among them the 
works of art dedicated by Alyattes and Croesus to the Delphian 
temple), were the result of the intercourse with Egypt : and, from tbe 
description of some of them, as for instance, the statue of Arrhachion, 
we see that their rigid attitude must have resembled the Egyptian 
statues. Still, whatever be the foreign influences on the beginnings 
of Greek art, nobody will ever take the most archaic Greek relief for 
a specimen of Egyptian or Assyrian art. Though such Greek rudi- 
ments are less elaborate than the royal works of Thebes, Nineveh, or 
Persepolis, they have a peculiar national style unmistakably Greek. 
The earliest of all the existing Greek marble reliefs is the fragment of 
a throne found in Samothrace, now in the Louvre ; [41] which certainly 



Fig. 41. 



Fig. 42. 





Samotheacian Relief. 

belongs to the beginning of the 

Vlth century b. c. 171 and is probably 

contemporaneous- with the Pana- 

thensen vases 172 characterized by 

the figure of [42] Minerva. Both 

of them are rude, and influenced bv 

the Egyptian style. Still, the long 

and straight nose, the prominent 

chin, and the absence of individualism in the representation, are all 

as distinct from Egypt as from Assyria. 

168 Ottfeied Mullee tries to prove that both these archaic sculptures must belong to 
a period posterior to Cypselos. 

w Pausanias, vi., 18, 6. «i Millinoen, Ancient Inediled Monuments, v. iii., 1. 

«° Heeodot. 1 31. W id em ^ j, i. 



MlNEEVA. 



164 



THE ART OF THE GREEKS. 



The sense of beauty was not yet sufficiently developed among 
Greek artists ; but it is remarkable that even in its rudiments Greek 
art, unlike tbe Egyptian, 173 bad nothing to do with portraits ; it was 
not the king, but tbe hero and the god who became the objects of 
the artist's creation. Not less striking is the complete absence of 
the landscape in Grecian art. The human form and animated nature 
are for the Greek the exclusive object of representation ; accordingly, 
he personifies day and night, the sun and the moon, time and tbe 
seasons, the earth and the sea, the mountains and the rivers ; he gives 
them the features of men ; but tbe human figure he draws is always 
a type of the race, not the e&gy of an individual. 

The peculiar archaic type, characterized by the elongated form of 
the nose, and the prominent and somewhat pointed chin, maintained 
itself up to the time of Phidias, preserving the characteristic features 
of the early Hellenes. We find the same profile on the coins of Do- 
rian and of Ionian States, in Sicily, in Attica, and in Asia Minor. 
The following heads will sufficiently explain our statement. Fig. 



Fig. 43. 



Fig. 44. 




Athenian Minerva. (Pulszky Coll.) 




Corinthian Coin. 



43 is the type of the Athenian tetradrachms. Fig. 44 is tbe enlarged 
copy of a Corinthian silver coin. The following wood-cut is taken 
from the coins of Phoceea, in Ionia [45]; whilst Fig. 46 is copied 
from one of the statues on the pediment of the temple of ^Egina, 
dedicated to Jupiter Panhellenius — the god of all the Greeks — soon 
after the battle of Salamis (Olymp. 75). 

1,3 [The art of each represents the instinctive genius of the two people, as diverse in 
intellect as in blood. 

" iEgyptiaca numinum fana plena plangoribus, 
Grseca plerumque choreis " — 
Bays Apuleius (De Genio. Socrat.) ; which is just the difference between Old and New Eng- 
land puritanism and South European catholicity. — G. E. G.] 



THE AKT OF THE GREEKS. 
Fig. 45. Fig- 46. 



165 





Phoolan Coin. 



^Egina Statue. 



The mythical victory of the united states of Hellas over the Tro- 
jans, supported by all their Asiatic kin, represented on the pediment 
of this temple, was intended to symbolize the recent victory of the 
Greeks over the Asiatic host of Xerxes. 

One generation more carries us at once to the glorious time of 
Pericles and Phidias, to the highest development of ideal grandeur, 
as seen on the sculptures of the Parthenon, never surpassed by 
human art, — the beauty, pride and triumph of youthful Greece lives 
in them. We might have taken one of the Parthenon fragments 
in the British Museum, which, although the nose is mutilated, would 
give an idea of the genius of Phidias. But artistic eminence was 
not confined to Attica alone ; in Argos and Sicyon, in Sicily and in 
Grsecia Magna, in Ionia and Cyrene, sculptors and painters grew up 
second to none but to Phidias. For more than one century, down to 
the time of Alexander of Macedon, all the intestine wars, revolutions 
and temporary oppressions, could not arrest the majestic flow of 
Greek art, characterized by freedom and ideal beauty. The head 
of a child [48] from a Lycian relief, 174 and of a warrior, [49] from a 
monument of Iconium 175 (Koniah) in Lycaonia, show that Hellenic art 
flourished even in those countries where the bulk of the nation was 
not Greek, though we ought not to forget that all those monuments 
were evidently the work of Hellenic artists ; for, as Cicero justly 
remarks, all the lands of the "barbarians" had a fringe of Greek 
countries where they reached the sea. 175 The sculptures of Lydia, 



»* Texier, Asie Mineure, III, pi. 226. 
1,5 Texier, Armenie, II, pi. 84. — 1. 

176 De Rep. II, iv, — Coloniarum vero, quce est, deducta a Grajis 
adluat 1 Ita barbarorum agris quasi adtexta videtur ora esse Grtscios. 



quam unda non 



166 



THE ART OF THE GREEKS. 



and of all the countries of Asia Minor, differ little from the monu- 
ments of Greece proper. 

The type of the Sicilians and of the Italiots is somewhat more 
diverse ; principally characterized by the full and round chin of the 



Fig. 48. 





Ltcian Child. 



Lycaonian Soldier. 



Fig. 50. 



females, as seen in the following wood-cut [50] of Proserpina, taken 
from an intaglio in cornelian, which belongs to my collection. "We 

sometimes find the same peculiar chin even 
now among the females of Calabria and 
Sicily, but especially on the island of Ischia, 
where, according to a tradition, the Greek 
blood of its inhabitants was scarcely mixed 
by foreign intermarriages. 

One feature, sufficiently explained by the 
institutions of Greece, is common to all 
these monuments of Hellenic art, viz : the 
absence of portraits, — individuality being 
merged into the glorification of the human 
form by a purely ideal treatment. Just as 
in life the idea of the State absorbed the 
interests and even the rights of the individual, so individuality was 
ignored in the art of Greece ; we never meet with portraits during 
all the time of Greek independence; for even the representations 
meant to be portraits were ideal. Alcibiades, according to Clemens 
Alexandrinus, 177 became a Mercury, and Pericles looked a demigod. 
A rock-relief on a tomb in Lycia, at Cadyanda, the cast of which is 




Peoseepina. 
(Pulszky Coll.) 



1,1 Admonit. adversus gentes, p. 35. 



THE ART OF THE GREEKS. 



167 



now in the British Museum, 178 inscribed with the historical names of 
Hecatomnos, Mesos, Seskos, £c, contains no portrait, but only ideal 
figures. The Crcesus of the magnificent vase of the Louvre might 
be taken for a Jupiter, were it not designated by the name. It was 
not before the time of Alexander the Macedonian that real portraits 
began to be made. Lysistratus, brother of the great sculptor Lysippus, 
was in Greece the first who made a plaster-cast of the face of living 
persons, and who, according to Pliny, 179 made real likenesses, whilst 
his predecessors had tried to make them rather beautiful than faith- 
ful. Pliny's testimony is fully borne out by the remaining monu- 
ments of art belonging to the period of Alexander : they show during 
the life of the great king some marked attempts at individuality, 
though idealism is not yet excluded from the portrait. The head of 
the conqueror of Persia, on his own coins, is scarcely distinguishable 
from the type of his mythic ancestor Hercules. Under his successor, 
Lysimachus, the portrait of Alexander on the Macedonian coins is by 
far more individual. The beautiful bust of Demosthenes I8 ° [51] in the 
Vatican, though it be the work of a later age, is certainly a copy of 
a bust contemporaneous with the last great citizen of Greece. It 
exhibits the peculiar features and lisping mouth of the eloquent 
unfortunate patriot ; still, the upper part of the head is undoubtedly 
ideal. A classical cornelian in my collection, with the intaglio head 
of Demetrius Poliorcetes [52], shows the efforts of some artists of the 



Fig. 51. 



Fig. 52. 





Demosthenes. 



Demetrius Poliokcetes, (Pulszky coll.) 



Macedonian period to blend idealism with individualism. This 
king's heroic beauty made the task easier; but as, in those times, 
a portrait always implied a kind of apotheosis, a bull's horn was 

178 Synopsis of the British Museum, Lycian Room, Nos. 150-152. 

1,9 XXXV, 44. 18 ° Visconti, Iconographti grecque, PI. 29, fig. 2. 



168 



THE ART OF THE GREEKS. 



Fig. 53. 




Perseus. 



Fig. 54. 



added to the head to designate Demetrius as the son of Neptune ; 
whilst in order to combine the horn with the human features, the hair 
was carved stiff, reminding one of the rigidity of a bull's hair. 
Equally grand is the portrait of Perseus [53], the last king of Mace- 
donia, on a cornelian cameo in the imperial library at Paris. 181 It so 

much resembles some ancient hero, that 
for a considerable time it was taken for 
an ideal head of Ulysses. Indeed, if we 
wish to get real Hellenic portraits, we 
must leave the territory of Greece, and 
seek for them among the more realistic 
nations pervaded by Hellenism, amid 
whom Greek art descended from the 
loftier heights of imaginative beauty, to 
tread the humbler paths of reality. 
Hitherto no actual portrait has been dis- 
covered belonging to the times of repub- 
lican Greece. The following beautiful 
head [54] on an Asiatic silver coin, in the 
British Museum, which bears the simple 
inscription BA2IAEfi2, (the coin) " of the 
king," is with the greatest plausibility 
attributed to the younger Cyrus : the die 
being sunk by some Ionian Greek at the 
time when this Satrap of Asia Minor rose 
in rebellion against his brother Arta- 
xerxes, and assumed the title of the king. 
Still, the features can scarcely be fairly 
taken for a portrait ; they are altogether 
ideal, in fact the embellished representa- 
tion of the purest Arian type. 
The aboriginal barbarism of the remoter provinces of the Mace- 
donian empire, — which was strongly modified, but never entirely 
overcome by the civilization of the conquerors, — renders the history 
of Hellenism in Asia, after the death of Alexander, most instructive. 
It is recorded on the relics of its art, especially on the coins of those 
Greek dynasties which were not surrounded by Greek populations. 
From the shores of the Euxine to the confines of India, they pro- 
claim the supremacy of Greek genius. Still, Hellenism maintains 
its glory only there where a continuous, uninterrupted, influx of 
Greek elements keeps up the original blood and spirit of the con- 

181 Millin, Monuments Inidits., 1, XIX ; and Frontispiece to the Bulletin archeol. de I'Athe- 
ncBum Frangais of June, 1855. 




Cteits the younger. 



THE ART OF THE GREEKS. 



169 



querors, as for instance at the court of the Seleueidse at Antioch, and 
of the Ptolemies at Alexandria. But here the degeneration of the 
royal houses could not destroy the fertility of Hellenic art ; though in 
all the countries which were locally separated from Greece, Hellenism 
declined, and went over into barharism so soon as the original Greek 
blood of the conquerors was amalgamated with, and absorbed by, 
native intermixture. 

The coins of the kingdom of Bactria give the most striking illus- 
tration of this general rule. During the wars between the Seleucidse 
and the Ptolemies, Theodotus, the governor of Bactria about the 
middle of the third century, B.C., declared himself independent of 
Syria, and founded the Greek dynasty of the Bactrian kingdom. 
About the same time the Parthians rose likewise in revolt against 
Antiochus Theos, and their success cut the Bactrians off from 
Greece proper, and even from the Grecians of Syria. Still, for about 
a century, Greek art beyond the Hindoo Kush did not decline. 

The portrait of king Eucratides, king of Bactria, b. c. 170 [55], is, 
on the coins, a most creditable specimen of the taste and workman- 
ship of his artists. 182 The isolation of the royal family, however, and 
its remoteness from Greece and from Hellenic influences, unavoid- 
ably brought about a relapse into barbarism. King Hermseus, lord 
of Bactria, b. c. 98 [56], on a coin in the British Museum, is, accord- 



Fig. 55. 



Fig. 56. 



Fig. 57. 






Eucratides. 



HeBMjEUS. 



Kadphtses. 



ing to his features, apparently a descendant of Heliocles; but the 
workmanship of the coin is heavy and coarse, and after seeing it we 
can scarcely be surprised at learning that his dynasty was soon 
superseded by rude Turanian invaders, who, having no alphabet of 
their own, maintained at first the Greek, and then adopted the 
Indian letters and language. In the execution of the types of their 
coins, they exhibit the rudest barbarism. King Kadphyses [57], 



182 p or these and other examples, cf. Wjlson, Ariana Antigua, London, 1841. 



170 



THE ART OF THE GREEKS. 



a. d. 50, had his name inscribed in Greek characters, on his coin, 
now in the British Museum ; but the shape of his skull is Turanian, 
and the die-sinker must have been a half-civilized and probably 
half-bred Bactrian. 

The series of the Arsacide coins is equally instructive, and leads 
to the same result. The Macedonian conquest destroyed at once 
the old Persian institutions and civilization ; for, although Alexander 
assumed the royal insignia and maintained the court etiquette 
and provincial administration of Persia, yet both he and his cour- 
tiers remained Greeks, and could not transform themselves into 
Asiatics. His successors in Asia, the Seleucidse, were still more 
averse to the old customs of the empire. They therefore removed 
their residence and the capital of the empire from Babylon, which 
at that time was still highly flourishing, so far west as Antioch ; and 
tried to introduce Greek manners and despotic centralized-civiliza- 
tion, into the provinces adjoining the seat of dominion. The out- 
lying Satrapies could not long be kept in subjection: and during the 
war between Antiochus Theos and Ptolemy Philadelphus of Egypt, 
Arsaces the Satrap stirred up the Parthians (256 B.C.), and at the 
head of his Scythian horsemen established the Parthian empire in 
opposition to the Greek Seleucidse, who could not hold the country 
beyond the Tigris. But Arsaces did not go back to the Achseme- 
nian institutions: he kept the Arian Persians in subjection, who from 
the time of Cyrus to Alexander had been the rulers of the Empire : 
his realm might easier be characterized as the revival of the Scythian 
empire of Astyages. The Parthians had no indigenous art of their 
own : according to Lucian, they were 6'u <piXoxaXoi, not friends of art, 183 
and they had to borrow their artistic forms from their neighbors, 
just as the Shemitic nations had clone before them. 

"While assuming the empire, they copied the Greek language and 

the Greek types of the Seleu- 
cidse on their coins ; and the 

portraits of Arsaces I. [58], 

B. c. 256, and of (Phraates I.) 

Arsaces V. [59], b. c. 190- 

165, on their silver coins in 

the British Museum, can 

scarcely be distinguished 

from Greek coins, as regards 

art: but the globular shape 

of the Parthian skull cha- absaoes V. 

racterizes them sufficiently 

163 Lucian, de domo, 5. 



Fig. 58. 



Fig. 59. 





THE ART OF THE GREEKS. 



171 



Fig. 60. 



Fi<j. 61. 





Aksaces XII. 



Aksaces XIX. 



as not Hellenic. The conquest of the Syrian Empire by the Romans 
soon cut off the influence of Hellenism, and isolated the Parthians, 

whose art relapsed gradu- 
ally into their original bar- 

harism. The portrait of Ar- 

saces XH. [60] (Phraates 

IH.), B.C. 50-60, belongs 

to the beginning of the 

decline of art, though this 

king was a contemporary 

of Lucullus, Pompey, and 

Julius Csesar. Arsaces 

the XlXth [61], (Volo- 

geses rV\, a. d. 196) ex- 
hibits a rudeness as if all the traditions of art had become forgotten. 
Still, he was a contemporary of the emperor Commodus. One genera- 
tion after him we see a new, national, Arian art reviving in Persia 
under the Sassanides. 

Similar causes led to similar results in the Crimea, or as the 
ancients called it, in the Taurian or Cimmerian Chersonesus. 
Greek colonies from Heraclea and Miletus established themselves 
here among the aboriginal barbarians, and 
introduced art and civilization. Kings of 
these nations stood in friendly intercourse 
with Athens and Byzantium, who used to 
buy here their corn ; until Mithridates the 
Great [62], king of Pontus, occupied the 
country (in 108 b. c.) which was to become 
the scene of his suicide. His portrait with 
the rich flowing hair, probably a copy from 
a statue representing him driving a cha- 
riot, 181 belongs to the wonders of Grecian art. 
_ The Greek dynasty of Mithridates, in the 
Crimea, died off in the second generation with Asander ; and was 
succeeded by a long series of indigenous kings, who, without any 
historical importance, maintained their sway down to the 4th century 
of our era. During their reign the Greek colonies of Panticapreum, 
Chersonnesus,Phanagoria,and Gorgippia, lost their Hellenic charac- 
ters by the continuous immigration of barbarians ; and all the tradi- 
tions of art disappeared little by little among the half-breed inhabi- 
tants of the country, — until all Grecian blood, and with it, civiliza- 
tion, became absorbed by intercourse with the barbarians. The 



Fig. 62. 




Mithridates. 



184 Visconti, Iconographie, ii. p. 182; note 4, Milan edition. 



172 



THE ART OF THE GREEKS. 



following likenesses of Sauromates I. [63] (13-17 B. a), Rhescuporis 
II. [64] under Domitian, and Rhescuporis III. [65], (212-219), from 
their coins in the British Museum, show the progressing rudeness of 



Fig. 63. 



Fig. 64. 



Fig. 65. 






Sauromates. 



Rhescuporis II. 



Rhescuporis III. 



the representations, as well as the ebbing of Greek blood among a 
world of "barbarians," who, according to their features, belonged 
to the Slavonic race. 

We might have given equally instructive specimens of the power 
and successive extinction of Hellenism in Thrace, Cilicia, Adiabene, 
— from the coins of those countries, — clearly proving that foreign 
art cannot maintain itself among unartistical races for any length of 
time, but must decline and cease so soon as the artistical race which 
imported it has become thoroughly amalgamated with, and has 
merged into, the bulk of the natives. 



VII. 



•THE ART OF ROME. 



At the time of the revival of letters, when the attention of the 
scholars and princes of Italy was for the first time turned towards the 
remains of antiquity, all the statues and reliefs found in the peninsula 
were taken for Roman ; and the antiquaries liked to explain any 
antique representation from Livy's history, and Ovid's metamor- 
phoses. Grecian life was at that time nearly unknown ; the study 
of Greek literature remained subordinate to that of Roman ; and 
the works of antiquity were regarded as illustrations of tbe Roman 
classics. When, on the other hand, Winckelman and his philosophi- 
cal school applied a deeper criticism to the relics of ancient art, treat 
ing them as equal in importance to the literary remains of classical 
antiquity, a reactionary notion spread all over Europe, that the 
Romans had no national art at all ; and the father of scientific archse- 



THE ART OF ROME. 173 

ology, "Winckelnian himself, says: 185 "I defy those who speak of the 
Roman style of art to describe its peculiarities or to determine its 
character." About this time It was proved with considerable display 
of erudition that fine arts were paid, but not honored, at Rome. Plu- 
tarch was cited, who says in sober earnest that, however we might 
admire the Olympian Jupiter, nobody would wish to become Phi- 
dias : 186 and Petronius also, 187 who, though speaking satirically, still 
expressed the common Roman feeling by saying, that ' a nugget of 
gold is more beautiful in the sight of God and man, than anything 
produced by those foolish Greeks, Apelles and Phidias.' Accordingly, 
it was believed that all the Roman sculptures are the work of Greeks, 
mostly freed-men, who lived in that capital of the old world. Such 
views were quite in keeping with the prevalent idea that Roman and 
Greek mythology was altogether identical. The monuments of 
Rome, however, were soon more thoroughly sifted ; and a number of 
works of art were discovered at Pompeii, nearly all of them of 
Italian workmanship, — and that, between the emperor Augustus 
(under whom the town was rebuilt, after having been nearly destroyed 
by an earthquake), and the emperor Titus, under whom it was 
buried. Archaeologists are, therefore, now enabled to fix more 
precisely the peculiarities and the character of the Roman style ; 
although we must acknowledge that it is but a slight modification of 
Greek art. The original Romans had no feeling for fine art ; they 
were the offspring of unartistical Umbrians and Sabines, with an 
admixture of Etruscans, who themselves possessed only a varnish of 
art superinduced. The few monuments which adorned republican 
Rome before the conquest of Grsecia Magna, — the statues of the 
Capitol and the efligies of the kings — were without exception of Tus- 
can workmanship ; so were their copper-coinage, their house-furni- 
ture, their earthenware and bronze vases. The Romans never vied 
with their neighbors either in mechanical skill or in artistical feeling ; 
their only task was conquest and aggrandizement. "When at last, 
by the accumulation of wealth, luxury and desire of display intro- 
duced a yearning for works of art, and that statues and pictures began 
to play an important part at all the public sbows, triumphs and enter- 
tainments, it was easier to plunder the provinces and to fill Rome 
with the most celebrated treasures of art from the temples and 
market-places of Greece, than to get them executed by native artists 
on the Tiber itself. Still, the growing demand and failing supply at 
length fostered art at Rome ; and though the artists were mostly of 
foreign extraction, — for it was not respectable for a Roman to be a 

i 85 Cabinet Slosch, p. 397. 1S6 Vita Periclis. 18 ' Satyrkon, c. 88. 



174 THE ART OF ROME. 

sculptor — Roman nationality impressed its stamp on the coins and 
gems, reliefs and statues, marbles and bronzes, of tbe time of the 
Emperors. The principal features of Roman art are a somewhat 
ponderous dignity, and a want of poetical inspiration, but withal a 
close imitation of native, national truthfulness, and great regard for 
individuality; without that Greek freshness, freedom and harmony, 
which rouse in the beholder the consciousness of the divine nature 
of our soul. The composition of the Roman works of art is heavy, 
the execution often over-polished and empty. "Whilst the Greek 
artist selected his subjects from mythology, the Roman liked to re- 
present sacrifices, triumphal processions, military marches, battles, 
and " allocutions," marriage-feasts and other scenes of domestic life. 
The Greek idealized the features of great men ; the Roman did not 
ennoble the ugliness of old Tiberius, the idiocy of Domitian, and 
the ferocious looks of Commodus and Caracalla. The Greek made 
scarcely any distinction, in sculpture, between the Greek and the 
barbarian — the same idealism surrounds them both, and assimilates 
them to one another; the Roman artist made a charaeteristical dif- 
ference between enemies of Rome and the civis Romanus. Still, at the 
time of the Emperors, the Roman type itself had ceased to be con- 
stant. Citizenship having been extended to half a world, barbarians 
constituted the bulk of the army, and their equally-barbarian officers 
were raised first into the Senate, then to the imperial throne. Accord- 
ingly, the artists of Rome gave, on the whole, less importance to the 
type than to the costume of the foreign hostile nations, by which 
alone they differed from the mongrel Romans, who then represented 
a cosmopolitan amalgam of all the white races. On the great 
cameos of tbe time of Augustus and Tiberius, at Vienna and Paris 
(which, by their dramatic and picturesque composition of the groups, 
materially differ from Greek reliefs), the Pannonian and Vindelician 
prisoners have no individual features; nor is the statue of the "river 
Jordan " on the triumphal arch of the emperor Titus characterized 
by a Shemitic physiognomy ; but, on the column and arch of Trajan, 
wbich contains tbe best of all the Roman works of art, we easily 
recognise the Dacian [70] whose features are perpetuated in the Wal- 
lachian of our days. In the dying gladiator of the Capitol, and on 
the sarcophagus of the Vigna Ammendola, 188 we see the Celtic Gaul 
[71] represented; and Mr. Gottling recognises an ancient German 
[69] in the statue of a prisoner which adorned a triumphal arch at 
Rome. 

After the eclectic idealism prevalent under the reign of the 
Emperor Hadrian, we no longer find any endeavor to fix the 

186 Monumenli Inedili dell' Institute Archeologica di Roma, 1, PI. 



THE ART OF ROME. 



175 



national peculiarities of foreign nations on monuments of art. The 
Teutonic Markomans on the columns of Antoninus, the Turanian 
Parthians on the arch of Septimus Severus, differ only by their cos- 
tume from Dacians, and from the Roman soldiers who fight against 
them; and we must admit that the pharaonic Egyptian artists 
remained unsurpassed, even by Greeks and Romans, in the accuracy 
with which they observed and rendered the national type of all the 
tribes with which they happened to come into contact. The Assy- 
rians and Persians were second in this respect to the Egyptians ; still 
they were, on the whole, faithful enough, whereas with the Greeks any 
national peculiarity merged in the glorification of the human form : 
accordingly, Egyptians and Asiatics are by them drawn and sculp- 
tured with Hellenic features. The Roman is by far more truthful, 
but his art is short-lived. Before Augustus it is either Etruscan or 
Greek ; after Septimus Severus it loses its national character, and 
step by step transforms itself into the Byzantine Christian. Two 
centuries carry us from the beginning of Roman art to its decay ; 
its full bloom lasted only just for the score of years which embraces 
the reign of the emperor Trajan, since under Hadrian it lost its 
Roman features, and was swamped by an elegant and refined imita- 
tion of every style of art. About the same time that the imperial 
throne fell into the hands of Asiatic Syrians, of Africans, Arabs, and 
northern barbarians, Roman art became barbarous, and revived only 
when, about the time of Justinian and his successors, a new nation- 
ality, — the Grseco-Byzantine — consolidated and crystallized itself 
under the influences of Christianity out of the mixture of all the 
races in the Roman empire. 

The earliest authentic Roman portrait 
we know is the likeness of P. Cornelius 
Scipio Africanus [67]. 189 All earlier effi- 
gies were either not portraits at all, — as 
for instance, the seven Tuscan statues of 
the kings, mentioned in the old authors, 
which stood before the Capitol, — or 
they are too indistinct to be of use for 
ethnology. This applies to the heads 
we see on the family coins of Rome, upon 
which the magistrates liked to perpetu- 
ate the memory of illustrious ancestors. 
None of these silver coins are anterior to 
the year 269 b. c ; their size is small 



Fig. 67. 




Scipio Africanus. 



189 Visconti, Iconographie rornaine, Paris, 1817, pi. Ill, fig. 2. 



176 



THE ART OF ROME. 



and their workmanship little artistical. Besides, we know from 
Pliny that the family pride of the Romans eared more for the names 
than for the likenesses of their ancestors. The admiral complains 
that whilst the original wax-effigies represented the great men such 
as they really had been (they were probably casts of the faces of the 
deceased), a later age delighted in silver busts and in the workman- 
ship of great masters (probably Greeks, and given to idealizing), 
without regard to the likeness. Pliny's complaint cannot apply to 
the portrait of Scipio, which is entirely individual, and of that stern 
and energetic cast which fully expresses the Roman character. 
Scipio may be taken for a good specimen of the Roman patrician 
type; for, at his time the aristocracy had not yet lost its national 
purity by the admixture of foreign blood. Not less characteristic 
is the head of Agrippa [68], — the friend, minister and son-in-law of 
Augustus, and maternal ancestor of the emperors Caligula, Claudius 
and Nero. Next to the Roman type represented by these two highly 
expressive portraits, let us consider the features of their enemies. 
Pig. 69 is the bust of a "barbarian" found in Trajan's forum, now iD 



Fig. 68. 



Fig. 69. 





Vipsanitjs Aokippa, [Pulszhy coll.) 



Bakbakian. 



the British Museum. Mr. Combe, in his description of the ancient 
marbles of the British Museum, after adverting to the feelings of 
rage, disappointment and revenge strongly marked in this face, 
inclines to believe that the head was intended to represent Arminius 
the German hero, who defeated Varus, and was defeated by Germa- 
nicus. Mr. Gottling, in an essay which has become very popular in 
Germany, attributes this head with specious reasons to Thumelicus, 
the fighter of Ravenna, son of Arminius. "We therefore scarcely err 
in seeking the original Teutonic type in this excellent bust. 



THE ART OF ROME. 



177 



Fig. 70. 



The effigy of Decebalus, — prince of the Dacians [70], 190 is copied 
from a bas-relief originally belonging to 
the triumphal arch of Trajan, which by the 
addition of later patchwork has been trans- 
formed into an arch in honor of the 
emperor Constantine. The effigy is pecu- 
liarly interesting for its resemblance to the 
present Wallachians, true descendants of 
the ancient Dacians. This similitude 
between the Dacians and "Wallachians is 
not exclusively confined to the cast of 
features nor to the costume, since we see 
on the reliefs of the column of Trajan, 
decorated with episodes of his Dacian 

campaign, that even this moral character has in one respect remained 
the same. The Romans seem to have been peculiarly struck by the 
ferocious treatment of prisoners among these Dacians; and they 
did not fail to represent the Dacian females, who tortured the disarmed 
and fettered Romans with raving brutality. The same feature 
recurred in the Hungarian war of 1849. Hungarian prisoners were 
tortured and murdered by the servile Wallachian population, — the 
females being always the most cruel among them. 




Dacian. 



Fig. 71. 




"We copy the head of a Celtic Gaul 
[71] from a sarcophagus found in the 
vineyard Ammendola at Rome. It 
is characterized by a peculiar Gallic 
necklace (torques), and by angular 
expressive features. For those of our 
readers who are less acquainted with 
the latest archaeological researches 
we mention the fact, that the cele- 
brated dying-Gladiator of the Capitol 

has been recognized to be a Celt, by Celtic Gaul. 

Nibby 191 and by Raoul-Rochette. 

This suggests a digression. Having given the earliest effigy of a 
Celt, we feel bound to copy likewise the features of a Norman, in 
order to put the principal ancestors of the inhabitants of the British 
Islands and of North America side by side. William the Conqueror 
lived in times and among nations unpropitious to art : his likeness, 
[72] therefore, cannot be peculiarly characteristic. It is taken from 

190 Bellorius, Veteres Arms, Rome, 1690, PI. 44, "Victoria Dacica." 

191 Observazioni sopra la slalua del Gladialore moribondo: — Bulletin universel, Till, 1830, 
Aout. ; compare Pliny, XXXIV. 19-24. 

12 



178 



THE ART OF ROME. 



Fig. 72. 




WlLLELMT. 



the celebrated "Bayeux tapestry," 192 which is contemporaneous with 

this king, and attributed by tradition 
to the needle of Mathilda, queen of the 
conqueror. "We are sorry that, together 
with the Norman type, we are unable 
to give a standard Anglo-Saxon effigy; 
but queen Mathilda does not seem to 
have remarked any peculiar differ- 
ence between these two different na- 
tionalities; which, indeed, were of 
the same Scandinavo-Teutonic stock, 
— deduction made of the crowd of 
continental "flibustiers" who nocked to 
the colors of William, and who were 
Normans only by courtesy. Accord- 
ingly, king Harold, on the Bayeux tapestry, resembles his cousin 
William, with the slight exception, that he and his Anglo-Saxons 
wore mustachios, whereas the Normans are closely shaved. 

We continue. If it should now be asked what representations of 
the different nationalities of old have to prove about the original 
"unity" or "diversity" of the human race, we point to the unmistakable 
constancy of the types of the Egyptians, Assyrians, Wallachs, Ne- 
groes, Jews, — which are at the present day exactly such as were repre- 
sented on ancient monuments, — and quote Dr. Prichard's words 
as to the importance of this fact : " If it should be found that within 
the period of time to which historical testimony extends, the distin- 
guishing characters of human races have been constant and undevi- 
ating, it would become a matter of great difficulty to reconcile this 
conclusion with the inferences obtained from other considera- 
tions." 193 

To return to Roman art. Its importance stands in no relation to its 
real merits ; it had a marked influence not only over early Christian 
sculpture, but even on mediaeval and modern art. The works of 
Egypt, Assyria, and Etruria, belong altogether to the domain of 
archaeology : modern artists disdain to be instructed by them, although 
they might learn from them that no style of art ever maintained 
itself on any other basis than nationality ; — but they cannot emanci- 
pate themselves from Greek and principally from Roman influences. 
It belongs to the peculiarities of our age, that, whilst the purity of the 
plastical forms of the Greek statues could not fail to maintain their 
importance as models for statuaries, the Roman bas-relief continues to 

192 Vetusta Monumenla, Soc. of Antiquaries, 1822, vi. pi. 17. 

193 Researches, vol. iii. p. 2, edition of 1837. 



ART OF AMERICAN NATIONS. 179 

be imitated by our sculptors. They prefer its crowded, melo-drania- 
tic groups, and the slight attempt at perspective (by raising the 
figures of the first plan and gradually depressing those of the second 
and third), to the graceful and simple Greek bas-relief, which is regu- 
lated by the artistic feeling of the sculptor, not by unartistical rules, 
— for instance, on the friezes of the Parthenon and of the Mausoleum. 
But, we ought not to forget that the sculptors of our day belong 
mostly to the neo-Latin nations : and being imbued with the spirit of 
Roman literature in preference to that of Greek, they feel instinctively 
a greater attraction towards the works of imperial Rome, than of re- 
publican Greece. So, too, does the bulk of the public ; which appre- 
ciates much more the elegance of the statues of the Belvidere, — all 
of them works of the Roman period, — than the sublime beauty of 
the Elgin marbles, and the chaste drawing on some vases of Etruria 
and Grecia magna. 

"We have now, in the course of our ethnological survey of the 
history of art, arrived at the decay of the nations of classical anti- 
quity, and reached the dawn of Christian art. "We might easily 
pursue our researches down to the present day, through the Byzantine 
period, into the exclusively-national art of Italy, of Germany, of 
Spain, of France, of Belgium, and of Holland; but the characteristics 
of all these " schools," or rather nationalities, of painting, are so well 
known that it is not necessary to point out their diversity. The 
history of Christian art has often been written, and leads invariably 
to the result, that art never developed itself but on a national basis ; 
that close imitation of foreign forms never could impart life to art; and 
that eclecticism invariably leads to destruction. Accordingly, the 
Academies of painting and sculpture, founded upon eclecticism, 
and rejecting art's national development, became always and every- 
where the tombstones of art. 



VIII. — ART OF AMERICAN NATIONS. 

The time has not yet arrived for writing the history of the indige- 
nous art of the Red-race. The monuments of the ante-Columbian 
civilization of America but little regarded in their country, are 
excessively rare in Europe. There are but few persons, either in the 
United States or the Spanish republics, who care for antiquity. The 
English race is too much occupied with the interests of the present, 
the Spanish too much disturbed with fears about the future, and 
therefore, both too unsettled and too uncomfortable, to devote 
much attention to the relics of an antiquity, which, however impor- 



180 ART OF AMERICAN NATIONS. 

tant for the philosopher and the historian of human civilization, has 
neither the charms and beauty of the Grseco-Roman period, nor the 
historical interest of Egyptian, Assyrian, or early Christian art. The 
Red nations, of whose works we speak, are strangers to us ; their 
civilization remained entirely unconnected with our history; and 
was too different from, and too inferior to, the development of the 
Japetides, Shemites, and Turanians. Even Chinese art has a greater 
chance of becoming the object of study, than the monuments of the 
mound-builders, of the Toltecs and Aztecs of Mexico and Central 
America, and of the Quichuas and Aymaras of Peru and the Lake 
of Titicaca. China is still a mighty empire ; its civilization, how- 
ever strange, cannot be ignored by us; and the monuments of 
Chinese art may facilitate a correct appreciation of the institutions, 
the religion and morals, of more than three hundred millions of 
men, — with whom, at the same time, traffic is profitable. 

American art, on the other hand, is in no way linked to the present 
age. The refined amateur is repelled by the homeliness of most of 
the artistical relics, which the historian is, as yet, unable to connect 
with certain dates and personages. This is the reason why but very 
few persons care for Mexican, Central American, and Peruvian anti- 
quity ; and how it comes to pass, that among all the public Museums 
of Europe there are but two, the Louvre at Paris, 191 and the British 
Museum in London, which systematically admit American monu- 
ments into their treasuries of art. Of private collections I know but 
four : the Central American antiquities at the country-seat of the 
late Mr. Freudenthal, in Moravia (Austria), who fell a victim to his 
zeal in searching for antiquities in the tropical climate of Guatemala, 
and died soon after his return to Vienna ; the extensive collection 
of Mr. Uhde at Handschuhsheim, near Heidelberg (Grand duchy 
Baden); and the two Mexican and Peruvian cabinets of MM. 
Jomard and Allier at Paris. M. Adrien de Longperier published, 
in 1852, a Notice of the monuments exhibited in the American Hall 
of the Louvre, from which we see that it contains : 

I. — 680 relics of Mexican art, consisting of mythological statuettes, 
vases, gems, seals, utensils, instruments of music, weights and mea- 
sures in volcanic stone, granite, basalt, terra-cotta, bronze, crystal, 
obsidian, jade, jasper, and wood. 

n. — A few fragments from Palenque. 

HI. — About three hundred statuettes and vases, implements and 

194 The Louvre has, "within the last few years, acquired the Mexican Antiquities of M. 
Latour Allard, published in Lord KiDgsborough's great work; received as gifts the equally 
important Peruvian antiquities of Mons. Augrand, together with the smaller collections of 
Messrs. Massieu de Clairval, Audifred, V. Schb'elcher, and several other gentlemen. 



ART OF AMERICAN NATIONS. 181 

woollen fabrics of Peru, from Cuzco, Lambazeque, Quiloa, Bodegon, 
Arica and Truxillo. 

IV. — Some twenty artistical objects from the Antilles and Hayti. 

The collections of the British Museum have not yet been described 
and published. Huddled together as they are, in one of the smaller 
rooms, with Hindoo, Burmese, Japanese, and Chinese idols, and 
with the implements and curiosities of the South-Sea isles, they fail 
to attract the attention of the visitors. The Mexican Cabinet con- 
sisting principally in pottery, or in statuettes and reliefs in terra 
cotta, is one of the most extensive, and shows that the traditions of 
Aztec art long survived the conquest by Cortez ; since we find a 
Spanish Viceroy moulded in clay by a native artist, who did not fail 
to distort the features of this Spanish hidalgo into the typical Mexi- 
can forms, no less than to give him their American cast of skull, 
and of the cheek-bones ! The Peruvian antiquities are likewise ex- 
clusively of baked clay ; some of them gems of native art. The 
Museum might easily enrich its American treasures; for, as I 
learned from the most reliable sources, many Peruvian gold and 
silver idols find their way into the Bank of England and the Royal 
Mint, where they are melted down ; since they have no artistic, if 
great archaeological, and still greater, it would seem, monetary value. 

Many American Antiquities were published in the extensive, and 
more or less costly works, of Kingsborough, Humboldt, Lenoir, 
Warden, Tschudi, Rivero,Vf aldeck, Catherwood, d'Orbigny, Stephens, 
Norman, Brantz Mayer, Bartlett, and Squier ; but, failing to interest 
the public in the same way as Asiatic and European antiquities, 
they remained unknown beyond the circle of some ethnological 
scholars, so that few persons are aware of the extent and the artisti- 
cal importance of the Monuments of America. We have, in the 
following wood-cuts, selected the most characteristic and best sculp- 
tured specimens of the ante-Columbian art of the new world, in hope 
that they may become the means of exciting a greater interest for 
them on both sides of the Atlantic. As it is the object of illustra- 
tions to instruct by view, as well, and often more than by explication, 
we add but few words to them. 

The great majority of the ancient monuments of America will for- 
ever remain unconnected with history, 195 — mysterious relies of a civi- 

195 [I perceive that an anonymous "viator" advertises in the National Intelligencer (Wash- 
ington, D. C, 18th October, 1856), a forthcoming volume, wherein "more than twenty 
gentlemen, embracing the bench, the bar, the clergy, and members of the medical profes- 
sion, have come forward " — all in Western Virginia, too — and are actually going to vouch 
for the indubitable authenticity of that "canard" — so famous, among archteologists, as 
Mr. Schoolcraft's Ohio pebble, engraved in 22 different alphabets at "Grave Creek flat!" 

To facilitate its reappearance in good society, no less than to increase the receipts of 



182 ART OF AMERICAN NATIONS. 

lization which they alone record and expound. Mexican antiquities, 
however, will soon receive an additional importance by the publica- 
tion (as we learn from his friend Mr. E. Geo. Squier) of M. Aubin, 
the French savant who has devoted a life of study to the researches 
on the Aztec language and literature; having, by a residence of thir- 
teen years in Mexico, and by the lucky discovery of the collections 
and MSS. of Botturini, become able to obtain all the materials and 
the information for deciphering them, so as to elucidate the history 
of the Aztec empire previous to Cortez. A few years hence, the 
ante-Columbian history of Mexico will be as accessible to us as the 
early annals of any European nation; for hieroglyphical documents 
are not wanting which contain this information : whilst the researches 
of Botturini, which in the past century were cut short by the Span- 
ish Inquisition, have been now resumed by M. Aubin ; and, in his 
hands, have afforded the key for reading these sealed books. 196 

The hunter tribes of America evince no feeling for plastical beauty ; 
yet withal, like the Turks and the Celts, they have a considerable 
talent for decorative designs, and some perceptions of the harmony 
of colors. The originality and ornamental combination of their bead- 
work and embroidery is sufficiently known, but they always fail in 
rendering the human form. Ear higher was the civilization of that 
race which preceded them in the trans- Alleghanian States. "We call 

that " Museum," I give this announcement a wider circulation than the threatened book is 
destined to obtain, by referring the curious to Squier's "Observations on the Aboriginal 
Monuments of the Mississippi Valley," New York, 8vo., 1847, pp. 71-9 (Extract from the 
Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, vol. ii.) ; and to Types of Mankind, pp. 
652-3.— G. R. G] 

196 Among recent articles which show how this new school of American archaeologists 
augments, — consult Squier, " Aztec Picture-writing " [New York Tribune, Nov. 24, 1852) : — 
Bartlett, " The Aboriginal Semi-civilization of the Great California Basin, with a Refuta- 
tion of the popular theory of the Northern Origin of the Aztecs of Mexico " (New York 
Herald, April 4, 1854): — Aubin, "Lang. Americaine. Langue, Litterature et Ecriture 
Mexicaines " (Encyclopedic du XIX"' Siecle, Tome xxvi., Supplement, pp. 500-7) : — Squier, 
" Les Indiens Guatusos du Nicaragua" (Alhenmum Francais, 22 B^cembre, 1855): — Prisse 
d'Avennes, "Honduras — AmeYique centrale (L' Illustration, Paris, 8 De'cenibre, 1855): — 
Brasseur de Boiirbourg, " Letter from Rabinal — Department of Vera Paz " (London Alhc- 
nceum, Dec. 8, 1855) : — Idem, " Notes d'un Voyage dans l'AmeYique centrale — Lettre a, M. 
Alfred Maury" (Nouvelles Annales des Voyages, Paris, Aout, 1855): — with Squier's cri- 
tique on said letter (Op. cit., D6c. 1855): — Trubner, "The New Discoveries in Guatemala," 
and "Central American Archaeology" {London Athenccum, 12th Jan., and 31st May, 1856) ; 
since enhanced in interest by Don Jose Antonio Urrutia's "Discovery of additional Mo- 
numents of Antiquity in Central America" (Ibidem, 13 Dec. 1856). The new work of Dr. 
Soherzer brings another distinguished pioneer into the field; and we have reason to hope 
that much light will be thrown upon the Indian languages of New Mexico, California, &c, 
by the conjoint researches of two gentlemen eminently qualified for the task — Mr. John R. 
Bartlett (late U. S. Boundary Commissioner to Mexico, and now Secretary of State for 
Rhode Island), and Prof. Wm. W. Turner (of the U. S. Patent Office, Washington, D. C). 



ART OF AMERICAN NATIONS. 



18 



8 



Fig. 73. 



them "mound-builders," from the regular fortifications which they 
have erected in several of the western and southern States. 197 The 
Natchez, destroyed by the French of Louisiana, in the last century, 
seem to have, in part, belonged to them. A most characteristic, — we 
may say artistically-beautiful — head [73] in red pipe-clay, the work- 
manship of these unknown mound-builders, dug up and published 
by Squiee,, 198 exhibits the peculiar In- 
dian features so faithfully, and with 
such sculptural perfection, that we can- 
not withhold our admiration from their 
artistical proficiency. It proves three 
things : 1st, That these " mound-build- 
ers" were American Indians in type : — 
2d, That time (age ante-Columbian, but 
otherwise unknown,) has not changed 
the type of this indigenous group of 
races:— and 3d, That the "mound-build- 
ers " were probably acquainted with no 
other men but themselves. In every 
way confirming the views of the author 
of Crania Americana. 

The monuments of Mexico partake more of the decorative charac- 
ter, and we cannot but admire their ingenuity in making use of the 
most refractory materials for artistical purposes. The following three 
heads were all published by the various authors of Antiquit.es Mexi- 
eaines. Fig. 74, 199 carved of wood, is remarkable for its finish and 
elegance; fig. 75 m belongs to a statue of volcanic stone; fig. 76 m 
is of smaragdite, a green, hard, gem-like stone, which cannot, by our- 
selves, be worked otherwise than by steel or bronze, and requires the 
action of the wheel and emery. All of them are characterized by the 




MoUND-BUILDEB. 



19 ' [Whilst correcting proof, I learn, with the deepest regret, of the demise, at New York 
on the 14th Dec. 1856, of Dr. Hermann E. Ludewig ; whom I saw quite well there last Oc- 
tober. Our mutual friend Mr. Trubner will deplore, with our fellow-students, this sudden 
loss the more, as he has in press the crowning monument of Ludewig's arduous labors — the 
"Bibliography of American Aboriginal Linguistics" — the MSS. of which we looked over 
together, in London. — G. R. G.] 

198 Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, 1848, p. 245, fig. 145. 

193 Antiquites Mexicaines (Relation des Trois Exped. du Cap. Dupaix, 1805-7, dessins de 
Castatteda — par Lenoir, Warden, Farcy, Baradere, St. Priest, &c, Paris, 2 vols, folio, 
1834)— pi. lxiii., fig. 121, p. 53— 2nde ExpeU 

»» Idem, pi. vi. p. 7— Ire ExpeU 

201 Idem, Supplement, pi. vii. p. 13 — 3me Expe"d. : — compare also Humboidt ( Vues des 
Cordilleras, Paris, fol. 1810, pi. 66), "Tete graved en pierre dure paries Indiens Muys- 
cas;" (Researches, tr. Williams, London, 8vo., 1814, ii. p. 205); who considers the stone a 
Bmaragdite, and the workmanship New Grenadian. 



184 



ART OF AMERICAN NATIONS. 



peculiar features of the Central American group of the Red-men, 

Fig. 74. Fig. 75. 





Mexican Musical Instrument. 



Fig 76. 



Mexican Statue. 




Mexican Gem. 



in the formation of the skull, as well as by their 
high cheek-bones. 

The drawings of the Mexican hieroglyphieal 
and pictorial MSS. are of a conventional and 
decorative character. The following group 
from the astronomical Fejervary codex, is in- 
serted to represent the state in which they por- 
tray the phases of the moon, according to Aztec 
mythology. We see first the sun aud the 
moon quarrelling [given in wood-cut 77]: the 
next group, in the original MS., shows the 
defeat of the moon, which in the third group is 
swallowed by the sun ; the fourth figure represents the triumphant 
sun; in. the fifth, the conqueror (very unsesthetically) spits the head 
of the moon out, as symbol of the first quarter. 202 

We merely figure one specimen: the subject being hardly intelli- 
gible without the colors of the original. 

Of a higher importance are the antiquities of Central America ; 
though a comparison of the different publications on the ruins of 
Palenque clearly shows, that a faithful copy of those monuments 
belongs still to the desiderata of archaeology. The idiotic head [78] 
published by Waldeck, 203 with the peculiar artificial deformation of the 

202 Kingsboeouqh, Antiquities of Mexico, iii. ; " MS. in the possession of Gabriel Fejer- 
vary"— figs. 3, 5, 6, 7. 

203 Voyage Piltoresque et ArcMologique dans la province de Yucatan, 1834-6, Paris, fol. 
1837 ; pi. xxii. p. 105 — " Relief astronomique de Palenque' " — (differently given in Del Rio, 
Description, 1822, pi. 3.) 



ART OP AMERICAN NATIONS. 
Fig. 77. 



185 




Mexican Illuminated MS. 



Fig. 78. 



Fig. 79. 





Palenque-kelief. 

skull ; and the terra-cotta idol, [179] ; m 
— both from Yucatan, — show a ten- 
dency towards decorative art ; which 
treats even the human form merely 
for ornamental purposes, and there- 
fore lays a peculiar stress on the head- 
dress, eyebrows, wrinkles, and other 
accessories, in preference to the purity 

of the principal forms. In fact we may characterize the reliefs of 
Palenque by this peculiarity, which we observe in a smaller degree 
on Mexican reliefs. 

The few monuments of Guatemala hitherto published, among those 
discovered by Squier, are of a purer taste and higher artistical cha- 
racter. This inedited colossal head [80], obligingly communicated to 
us from his well-stored portfolio, found by him at Yulpates, in 1853, sur- 



2M Idem, pi. xix. — " Idole et Vase en terre cuite.' 



186 



ART OF AMERICAN NATIONS. 



Ms;. 80. 



passes in beauty all we knew before of the art of the Ked-raee. The 

simplicity of design, the exqtiisite 
finish of execution, and the earnest 
expression of the head in question (to 
which our wood-cut does not do ade- 
quate justice), place it on an equal 
footing with the productions of any 
Japetide race. Still, the Indian charac- 
ter of the features attests sufficiently 
its indigenous origin. We owe this 
gem of American sculpture to the libe- 
rality of Mr. Squier ; whose name is 
associated with so many important re- 
searches and enterprises, that he has 
been able easily to transfer to us the 
honor of publishing the best of all 
American statuary. To it we add, as 
specimens of Central American style, 
three heads from one of his published 
works. 205 




GuATEMALIAN-IDOL. 



Fig. 81. 




Fig. 82. 




Fig. 83. 




NlCAKAGUAN. 



NlCAKAGUAN. 



NlCARAGBAN. 



We copy from the work of de Eivero and ton Tschudi, 206 the fol- 
lowing terra-cotta head [84], as a specimen of Peruvian art; and, in 
order to show the affinity of Indian art all over America, we com- 
pare it with a Mexican terra-cotta head [85]. 207 The resemblance 
in artistic treatment between both figures is most striking. 

Tschudi, with an exaggeration easily explicable in the discoverer 
and commentator of monuments formerly Unknown, compares his 
Peruvian vase to any Etruscan work of pottery ; but, even if we must 
dissent from his view in respect to the workmanship of the head pub- 

205 Nicaragua, New York, 1852 — No. 81, fromi., p. 302, "Idol from Momotombita,"— No. 
82, from ii., p. 62, "Idols at Zapatero" — No. 83, ii., p. 52, same sculptures. 

206 Anliffiiedades Peruana.?, Vienna, 4to., 1851, Atlas, lamina ix. — head on a vase. 
291 A nliquile's Mexkaines, 2nde Expedition, pi. xxiv. fig. 71, p. 20. 



ART OF AMERICAN NATIONS. 187 

lished by him, we may admit the high proficiency of Peruvian art, 
Fig. 84. Fig- 85. 





Mexican terra-cotta. 

when we behold two most exquisite 
terra-eotta heads of the British Mu- 
seum; which, according to the label 
on them, were found in the neigh- 
Peruvian Vase. borhood of Lake Titicaca. Both 

of them are here edited for the first 
time. The male head [86] compares advantageously with works 
of Egyptian or Etruscan artisanship, whilst preserving the charac- 
ter of the Indian race; and the female head [87], with its artificial 



Fig. 86. 



Fig. 87. 





Peruvian Male. 



Peruvian Female. 



deformity of the skull, gives us the highest idea of the artistical 
endowments of the Aymaras. 

These few specimens of the indigenous ante-Columbian art of 
America show sufficiently the constancy of the Indian type — as pre- 
served now in the very geographical province whence each relic has 



188 ON SOME OF THE 

been derived — during all the historical period of the JSTew "World, and 
its great difference from Chinese and Japanese works of art. Could 
we hope that the monuments of Central and South America might 
attract the attention and excite the interest of more American scholars 
than hitherto, the theory of the Mongol origin of the Red-men would 
soon be numbered among exploded hypotheses, — to be forgotten, 
like the fond illusions of Lord Kingsborough ; who succumbed pre- 
maturely, 'tis said, fortuneless in pocket and aberrated in mind, 
owing to his sincere and munificent endeavors to deduce " American 
Indians" from the falsely-supposed "lost Ten Tribes of Israel." 

IX. ON SOME OF THE UNARTISTICAL RACES. 

Count de Gobineau's publication on the Inequality of human 
races m is certainly a work sparkling with genius and originality, if 
indulging in some wild hypotheses not supported by history. By 
one of his most startling assertions he derives the aptitude for art, 
among all the nations of antiquity, from an amalgamation with Black 
races. For him, Egyptians, Greeks, Assyrians and Etruscans, are 
half-breeds, mulattoes ! "We would not notice this strange and alto- 
gether-gratuitous hypothesis, had not several other works — unscien- 
tific, but important by the intense popularity they have acquired, — 
held out the expectation that the Black races might, after all, 
turn out to be artistical, and hence bring about a new era of art. 
Sober history does not encourage such dreams, nor can the past of 
the Black races warrant them. Long as history has made mention 
of negroes, they have never had any art of their own. Their features 
are recorded by their ancient enemies, not by themselves. Egyptian 
kings who, from the earliest times of antiquity, came often into 
collision with the blacks, had them figured as defeated enemies, 
as prisoners of war, and as subject nations bringing tribute. Their 
grotesque features, so much differing from the Egyptian type, made 
them a favorite subject for sculptural supports of thrones, chairs, 
vases, &c. ; or painted under the soles of sandals, of which instances 
abound in Museums as well as in the larger works on Egypt. 

To the many examples of monumental negroes furnished in 
"Types of Mankind," we add two that are inedited, due to M. 
Prisse d'Avennes's friendship for his old Egyptian comrade, Mr. 
Gliddon. The first [fig. 88] is accompanied by the following memo- 

^ Essui sur Vlnegalite des Races Hum/lines; 8vo, vols. I, II, 1853; III, 1854; IV, 1855. 
Cf., on the same subject, Pott, Unghichheit Menschlicher Eassen hauptsachlich vom sprach- 
wissenschaf [lichen standpunkle, 1856. 



UNARTISTICAL RACES. 189 

randum : — " Tombeau de Sehampthe (Thebes), — sous Amounoph III" 

Fig. 88. 




Asiatic and African. 

(Theban Sculptures — XVIIth dynasty — 1 6th century B. C.) 

— about tbe 16th century b. c. The Fig. 89. 

second [fig. 89] is the head of one 
of two exquisitely-designed and 
colored full-length negroes, identical 
in style, supporting a "Vase peint 
(jaune, traits rouges) sur les parois 
du tombeau de A'ichesiou, pretre 
charge de l'autel et des ecritures du 
grande temple de Thebes, sous 
Eamses VII, — XX e dynastie (hypo- 
gees de Gournah)." The first cor- 
roborates that which, since Morton's 
day, has ceased to be disputed, viz : 
monumental period of Egypt, of at least three distinct types of man 
along the Nile, Egyptian, Shemitic and Nigritian ; the second (which 
point, Mr. Gliddon's and M. Prisses's long familiarity with Egypt 
render them competent authorities to assert), is identical, after 3000 




o 

Ancient Negro. 



the existence. 



during 



all the 



190 



ON SOME OF THE 



Fig. 90. 



years of time, with the ordinary class of black slaves still imported 
from the upper Nile-basin for sale in the bazaars at Cairo. 

Both these monuments belong to the XVHth and XXth dynasties, 
which carried the arms of the Pharaohs to the upper Kile and to the 
Euphrates. The other artistical nations of antiquity knew little of 
the Negro-race. They did not come before Solomon's epoch into 
immediate and constant contact with it. "We see soon after, how- 
ever, a negro in an Assyrian battle-scene of the time of S argon, at 
Khorsabad [90]. 209 He might have been exported from Memphis by 

Phoenician slave-dealers to Asia, 
where he fell fighting for his 
master against the Assyrians ; who 
did not fail to perpetuate the 
memory of such an extraordinary 
feature as a black warrior must 
have been to them. On that re- 
markable relief of the tomb of 
Darius Hystaspes, at Persepolis, 
(supra, p. ? fig. 35) we have seen 
the negro as a representative of 
Africa. The Greeks seldom drew 
blacks: still, on beautiful vases of 
the British Museum we meet with 
the well-known negro features in a 
battle-scene. [See the annexed plate IX, fig. 1]. Another such 
vase, with the representation of Hercules slaying negroes, has been 
published by Micali. 210 Etruscan potters, who, as already remarked, 
liked to draw Oriental types, moulded vases into the shape of a negro 
head, and coupled it sometimes with the head of white males or 
females. The British Museum contains several of these very cha- 
racteristic utensils. [See Plate IX, figs. 2, 3, 4]. These two Etru- 
rian vases are not older than the 4th century b. c. — probably between 
200 and 250 b. c. The medal-room of the British Museum contains, 
besides, three silver coins of Delphi, age about 400 b. c; having on 
one face the head of a negro, with the woolly hair admirably indi- 
cated ; and on the other a goat's head seen in front-view, between 
two dolphins, the usual type of Delphi. We know likewise several 
Roman cameos, which represent negroes with all the refined elegance 
of the imperial epoch [91]. Thus we possess effigies of negroes 
drawn by six different nations of antiquity: Egyptians, Assyrians, 
Persians, Greeks, Etruscans and Romans; from about the 18th cen- 




Khoesabad-Neoro. 



209 Botta, Monument de Ninive, pi. 88. 



210 Monumenti Antichi, 






. ■ ' ■ 






PL IX. 






. 



Etruscan Vase . 

3. 



m 










M 



' *§.? £ 





Etruscan drinking -jars. 
( British Museum.) 




TJlSrARTISTlCAL RACES. 191 

tury b. c.j to the first centuries of our era, which all speak for the 
unalterable constancy of the negro type such as it 
is in our own days. We see that it was not only 
the color, but the peculiar type that struck the 
ancients ; and which the Romans, for instance, 
knew quite as minutely as any modern ethnolo- 
gists. Petronius, who lived under the emperor 
Nero, describes, in his Novel, three vagabond 
literary men who, having taken passage in a 
ship on the Mediterranean, suddenly discover that 
it belongs to a merchant on board, whom two of 

, . _ Negro Head. 

them had previously rob bed. Dreading his revenge, tp u i S zky Coll) 
one of them says : 

"Eumolpus, being a scholar, has certainly ink with him: let us therefore dye ourselves 
from top to toe, and as Ethiopian slaves we shall be at his command without fear of torture; 
for by the change of color we shall deceive our enemies." But Geiton exclaims in reply: 
"as if color atone could transform our shape ! for many things have to conspire that the lie 
might be maintained under any circumstances. Or can we fill our lips with an ugly swell- 
ing ? can we crisp our hair with an iron ? and mark our forehead with scars ? and distend 
our shanks into a curve ? and draw our heels down to the earth ? and change our beard into 
a foreign fashion? — artificial color besmears the body, but does not change it." 211 

Voltaire has somewhere wittily remarked, "the first white man 
who beheld a negro must have been greatly astonished ; but the 
reasoner who claims that the negro comes from the white man 
astonishes me a great deal more." 

Negroes, however, are not the only unartistical race. "We have 
already spoken of the Shemites among the whites, and we must add 
to them the Turanian or Turk-Tartar family of nations ; that is to say, 
the Hungarians proper, the Turks and Turkomans, the Finns, and 
some migratory tribes of southern Siberia ; none of them ever having 
produced any painter or sculptor. But not even all the Japetides are 
endowed with artistical tendencies. The Celts and Slavonians, and 
among the Teutonic races, the Scandinavians, had no national art. 
The imagery of their epics and lyrics is neither picturesque nor 
sculptural ; their buildings, pictures and statues, are characterized by 
no peculiar type, and are either the works of foreigners, or servile 
imitations of imported models. The Turks and Celts have, at least, 
a peculiar feeling for ornament, for decorative art and harmony of 
colors ; but all the other nations mentioned above have never felt 
that inward impulse which prompted even the semi-civilized Toltecan 

211 T. Petronii Arbitri, Satiricon, cap. CII: — compare the extract from Virgil in Types 
of Mankind (p. 255) ; and the quotation from Locman's Fables: (p. 246) which is but the 
Arabian or Persian dress of the same idea in iEsop's. 



192 SOME OF THE TJNARTISTICAL RACES. 

nations of America to build gigantic structures and to adom them 
with sculptures and paintings: 212 the genius of art has never smiled 
upon them. But, such being the indubitable facts of history, have 
we therefore to consider Hungarians, Celts, Shemites and Scandina- 
vians, as lower races than the ante-Columbian Aztecs of Mexico, and 
the Aymaras and Quichoas of Peru ? Are we, because some nations 
got peculiar endowments not shared by other races, to transfer these 
facts into the moral, social, and political sphere ? Are the scientific 
facts about the original "unity" or "diversity" of human races, and 
their equal or unequal mental and artistic endowments, to bear 
upon their political, social, and legal treatment ? Are the Shemites 
to be despised because they cannot understand epics and theogonies? 
and the Celts oppressed because their imagination predominates 
over their reasoning faculties ? and the Negroes enslaved because 
they never arrive at orthography or grammatical correctness ? "Will 
the Hungarians, if they could be forced to forget their language and 
to speak German; and the Poles, if they merge into the Russian 
family, become more useful to mankind than in their own languages ? 
"Will they, by changing their idiom, change their national peculiari- 
ties? Can they develope themselves under oppression and on a 
foreign basis, better than in freedom and in their national individu- 
ality ? To all these questions there is but one reply : whatever be 
their origin and endowments. They are all men; that is to say, 
beings possessing reason and conscience, responsible for their actions 
to their Creator, to mankind and to themselves, able to recognise 
truth, and to discern between right and wrong, and therefore they 
are equally entitled to "life, liberty and pursuit of happiness." 

212 [So true is this remark, that Waltjeck ( Yucatan, p. 34) relates how the Meridanos are 
excellent imitators and clever workmen to this day; possessing, like their ancestors, an innate 
power for sculpture and drawing. Again, in a more austral and less artistic part of America, 
the mulatto-breeds between Indians, negroes and Portuguese, have much talent for art 
(Debret, Voyage pitloresque au Bresil, III, p. 84). In spite even of Islamism, this perdu- 
rable race-instinct breaks forth in Egypt among the Theban fellahs; whose Benvenuto 
Cellinis, with the humblest instruments, manufacture "modern antiques " with sufficient 
skill to gratify that "love for Egyptian art" professed by the most fastidious Anglo-Saxon 
toiirist. An Cammoonee was, during my time at Thebes, the Sheykh of native artists in 
that line. My friend Mr. A. C. Harris, and myself, supplied him with all the small tools we 
could spare (bits of tin and glass, broken penknives, nails, old toothbrushes, &c), in hopes 
through such means, under Providence, to flood the market with antiquarian curiosities 
satisfactory to "les badauds;" and thus obviate the necessity for their chipping the monu- 
ments. (See my Appeal to the Antiquaries, London, Madden, 1841, pp. 139-45). — G. R. Or.] 



HINDOO AND CHINESE CIVILIZATIONS AND ART. 193 



X. — HINDOO AND CHINESE CIVILIZATIONS AND ART. 

The peninsula of the Indus and Ganges is separated from the 
mainland of Asia, by sand-deserts and ranges of inaccessible moun- 
tains. The few long and narrow passes which lead through these 
mountains, were rarely used as means of communication with the 
"West and North, for they are the home of warlike, robber-tribes, ac- 
customed to levy black-mail on the surrounding populations. The 
currents of the sea, and the directions of the winds, led the enter- 
prise of the Hindoos to the South-East, to the Malay peninsula and 
its island-world. It was thither that India sent her culture and re- 
ligion : untouched by the lively development of the classical western 
world, she remained unconnected with the current of our history. 

Scarce and faint were the legends about that great country of the 
East, which, in times of classical antiquity, reached the West by the 
way of Persia and Arabia. The mythical tradition of the triumphs 
of Bacchus, and Hercules, was all that reminded republican Greece 
of the home of spices and gems. Guided by this tradition, Alex- 
ander the Macedonian reached the frontiers of the fable-land; but 
even his adventurous spirit had to give up progress into the interior. 
The elephants, which he brought from the upper Penjaub, decided 
the battles of his successors for more than half a century after his 
death ; down to the time when the last of them went up the Capito- 
line hill, in the triumph of Curius Dentatus. This animal must have 
lived full fifty years in Macedonian harness after the war with 
Pyrrhus, being the last evidence of the unrivalled eastern conquests 
of the great Macedonian. The Roman Legions were never able to 
surmount the difficulties which barred access to Hindostan ; and a 
few merchants and ambassadors were the only western people, who, 
during the times of classical antiquity, had seen the sacred rivers of 
the peninsula. 213 The development of society, religion, government, 
and art, with the Hindoos, their institution of castes, their single and 
efficient system of self-government, their elaborate eode of law, their 
epic and dramatic poetry, and their stupendous works of architec- 
ture and sculpture, are, therefore, all of indigenous growth. They 
are certainly not derived from, and many of them are probably 
much anterior to, the Macedonian invasion ; which could not have 
left any lasting trace ; both from its short duration, and from the 

213 One of these successful travellers, Babdesanes, gives us the first description of a 
Hindoo rock-temple adorned with the sculptures of an androgynous God. See Pokphteius 
apud Stob^eum, Edog. Phys. i. p. 144. 

13 



194 HINDOO AND CHINESE 

comparatively small extent of the territory overrun by the forces of 
Alexander, and even of Seleucus and Demetrius, his Syrian and 
Bactrian successors. 

[The Punjab remained under the nominal sway of the Macedonians for about ten years, 
when this supremacy was thrown off by Sandracottus (Chandragupta), about 317 B. c. ; 
when Seleucus of Syria found it wiser to make peace with the rebel Hindoo raja, and to 
give him his daughter in marriage. The Greek kings of Bactria, from Demetrius to 
Menander and Apollodorus,— that is to say, for about one century — were likewise suzerains 
of the country on the Indus until 120 E. c. Still, they resided in Bactria ; and there is no 
trace of Greek mythology, and consequently of Greek art intimately connected with it, 
anywhere in the Punjab : on the contrary, the Bactrian kings put the representation of 
the Hindoo Shiva and of his bull Nandi on their coins struck for the Indian dominions. 
Hellenism, therefore, did not spread along the Indus, but it had to yield to Hindooism. 

After the Macedonian visit, Hindostan remained for more than a thousand years undis- 
turbed by foreigners; outliving the fierce contest between Buddhism and Brahmanism; 
civilizing by the former the Malay peninsula, and extending its moral influence to Thibet 
and China, whilst the latter converted Java about a. d. 800. Two centuries after that 
event, Shah Mahmoud, of Ghuzni, the monotheistic fanatic, called "the destroyer of 
idols," overran the north of Hindostan, burning the towns, sacking the temples, and 
breaking the images ; and settled his Pattan and Affghan followers in this fertile country. 
Ever since his time, northern Turanian conquerors found no difficulty to invade India, 
either for pillage or for conquest. Timur, Baber, and Nadir Shah, flooded the country with 
their followers, in succession ; and planted a numerous Mohammedan population, and 
Islamite dynasties, among the effeminate Hindoos. Arab merchants spread, at the same 
time, over all the coasts and islands, and converted Malay-Java (which had previously 
accepted the civilization and religion of the Vedas) to Islam ; about A. v. 1400. Still, the 
bulk of the population of the peninsula remained unshaken by the purer religion and 
social institutions of the Mohammedan conquerors. European invaders came next. More 
systemically than their Mussulman predecessors, they broke up the legal institutions and 
the traditions of indigenous administration. They swept away the old aristocracy and 
gentry of the country ; but the character of the Hindoo, and his views of God and nature, 
of law and society, remain unchanged. The population lives among, but does not intermix 
with, their former rulers, the Mussulmans ; nor with their present European lords — who 
(to use a geological simile) are in India the two newest strata of recent date ; covering the 
primary formations mechanically, but failing to transform chemically the old plutonio 
rocks of Buddhism and Brahmanism.] 

"With the Hindoos, religion, institutions, and art, are (as every- 
where amid aboriginal races) in the most intimate connection with 
the physical features of the country. Here the exuberant power of 
tropical vegetation, equally gigantic in creation and in destruction, 
subdue the energies of man. The sudden changes of temperature, — 
the tropical rains which, in the course of a few hours, swell the rivulet 
into a great stream, — the snowy mountain-peaks and mighty rivers, 
— the jungles that, with their lofty bamboo, encroach upon every 
inch of ground left uncultivated, — the strange trees, of which every 
branch becomes a new stem, — the powerful animals, from the ele- 
phant, and tiger, down to the white ant dangerous to the works of 



CIVILIZATIONS AND ART. 195 

human industry by its enormous numbers, — in short, all nature 
appears in such overwhelming features, that the Hindoo gives up 
the continuous struggle with it, and finds his reward not in activity 
but in passive contemplation. His imagination soon gets the upper 
hand of his understanding; and in mythology, art, and science, takes 
an unrestrained flight into the transcendental, the monstrous and 
shapeless. 

The Hindoo adores " nature," as well its destructive as its creative 
power ; he recognises a soul in every living creature ; he believes in 
the transmigration of the soul ; and therefore throws the corpse of 
his beloved into the Ganges or into the fire, the sooner to be dissolved 
into its original atoms by the pure elements. The "Nirvana," with 
the ancient Buddhists, and the "Yogha" with the Brahmans, that 
is to say, the losing of the individuality in contemplation — a death- 
like state — being with him the noblest aim of life and the highest 
degree of sanctity, death has no terrors for him : — he flings himself 
under the wheels of the triumphal car of Shiva at Jaggernaut, and 
the widow willingly ascends the pile with the corpse of her husband. 
In the nature around him, destruction being always followed by 
immediate regeneration, he believes creation to be an uninterrupted 
cycle of one and the same life, only changing its form; and his poets 
sing, that 

" Like as men throw away old garments, and clothe themselves in new attire, 
Thus the soul leaves the body and migrates into another." 

Nature being to the Hindoo the incarnation of Godhead, he has 
a deeply reverential feeling for it ; and adorns his works of art with 
flowers in such a profusion, that man and his actions become often 
only accessories of this adornment. Still, it is not in an arbitrary 
way that he sheds his flowers on poetry and sculpture ; they always 
have a deeper, symbolical meaning. 

During the inundations, when the valley of Bengal is nearly lost 
under the waters, the petals of the Lotus flower alone swimming on 
the waves, bear evidence that the vital powers of nature have not 
been destroyed by the floods. This flower became, therefore, the 
symbol of life and of creation : it is the throne of all the Gods, and 
especially of Brahma the creator. 

The representation of Kama, the God of Love, is one of the most 
gracefully symbolical — though entirely unplastic, specimens of 
Hindoo imagination. It is a smiling child with bow and arrows, 
riding on a parrot. The bow is a bent sugar-cane adorned with 
flowers, the string is formed by a row of flying bees, and the arrow 
is a lily. Thus the Hindoo tries to represent the gentleness and in- 
constancy, the impudence and the innocence, the sweetness and the 
stings, of love, in one and the same image. 



196 HINDOO AND CHINESE 

Iii the same symbolical way, the Goddess of Beauty and Pleasure 
is the Goddess of Nature ; for, Nature is always beautiful, and the 
beautiful always natural. She is the wife of Shiva — the God of 
Destruction, and holds a flower in one hand, with a snake coiled 
around it : since pleasure is blended with danger, as life and beauty 
with death. 

I cannot enter here upon Hindoo Architecture, nor give any 
details of the wonders of the cave-temples, some of them resembling 
our churches by their nave and aisles. Space forbids me to speak of 
the colossal tanks in the south surrounded by huge buildings, and 
adorned by grand flights of steps ; or of the deep wells in the west, 
cut into the rock and surmounted by a series of galleries, to afford 
cool shade in that hot climate. I must not here enumerate their 
triumphal monuments, their columns decorated with reliefs, their 
grand arches surmounted by statues. Suffice it to mention the fact, 
that Hindoo art, through all the epochs of its history, was entirely 
indigenous and peculiar to the peninsula. The great palaces, 
temples, and tombs of the Mohammedan princes bear not the 
slightest resemblance to the native architecture, being themselves 
analogous to the mosques of Cairo, and the seraglios of Constantinople 
or of Moorish Spain. 

The character of Hindoo sculpture is similar to Hindoo poetry : 
it is eminently feminine. We find with their artists always a deli- 
cate feeling for the pleasant and graceful, as well as for the pompous 
and adorned, whilst they fail in their attempts at grandeur, — being 
either crushed by the exuberance of the decorative element, or losing 
themselves in tasteless and adventurous exaggeration. In general, 
their statues and reliefs are true in the principal forms, and soft and 
elaborate in execution. 

The sculptors are peculiarly successful in rendering the expression 
of deep contemplation, or of religious devotion. The representa- 
tions of domestic life are of the greatest sweetness ; the feminine 
passive character of the Hindoos being admirably portrayed in their 
pleasant simplicity. But when a God is to be drawn in action, and 
his power to be symbolized, the artist failed in his task : unable to 
reproduce superhuman power by idealizing the human form, he 
betook himself to unartistic and symbolical methods, as by multi- 
plying head and hands. Such symbolical personifications of Godhead 
are not at all exclusively Hindoo ; they were not unknown to the 
mythology, and earlier poets of Greece. The Giants, with their 
hundred arms ; Geryon, with three bodies ; and Polyphemus, with his 
eye on the forehead ; are subjects of art as unplastic as any creatures 
of Hindoo imagination. But the Greek sculptors avoided to represent 



CIVILIZATIONS AND ART. 197 

such myths, whereas the Indian artists had often to deal with them ; 
and we must confess, that sometimes they succeeded in conciliating 
them with good taste, by giving prominence to the principal pure 
forms, and treating the monstrous appendages as decorative accesso- 
ries. Monstrosity is, on the whole, not the principal character of 
Hindoo art; hut monstrous idols excite the curiosity of the European 
visitor of India more than artistically-carved statues ; he buys them 
and carries them to the "West, on account of their very oddity. 
Hence, our public collections and curiosity-shops are swamped with 
four-handed and three-headed monsters, which ought not to be taken 
for fair specimens of Hindoo art, though they have given rise to 
the general belief that Hindostan has no art worthy to be noticed. 
We can scarcely wonder that such is the case, since the public at 
large — let us boldly avow it, — cares little for art: how then should 
it take an interest in an art founded on myths, institutions, and a 
culture which has scarcely any affinity with our own civilization ? 
The few scholars, on the other hand, who devote their time to the 
literature of Hindostan, are but too often philologists, without any 
artistic education. "We have, therefore, no publications on Hindoo 
art, such as those of Champollion, Rosellini, and Lepsius, on Egypt, 
or of Texier, Flandin, Botta, and Layard, on Persia and Assyria. 
The most important sculptures of India have not yet been copied; 
and the collections brought to the West have not been made with 
the view of giving a correct idea of the peculiar style of Hindoo art 
in its different schools and epochs. The confusion becomes still 
greater, by the fact that the old mythology of Brahmanism has, with 
a few slight alterations, remained the religion of the population down 
to our days. Idols are cast and carved continually, and their barba- 
rous style throws discredit on the better specimens of former ages. 
Our knowledge of Indian art is only fragmentary, and scarcely autho- 
rizes us to assign its proper position to every monument, either 
artistically or chronologically. Still, a few facts are sufficiently ascer- 
tained, to serve as a clue in the labyrinth of Hindoo art. 

The rock-caves, with their fantastic, exuberant, and somewhat 
exaggerated reliefs, are all of Buddhist origin. They are more chaste 
in style than the idols of the present worshippers of Shiva; and 
belong to a period of Indian history, classical for art and poetry, 
from 500 b. c, to about 300 a. d. By a strange coincidence, it is the 
same period in which Phidias and Praxiteles and Lysippus, and the 
Roman artists of Augustus and Trajan, flourished in Europe. 

Still more graceful, and more serene, are the Hindoo sculptures of 
the isle of Java, which we meet in the ruins of the temples of Boro- 
Bodo and Barandanum. The great Sir Stamford Raffles, and the 
Bombay Asiatic Society, have published a few specimens of those 



198 



HINDOO AND CHINESE 



Fig. 91. 




Buddha. 



Fig. 92. 



excellent reliefs ; which may be placed among the best productions of 

art. The following drawing of a colossal 
head of Buddha [91] 2U in a volcanic stone, 
now in the Glyptothec of Munich, may 
give an idea of the elegance and feminine 
character of those sculptures. 

The great bulk of the idols, in the col- 
lection of the British Museum, of the 
East India House, and of king Louis at 
Munich, belong to another style, which 
we call the florid style, characterized in 
its best specimens by an elaborate ele- 
gance, and often by affectation of sweet- 
ness, with a profusion of ornaments which 
encumbers the figures. Fig. 92, from a 
bronze of the British Museum, representing Lakshmi, the Goddess 
of Beauty, or Hindoo Venus, is a fair specimen 
of this style ; which belongs to the XV th and 
XVIth century of our era, and is still imitated by 
the modern artists of India. There are some rude 
figures, of an entirely different style, in some 
of the Museums of Europe ; and again others 
evidently archaic in their type : still, all of them 
are characterized by the same long pointed nose, 
the same mild eye, and the same sweetness of 
expression in the oval face,- — which form still the 
distinctive marks of the high castes of Hin- 
dostim. 

It is peculiarly interesting to see a school of 
art, so eminently feminine, apply itself to the ser- 
vice of a more martial race ; trying to represent 
the features and the court-life of the Turanian Dynasties, established 
in the XVH — XVHIth century all over the peninsula. The minia- 
ture-paintings of the time of Shah Jehan, Jehangir, Akbar, and Au- 
rengzeb, are really admirable. Whether they represent the splendor 
of a gorgeous court, or portray scenes of domestic life, there is such a 
gentle delicacy of feeling displayed in them, such a modest grace in 
the attitudes, and such a charm, especially in the female forms, that 
they are as pleasing, even to European taste, as the tales of the Ara- 
bian Mghts. And yet there is no perspective to be met with in those 
paintings ; the manner of shading the figures is unnatural ; the cos- 
tume is strange, and the grouping somewhat awkward. All this is 




Lakshmi. 



211 Othmar Frank, Ind. Mythologies and Sir Stamford Raffles, Java. 



CIVILIZATIONS AND ART. 



199 



Fig. 92. 




Indian Pkince, (Pulszky Coll.) 



Fig. 93. 



eminently Hindoo ; but the features of the persons represented mark 
their foreign origin. The likeness of a prince 
of the house of Timur [92], probably Darab 
the brother of Aurengzeb, on a sardonyx- 
cameo of my collection, shows a Turanian 
cast of features. 

Four portraits of Mohammedan princes and 
statesmen in India, of the time of Aureng- 
zeb (1658-1707), — selected from a large col- 
lection of likenesses painted by contempo- 
rary Hindoo artists and now adorning my 
Indian Museum — are most remarkable for 
their excellent characterization of the differ- 
ent races of the Muslim aristocracy in India, 
during the XVHth century. Shah Jehan 
[93], the Grand Mogul of Delhi, from 1628 
to 1658, is the grandson of Akbar the Great, who was grandson to 
Babur, — founder of the dynasty of the Mo- 
guls, which gave an uninterrupted succession 
of six great rulers to India, froin 1494 to 
1707. Babur, a Turkoman from Ferghana, 
was the fourth in descent from Timur-leng ; 
and, though promiscuous polygamy is apt to 
destroy the national type of any race, we still 
behold, in this portrait of Shah Jehan, the 
old Turanian character, resembling the por- 
traits of the Parthian kings. 

KhanKhanna, the General-in-Chief of the 
Sultan of Beejapoore in the Dekhan, is a Ta- 
mul convert to Islam. [See his portrait, slightly enlarged, tinted to 
give the color of his skin, in Gliddon's " Ethnographic Tableau" (No. 
46, Hindoo,) at the end of this volume.] He represents the aboriginal 
negroid (Dravidian) race of the southern table-lands of Hindostan ; not 
to be confounded with the Brahman race of the Gangetic valley — 
which is not aboriginal, but a conquering race coming originally from 
beyond the Hindoo Kush, and closely allied to the Arians of Persia. 

Khan Khanna's Chief, Mahmood Adil Shah [94], of Beejapoore, 
claimed descent from the present Osmanlees. His ancestor, Yussuf 
Khan (1501), foiinder of the empire of Beejapoore, having been 
the son of Sultan Amurath II., of Anatolia, his round Turanian skull 
is still more characteristic than that of Shah Jehan. 
- Shah Mirza [as such he stands in the "Ethnographic Tableau," 
(No. 23, Uzbek Tatar)], the Chancellor of the kingdom of Golconda, 
is an Uzbek Tartar: and Mollah Rukha [95], his chief clerk, cannot 




Shah Jehan. 



200 



HINDOO AND CHINESE 



Fig. 94. 




Fig. 95. 




MoLLAH RtjKHA. 



Mahm6od Adil Shah. 



Fig. 96. 




MtisA Khan. 



disown his Arab descent ; the cunning She- 
mitic features are unniistakeable. MtJsa 
Khan, [96] the Affghan General-in-Chief of 
Golconda, is stamped with the peculiar cha- 
racter of his race. We see in this remark- 
able assemblage of the statesmen of Gol- 
conda, under the reign of Sultan Abd-Al- 
lahKobeha, (aboutthe middle of the XVTIth 
century,) all the elements of Mohammedan 
conquest in Hiudostan. Whoever has lived 
for a while in India will recognise in them 
the most characteristic types of Islamite 
aristocracy in the Dekhan, as it is still seen 
at the Court of the Nizam. 

The European conquest of India has not improved art among the 
natives. Trying to imitate their European lords, and struck with the 
peculiar effect of light in our drawings and paintings, the Hindoo 
painters have lost the traditions of their own art, and are lapsing 
into barbarism, wherever the contact with Europeans is great — for 
instance, in Bengal: whilst the painters of the Dekhan are somewhat 
better, though not equal to the masters who produced those miniature- 
likenesses, &c, of the greater time of the Grand Moguls. 

The preliminary remark, that we do not know sufficiently the monu- 
ments of Hindostan to characterize the different schools and epochs 
of ai't, applies with still stronger force to the peninsula east of the 
Ganges. • We know, however, the monotonous statues of Buddha, 
carved and east by the artists of Birma, well enough to see that Bir- 
mese art is clumsier than Indian ; whilst the features of the statues 
are altogether different from the Hindoo cast. As to Siam and 
Cochin-China, concerning their art, we were unable to get any facts 
whatever. These countries are visited only by a few merchants and 
missionaries, who ignore art; China is by far better known, in this 



CIVILIZATIONS AND ART. 201 

respect, than the Malay peninsula and its adjacent countries ; and 
deserves the attention of the ethnologist and philosopher, since it is 
the country where the Yellow-race has developed itself on founda- 
tions entirely peculiar and entirely indigenous". In China all the citi- 
zens are politically equal : legally there are neither patricians, nor 
slaves, nor serfs ; neither privileged nor unprotected classes in the 
country. The priests form no hierarchy, the officials are not chosen 
from among an aristocracy of birth. The Yellow-race has not been 
trained by theocracy, nor ennobled by chivalry. From the very 
earliest times, we find with the Chinese a thorough centralization; a 
well-organized bureaucracy, open to competition ; a paternal despot- 
ism, carefully superintending, regulating, repressing and suppressing 
the moral exertions of the people, and providing that nobody shoidd 
aspire to a position to which he has not become entitled by his train- 
ing, and his degrees taken at the regular examination. The emperor 
sits on the throne as the incarnation of sober common sense ; the priest 
is the servant of the state ; the church and school are police-establish- 
ments, by which the Chinese is taught blindly to respect authority, 
officials, "law and order," and to which every child is sent to learn 
practical sciences. In fact, it is the system of patriarchal, enlight- 
ened, absolutism, — so much praised by the statesmen of continental 
Europe, and many self-called "radicals " of England; the system of 
a nobility of merit and office ; of centralized functionarism ; of select 
committees and boards of inquiry ; of orders in council, and volumi- 
nous instructions for the people how to behave so as to become happy ; 
of checks and counter-checks ; of spies and denunciations ; of police 
regulations and vexations. In short, China is the country of enlight- 
enment, of equality, and of the bamboo, — paternally applied to every- 
body, from the prime minister to the humblest tiller of the ground. 
These institutions show clearly that the Chinese is endowed with 
a sober and dry imagination, that cold reason predominates, and that 
the creative power is scarcely developed in him. Accordingly, we 
find that reverie, depth of feeling, and philosophical research, are 
unknown to his literature. His artists never attempted to create an 
ideal: they are materialists and flat imitators of nature, struck 
rather by the difference than the affinity of forms ; their aim is there- 
fore always the characteristical, not the beautiful. This tendency 
leads them to exaggeration and caricature. Imitating nature in a 
servile manner, the picturesque is much more in their way than the 
sculptural ; the naked form remained altogether misunderstood by 
them. They do not see and copy the principal outlines, but the 
accidental details : the wrinkles, the hair, or the swelling of the 
muscles. As to drapery, they imitate principally its folds, and seem 
to forget that they cover a body. 



1/ 



202 HINDOO AND CHINESE CIVILIZATIONS, ETC. 



In regard to the materials employed by the Chinese artist, we 
find that he excels in casting of metals, and that no stone is so hard 
as to deter him by technical difficulties from employing it. He 
carves in wood and ivory, he chisels the marble, he cuts the gem, he 
moulds the clay, he makes the best pottery. "Wood-cutting and litho- 
graphy were indigenous in China, long before Europe knew them. 

"We may say without exaggeration, that all the materials, and the 
most important of the workmanship of the "West, are known among 
the Yellow-race; and tbat in skill and industry the son of the Celes- 
tial empire surpasses the Japetide. But how to deal artistically with 
a materia], how to combine it with, and make it subservient to, 
the idea of the work of art, this remained an unsolved problem to 
the Chinaman. Seduced by his mechanical skill, he seeks the 
highest aim of art in overcoming practical difficulties : accordingly, 



Fig. 97. 



Fig. 98. 





Chinese cameo, (Pulszky Coll.). 



Chinese God. 



he delights in treating his material in the most unsuitable way, — 
transforming ivory into lace ; or sculpturing, from hard stone, figures 
covered with a net of unbroken meshes. He startles the mind by 
the patience with which he makes artistical puzzles, instead of ex- 
citing the imagination by the composition, and creating delight 
through the purity and beauty of forms. 

The preceding two heads give an idea of the type of the YelloAV- 
race and its art. Fig. 97 is the smiling portrait of a high functionary, 
from a cameo in my collection. Fig. 98, the head of the frowning 
God of the Polar star, comes from a statuette in the British Museum. 
Both of them are intensely characteristic specimens of an art never 
influenced by foreign agencies; and scarcely showing any affinity 
with the sculptures, either of our classical western, or of the conter- 
minous Hindoo civilization. 

F. P. 



CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS. 203 



CHAPTER III. 

THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RACES OF MEN. 

BY J. AITKEN MEIGS, H.D, 
LIBRARIAN OF THE ACADEMY OF NATOEAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, FELLOW OF THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS, ETC. 



Messrs. Nott and Gliddon: 

My Dear Sirs. — In answer to your very polite request of June 14th, that I should 
furnish you with a brief statement of the progress and present condition of Human 
Cranioscopy, and the intimate and important relations which it bears to the great problems 
of Ethnology, I send you the accompanying sketch, which you must receive mm grano 
salts, inasmuch as it has been drawn up during the hot and oppressive nights of mid- 
summer, and amidst the exacting interruptions necessarily attendant upon the practice 
of my profession. 

Having, as you are aware, devoted some portion of my leisure time, during the summer 
of 1855, to arranging and classifying the magnificent collection of the late Dr. Morton, 
preparatory to issuing a fourth edition of the Catalogue (the MS. of which was presented 
to the Academy of Natural Sciences in December last), I have thought proper to embody 
in this sketch some notice of the additions and changes which this Collection has under- 
gone since the demise of its illustrious founder. In attempting to set forth, in a general 
way, the cranial characters which differentiate the Races of Men, I have indicated the 
true value, not only of the Collection itself, but of the labors of Dr. M. also. For by 
determining those constant differences which constitute typical forms of crania, we esta- 
blish the fundamental, anatomical facts or principles upon which a true classification of the 
human family must be erected. 

In the treatment of my subject, you will observe that I have confined myself chiefly to a 
simple statement of facts, carefully and designedly abstaining from the expression of any 
opinion upon the prematurely, and perhaps, in the present state of our knowledge, unwisely 
mooted questions of the origin and primitive affiliations of man. Not a little study and 
reflection incline me to the belief that long years of severe and earnest research are yet 
necessary before we can pronounce authoritatively upon these ultimate and perplexing 
problems of Ethnology. 

Very truly yours, &c, 
Philad., December., 1856. J. AITKEN MEIGS. 



204 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 



" How much may the anatomist see in the mere skull of man ! How much 
more the physiognomist ! And how much the most the anatomist, who is a 
physiognomist ! I blush when I think how much I ought to know, and of 
how much I am ignorant, while writing on a part of the body of man which 
is so superior to all that science- has yet discovered — to all belief, to all 
conception ! 

"I consider the system of the bones as the great outline of man, and the 
skull as the principal part of that system." 

Lavatek, Essays on Physiognomy. 

A comprehensive and carefully conducted inquiry into the cranial 
characteristics of the races of men, constitutes a subject as unlimited 
in its extent and variety, as it is important in its results. Such an 
inquiry is essentially the zoological consideration of man, or, in 
other words, the consideration of man as a member of the great 
animal series, and the consequent application to him of those funda- 
mental laws which concern the subordination of parts, and the esta- 
blishment and correlation of specific forms. 

The first step in this inquiry, is the determination of those dif- 
ferences by which we are enabled to discriminate between the 
human cranium and that of the lower orders of animals. Lawrence 
long ago indicated, in his valuable Lectures, the importance of this 
procedure. "As the monkey-race," says he, "approach the nearest 
to man in structure and actions, and their forms are so much like 
the human, as to have procured for them the epithet, anthropo- 
morphous, we must compare them to man, in order to find out the 
specific characters of the latter; and we must institute this com- 
parison particularly with those called orang-outangs." 1 Such a 
comparison between the cranium of a negro and that of a gorilla, 
has been admirably drawn by Prof. Owen. 2 The second step leads 
to a recognition of the points of difference and resemblance between 
the crania of the various groups composing the human family. Now 
in elucidating these resemblances and differences, we lay the founda- 
tion of anthropology, or man zoologically considered. But our 
cranioscopy, to be properly initiative or introductory to anthro- 
pology, must be comparative, — not humanly comparative only, but 
zoologically. In other words, as naturalists — using that term in 
its most comprehensive sense — we must recognize the commence- 

1 Lectures on Comparative Anatomy, Physiology, Zoology, and the Natural History of 
Man. By Wm. Lawrence, F.R.S. London, 1848, p. 88. 

2 Descriptive Catalogue of the Osteological Series contained in the Museum of the Royal 
College of Surgeons. II. 785. 1853. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 205 

ment of cranioscopy in the lower series. If we first compare the 
crania of the lowest types of man with the most anthropoid of those 
of the monkey group, and then carefully observe the nature of the 
relation between the so-called superior and inferior forms of each 
group, respectively, and finally compare these relations together, we 
commence our studies properly. For in so doing, we in reality 
study the extent, nature, and significance of the wide gap which 
appears effectually to separate man from the brute creation. I say, 
appears — and I say it advisedly, inasmuch as in nature's plan there 
may be no gap at all; the intervening forms may have become 
extinct, they may, unknown to us, be living in some unexplored 
regions of the earth ; or they may yet appear, at some future period, 
to substantiate that harmonious and successional unity which seems 
to underlie the entire system of the universe. 

In the accompanying table will be found a series of figures repre- 
senting the juvenile, or immature, and adult skulls of the anthropo- 
morphous monkeys, the adult or permanent forms of the lower types 
both of men and monkeys, and, lastly, a well-known representation 
of the highest form of the "human head divine," — all arranged in 
conformity with what appears to be the indication of nature. Such 
an arrangement shows us, at a glauce, that among the different tribes 
of monkeys, as among the various races of men, there are numerous 
types or forms of skull ; that for each of these natural groups, there 
is a gradation of cranial forms ; that the greatest resemblances be- 
tween the two groups — ■ resemblances indicating the existence of a 
transitionary or connecting link as a part of nature's plan — are to be 
sought for in or between the lower types of each, and not between 
the lowest man and highest monkey, as is generally supposed ; that 
the undeveloped crania of the Chimpanzee, Orang, and other higher 
types of monkeys, more closely resemble the human form than when 
fully evolved ; that for each of the lower human types of skull, there 
appears to exist among the monkeys a rude representative, which 
seems remotely and imperfectly to anticipate the typical idea of the 
former, and to bear to it a certain ill-defined relation ; and, lastly, 
that the best formed human skull stands immensely removed from 
the most perfectly elaborated monkey cranium. 

From the comparative methods above referred to, we learn that 
the human head differs from that of the brute creation in many im- 
portant respects, — such as the proportion between the size and areas 
of the cranium and face, the relative situation of the face, the direc- 
tion and prominence of the maxilla;, the position and direction of the 
occipital foramen, the proportion of the facial to the cranial half of 
the occipito-mental diameter, in the absence of the os inter-maxillare, 



206 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 









OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



207 






in the number, situation, and di- 
rection of the teeth, &c. These are 
a few of the differential elements 
which separate man from the quad- 
rumana, and the various genera 
and species of the latter from each 
other. But the chief value of these 
osteological differentia lies in their 
perfect applicability to man, and 
the facility with which they enable 
us to distinguish between the vari- 
ous human types. Thus, in the 
best developed and most intellec- 
tual races, the supra-orbital ridge 
is smooth, well carved, and not 
much developed; as we descend 
towards the lower types, it becomes 
more and more marked, until, in 
the African and Australian heads, 
it has attained its maximum de- 
velopment. In the Orang, this 
feature begins to assume a greater 
importance, while in the Chimpan- 
zee, its enormous size renders it a 
characteristic mark. Here, then, 
is the evidence, to some extent, of 
gradation, in a seemingly exclusive 
ethnographic mark, whose signifi- 
cance is elucidated by a resort to 
anthropology. Again, it is curious 
to observe how certain adult animal 
characters appear in man during 
the foetal period only. Thus, in 
some mammals, as the Rodentia 
and Marsupialia, we find, as a per- 
manent feature, an inter-parietal, 
bone. In man, the occipital bone 
consists, at birth, of four parts, 
which are not consolidated until 
about the fifth or sixth year. 
Each of these parts is developed 
from distinct ossific centres. For 
the posterior or proral portion, an- 



208 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

atomists generally recognise four such centres, arranged in pairs, the 
two lower uniting first, and afterwards the two upper, so that, be* 
tween this superior and inferior portion, a line of demarcation 
— sutura prorse — remains until the time of birth. According to 
Meckel, the superior portion is developed from two bony puneta. 
In consequence of this distinct ossification, the superior angle of 
the os occipitis continues as a separate piece during intra-uterine 
life, as was long ago noticed and described by Gerard Blasius, 
in his work (Anatonie Contractu) published at Amsterdam, in 1666. 
The interest attached to this embryonic feature arises from its re- 
markable persistence as a triangular inter-parietal or supra-occipital 
bone, in juvenile Peruvian skulls, as first pointed out by Dr. P. Bel- 
lamy, in a paper read before the Naturalists' Society of Devon and 
Cornwall, and afterwards by Dr. Tschtjdi, in a paper on the ancient 
Peruvians. 3 Dr. Minchin, in a recent highly philosophical article, 
entitled, Contributions to Craniology, 4 while contending for the central 
or vertical origin of the bi-parietal bones, is disposed to question the 
existence of this supernumerary bone as an ordinary normal condi- 
tion of foetal life. However, his argument on this special point is by 
no means conclusive. The os inter-maxillare, found in some of the 
Quadrumana as a permanent character, has also been demonstrated 
as a transitional mark in the human embryo. 5 Did my space permit, 
other examples might be given, illustrative of the value of human 
embryology as a guide in the study of the specific and generic cha- 
racters of the animal kingdom. 

The want of information, such as above set forth, led Monboddo 
and Rousseau, men of undoubted learning, to speak of the relation- 
ship of the genus Homo to the Quadrumana in terms contradictory 
to all correct anatomy and physiology. " II est bien demontre," says 
Rousseau, " que le Singe n'est pas une variety de l'Homme, non 
seulement parcequ'il est prive de la faculte de parler, mais, surtout, 
parcequ'on est sur que son espece n'a point la faculte de se perfec- 
tionner, qui est le caractere specifique de l'espece humaine; — expe- 
riences qui ne paroissent pas avoir €t& faites, sur le Pongos et 
l'Ourang-Outang, avec assez de soin, pour en tirer la menie conclu- 
sion." 6 Monboddo, less cautious, expressed his belief in the specific 
identity of man and the orang. Even White, not properly under- 
standing Nature's method in that " Gradation" upon which he wrote, 

3 Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, 1844, p. 252. 

4 Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science, Not., 1856. 

6 See some remarks on the inter-maxillary bone, by Prof. Leidy, in Quain and Sharpey's 
Human Anatomy, 1st Amer. Edit., vol. 1, p. 143. 
6 Discours sur les Causes, &c, note 10. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 209 

speaks of the orang as having the person, manner, and actions of 
man. 7 

Still higher and more complex propositions engage the attention 
of the cranioscopist. What is the nature of the skull as a whole, 
and what is the nature respectively of its different parts? Why 
should it be composed of 22 hones, and no more ? What is the 
meaning of the sutures, and what their relation to individual and 
race forms of the skull ? What are the relations of the cranium to 
the bony skeleton on the one hand, and to the delicate organ of 
thought and sensation, which it encloses, on the other ? What are 
the laws of its development ? When has it obtained its full growth, 
and what are the indications of this fact ? Is this period the same 
in all the varieties of men ? Does the cranium give form to the 
brain, or, vice-versa, does the latter mould the former to itself? 
What are the relations of cranial form to mental and moral mani- 
festations, — " to capability of civilization, and actual progress in arts, 
sciences, literature, government, &c. ?" Is there one, or are there many 
primitive cranial types or forms ? If one, how have originated the 
distinctions which we now perceive ? If many, what are the distin- 
guishing peculiarities of the primitive forms ? Are these peculiari- 
ties primordial and constant, or can they be adequately accounted 
for by the action of external causes ? To what extent is the form of 
the cranium modified by climatic conditions, habits of life, age, sex, 
intermarriage, &e. ? Does intellectual cultivation modify the form 
of the skull ? Can acquired modifications of cranial form be trans- 
mitted hereditarily ? If so, what are the laws of this transmission ? 
Is there for skull-forms, as Flourens has said of races, " an art of 
preserving their purity, of modifying them, altering and producing 
new ones ?" 8 Are the few leading cranial types which we at present 
encounter in the human family, primary results of certain cosmo- 
gonie causes, which ceased to act the moment after their formation ; 
or, are they the secondary, or even tertiary and quaternary results, 
as Count de Gobineau supposes, of the intermixture of races, occur- 
ring at periods antedating all historical and monumental record ? 9 

Such are a few of the leading questions which arise from a thought- 
ful examination of the human cranium, — questions which I indicate 
here, rather as exemplifying the scope and philosophical character of 
cranioscopy, than with the view of answering them in detail. In- 

' An Account of the Regular Gradation in Man, and in different Animals and Vegetables, 
&c. By Chas. White. London, 1799. 

8 De l'lnstinct et de l'Intelligence des Animaux, par P. Flourens : 3me Edit., Paris, 1851, 
p. 121. 

9 Essai sur 1'Inegalitg des Races Humaines, par M. A. de Gobineau : Paris, 1853, vol. 1, 
p. 245. 

14 



210 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

deed, such an attempt, in the present state of our knowledge, would 
be premature, and therefore liable to the errors inseparable from 
hasty examinations. Some of these questions, it is true, have al- 
ready been answered ; some are being solved even now ; while others, 
such as the law of divergent forms, are professedly among the most 
obscure problems in the whole range of scientific inquiry. Neverthe- 
less, I call the attention of the reader to a brief and general analysis 
of some of the most prominent of these subjects, as the best method 
of showing the importance of this newest of the sciences, its nature 
and power, the methods of procedure adopted, and the results which 
may reasonably be expected to flow from its cultivation. And I 
do this designedly, for I have been actuated, in contributing this 
paper to a popular scientific work, with the desire of presenting a 
novel, and with me, favorite study, in its proper light before the peo- 
ple, hoping thereby to arrest the progress of certain ill-founded sus- 
picions, which, in some quarters, have sprung up as the result of a 
fear that the inquiry was detrimental, instead of advantageous, to the 
best interests of man. 

Cranioscopy is a new science. Dating from the time of Blumen- 
bach, with whom it fairly begins, it is scarcely 70 years old ; and its 
cultivators, even at the present moment, number but a few names. 
Indeed, so little attention has been paid, in general, to the Natural 
History of Man, that we find Lawrence, so late as the summer of 
1818, expressing himself in the following words : 10 "Accurate, beau- 
tiful, and expensive engravings have been executed of most objects 
in natural history, of insects, birds, plants : splendid and costly pub- 
lications have been devoted to small and apparently insignificant de- 
partments of this science ; yet the different races of man have hardly, 
in any instance, been attentively investigated, described, or compared 
together: no one has approximated and surveyed in conjunction 
their structure and powers : no attempt has been made to delineate 
them, I will not say on a large and comprehensive, but not even on 
a small and contracted scale ; nobody has ever thought it worth while 
to bestow on a faithful delineation of the several varieties of man 
one-tenth of the labor and expense which have been lavished again 
and again on birds of paradise, pigeons, parrots, humming-birds, 
beetles, spiders, and many other such objects. Even intelligent and 
scientific travellers have too often thrown away on dress, arms, orna- 
ments,- utensils, buildings, landscapes, and obscure antiquities, the 
utmost luxury of engraving and embellishment, neglecting entirely 
the being, without reference to whom, none of these objects possess 
either value or interest. In many very expensive works, one is dis- 

io Op. eit., p. 84. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 211 

appointed at meetiug, in long succession, with prints of costumes — 
summer dresses and winter dresses, court and common dresses — the 
wearer, in the meantime, being entirely lost sight of. The immortal 
historian of nature seems to have alluded to this strange neglect in 
observing, ' quelqu' interet que nous ayons a nous connaitre nous 
memes, je ne sais si nous ne connaissons pas mieus tout ce qui n'est 
pas nous.' 11 Indeed, whether we investigate the physical or the moral 
nature of man, we recognize at every step the limited extent of our 
knowledge, and are obliged to confess that ignorance which a Rous- 
seau and a Buffon have not been ashamed to avow." — "The most 
useful, and the least successfully cultivated of all knowledge, is that 
of man ; and the description on the temple of Delphi (rvwdi tfeaurov) 
contained a more important and difficult precept than all the books 
of the moralists." 12 Twelve years after this was written, we behold 
Dr. Morton compelled to conclude a lecture upon " The different 
Forms of the Skull as exhibited in the Five Races of Men," without 
being able to present to his audience either a Mongolian or a Malay 
skull. 13 Our surprise at this will be somewhat lessened, however, 
when we call to mind the fact that, at this time, the celebrated Blu- 
menbachian collection contained but 65 skulls. And now, in 1856, 
we are again reminded, by a British ethnographer, of the difficulties 
which beset the study of cranioscopical science. " It is truly surpri- 
sing," says Davis, "how great the destruction of human crania, 
all-important for our design, has been, and how rapidly all such 
genuine remains of the Britons, Romans, and Anglo-Saxons are now 
escaping from the grasp of science. The progressive enclosure of 
our wild tracts, the extension of cultivation, and the introduction of 
a more perfect agriculture, have in modern times destroyed multi- 
tudes of the oldest sepulchres, and all that they contained. And it 
is unfortunate that the researches of antiquaries, who have opened 
barrows and excavated cemeteries with inquiring eyes, have been 
almost equally fatal to the cranial remains of their occupants. Arms, 
personal ornaments, and other relics deposited with the dead, have 
generally engrossed attention, to the exclusion of the tender and 
fragile bones of their possessors." 14 Notwithstanding these obstacles, 

11 Buffon, "De la Nature de l'Homnie," Histoire Naturelle Ge'ne'rale et Particuliere. Paris, 
1749, T. 2, p. 429. 

12 Discours sur l'lnegalite" ; Preface. 

13 Letter to J. R. Bartlett, Esq., Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, Vol. 
ii., New York, 1848, p. 217. 

14 Crania Britannica. Delineations and Descriptions of the Skulls of the Early Inhabitants 
of the British Islands ; together with Notices of their other Remains. By J. Barnard Davis, 
M. R. C. S., F. S. A., etc., and John Thurnam, M. D., F. S. A., &c. London, 1856, Decade 
I., p. 2. Judging from the first decade, this admirable work promises, when completed, to 



212 THE CRANIAL C H A R A C T E E I S T I C S 

however, it is cheering to know that the labors of Blumenbach, 
Morton, Prichard, Lawrence, Retzius, ISTilsson, and others, have 
at length resulted in the establishment of a Thesaurus Uthnologieus, 
consisting of a vast number of well-ascertained facts waiting the 
application of more efficient methods of generalization. 

Again, the novelty of the science, the startling character of some 
of its propositions, and the unfortunate errors which have been foisted 
upon it by certain hasty theorizers, whose speculative zeal has outrun 
the slow accumulation of facts ; and its apparent relation to a dubious 
science, ls have all conspired to bring the cranioscopical department of 
Human Natural History into disrepute. But its political importance 
alone outweighs these errors ; for amidst its manifold details we must 
seek for the reasons of the diversities so evident in the human family ; 
the extent, permanence, and meaning of these diversities ; and the 
best means of harmonizing the discrepancies in modes of thought 
and action flowing therefrom. It endeavors to elucidate the societary 
condition of man by appealing to a correct anatomy and physiology, 
and the zoological laws based upon these. Not a few ethnologists 
have indicated its importance in their writings. Thus Courtet de 
Lisle 16 attempts — and I think successfully — to show that Political 
Economy is necessarily founded upon our science. Knox" and 
Ellis 18 dwell with emphasis upon its political significance, while the 
Count de Gobineatj 19 seeks in it the solution of those sudden and 
apparently inexplicable changes which have given to European his- 
tory so enigmatical a character. A moment's reflection will show 
that the connection here attempted to be established is a perfectly 
logical one. If the acts of an individual are to a considerable extent 

constitute the most valuable contribution to Ethnography that has appeared since the pub- 
lication of the Crania iEgyptiaca of Morton. The text betrays evidence of much thought, 
extensive research, and critical observation of a high character, while the numerous 
lithographic representations of ancient British and Roman Crania are executed in the finest 
style of art. 

15 The fundamental propositions of Phrenology are equally true of Cranioscopy. Of the 
truth of these propositions, there can be little doubt. Comparative Anatomy, Physiology, 
and Pathology, all tend to substantiate the multiple character of the structure and function 
of the brain, and demonstrate that mind is not only connected with brain, but connected 
with a particular portion of it. Little doubt can be entertained of the general adaptation 
of the skull to its contents. Thus mind, brain, and cranium are connected. Thus far 
science confirms Phrenology; but in the "mapping-out details," to which the followers of 
Gall and Spurzheim have so unwarrantably resorted, Phrenology is no longer a science. 

16 La Science Politique fondle sur la Science de l'Homme, &c, par V. Courtet de Lisle. 
Paris, 1838. 

17 The Races of Men: a Fragment, by Robert Knox, M.D., &c. Amer. Edit., Philada., 
1850. 

18 Irish Ethnology, Socially and Politically Considered, by Geo. Ellis. Dublin, 1852. 
" Op. cit. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 213 

the outward expressions, or functional manifestations of the organ- 
ism, and if the acts of a society are the sum total of the individual 
acts of its members, then it necessarily follows, that the civil history 
of a nation in great measure arises from, and is dependent upon, the 
natural or physical characters of its citizens. Thus, then, paradoxical 
as it may seem, the polygamy of the Orient, the cannibalism of the 
South Sea Islands, the differences between the civilizations of Europe 
and Asia, between the artistic powers of the negro and the " Cauca- 
sian," are so many indications of the philosophical value of human 
osteology. 

But to the American citizen, especially, does our science recom- 
mend itself as one worthy of all consideration, since upon American 
soil, representatives from nearly all parts of the earth have been 
gathering together during the last two hundred years. The peaceful 
and semi-civilized Toltecan man — once the proud master of our con- 
tinent, which he busily dotted with forts and mounds, with mighty 
monuments and great cities — has just been swept away by the unre- 
lenting hand of the longer-headed but less intellectual nomade of the 
North — the red Indian — who, in his turn, is suffering annihilation in 
the presence of, and by contact with the yet larger-headed Teuton of 
Europe. "While the lozenge-faced Eskimo of our Polar coastline is 
mysteriously fading away, under the action of influences tending to 
render the extreme north an uninhabited waste, 20 from the old world 
a steady stream of human life, a heterogeneous exodus of various 
races of men, is inundating our soil, and threatening to change our 
entire political aspect by the introduction of novel physical and 
intellectual elements. The Scandinavian, the German, the Sclavo- 
nian, and the Kelt of Southern Europe, the follower of Mahomet, and 
the disciple of Confucius, the aboriginal Red Man, and the unhappy 
children of Africa, have in congress assembled in the New World — 
not brought together fortuitously, for chance has nothing to do with 
the history and destiny of nations — but impelled by laws of humani- 
tarian progress and change, as yet improperly understood. All these 
have assembled to work out the problem of human destiny on the 
one hand, and the stability of our boasted republic on the other. 
Let the American reader steadily contemplate this picture, and study 
its details ; let him give ear to some of the momentous questions 
which are anxiously disturbing the peace and quietness of this con- 
gress, — the ultimate disposition, for example, of the prognathous 
man, imported by our English forefathers, and left with us, a fearful 
element of discord, — the operations of the " manifest destiny princi- 

» See The Natural History of the Human Species, &o., By Lieut. Col. Chas. Hamilton 
Smith; edited by S. Kneeland, Jr., M. D. Boston, 1851, p. 294. 



214 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

pie" in the ISTicarauguan Republic, &c. Furthermore, let him con- 
template the members of our National Legislature daily debating 
questions involving the antipathies and affiliations of the races of 
men, without the slightest notion of their true ethnological import ; 
let him not be unmindful, also, of the various political parties and 
secret associations which have suddenly sprung up in our midst, and 
are based upon ethnical peculiarities ; let him behold the Chinaman 
celebrating his polytheistic worship in the heart of a Christian com- 
munity, and within the shadow of a Christian temple ; while upon 
Beaver Island, and about Salt Lake, another institution of the East, 
polygamy, flourishes in rank luxuriance. Let the American reader, 
I say, contemplate all this, and in his anxiety to know the causes of 
these strange phenomena, the labors of the cranioscopist, in conjunc- 
tion with those of the philosophical historian will assume their full 
importance. 

From a long and comprehensive study of history, a European 
thinker, 1 of profound erudition, has at length, in the diversified 
ethnographic peculiarities of the different races of men, detected and 
formuled the cause of the apparently mysterious revolutions and 
final decadence of once-flourishing nations. — "Toute agglomeration 
humaine, meme j> r otegee par la complication la plus ingenieuse de 
liens soeiaux, contracte, au jour meme ou elle se forme, et cache 
parmi les elements de sa vie, le principe d'une mort inevitable. . . . 
Oui, reellement c'est dans le sein meme d'un corps social qu'existe 
la cause de sa dissolution ; mais, quelle est cette cause ? — La degene- 
ration, fut-il replique ; les nations meurent lorsqu'elles sont composees 

d'elements digeneres Je pense done que le mot degenere, 

s'appliquant a un peuple, doit signifier, et signifie que ce peuple n'a 
plus la valeur intrinseque qu'autrefois il possedait, paree qu'il n'a 
plus dans ses veines le meme sang dont des alliages successifs ont 
graduellement modifie la valeur; autrement dit, qu'avec le meme 
nom, il n'a pas conserve la meme race que ses fondateurs ; enfin, que 
l'homme de la decadence, celui qu'on appelle l'homme degenere, est 
un produit different, au point de vue ethnique, du heros des grandes 
epoques. Je veux bien qu'il possede quelque chose de son essence ; 

mais, plus il degenere, plus ce quelque chose s'attenue Il 

mourra definitivement, et sa civilisation avec lui, le jour oil l'element 
ethnique primordial se trouvera tenement sub-divise et noye dans des 
apports de races etrangeres, que la virtualite de cet element n'exer- 
cera plus desormais d'action suffisante." 

Undoubtedly, the Science of Man commences with Buffon and 
Linn^ius — Buftbn first in merit, though second in the order of time. 

2 1 De Gobineau, op. cit., pp. 3, 38, 39, 40. 



OF THE RACES OF -MEN. 215 

By the writers anterior to their day, but little was done for human 
physical history. Among the classical authors, Thucydides, the type 
of the Grecian historians, treated of man in his moral and political 
aspects only. The nearest approximation to a physical history is 
contained in his sketch of the manners and migrations of the early 
Greeks, and in his history of the Greek colonization of Sicily. The 
books of Herodotus have more of an ethnographic character, in 
consequence of the account which he gives of the physical appear- 
ance of certain nations, whose history he records. Hippocrates theo- 
rizes upon the influence of external conditions upon man. Aristotle 
and Plato also distantly allude to man in his zoological character. 
From the Romans we derive some accounts of the people of North 
Africa, of the Jews and ancient Germans, and of the tribes of Gaul 
and Britain. Of these, as Latham has appropriately observed, "the 
Germania of Tacitus is the nearest approach to proper ethnology 
that antiquity has supplied." 

Linnaeus and Buffon, in their valuation of external characters — 
such as color of skin, hair, &c, — bestowed no attention upon the 
osseous frame-work. Of cranial tests, and of bony characters in 
general, they knew nothing, or, knowing, considered them of no 
value. Hence, although Linjletjs, in his Systema Naturse, brought 
together the genera Homo and Simia, under the general title Antliro- 
pomorpha, and although Buffon, filled with the importance of human 
Natural History, devoted a long chapter to the varieties of the human 
species, yet the first truly philosophical and practical recognition of 
the zoological relations of man appears in the anthropological intro- 
duction with which the illustrious Cuvier commences his far-famed 
Regne Animal. 

By the publication of his Decades Craniorum — commenced in 1790, 
and completed in 1828 — Blumenbach early occupied the field of the 
comparative cranioscopy of the Races of Men. In consequence of 
the application of the zoological method of inquiry to the elucidation 
of human natural history, that work at once gave a decided impulse 
to the science of Ethnography, and for a long time exerted a consi- 
derable influence on the views of subsequent writers upon this and 
kindred subjects. Unable to satisfy the constantly increasing de- 
mands of the present day, its importance has sensibly diminished. 
The general brevity of the descriptions, the want of both absolute 
and relative measurements, and the defective three-quarter and other 
oblique views of many of the skulls, render it highly unsatisfactory 
to the practical cranioscopist. Moreover, the number of crania 
(sixty-five) possessed by Blumenbach was too small, not only to esta- 
blish the characteristics of the central or standard cranial type of 



216 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

each of the many distinct groups composing the human family, but 
was also found to be inadequate to demonstrate the extent, relatione, 
and true value of the naturally divergent forms of each group. Prior 
to the time of Blumenbach, however, Daubenton had already written 
the first chapter in cranial osteology, by his observations on the basis 
cranii, and the variations in the position of the foramen magnum 
occipitis. 22 For the second chapter — the study of the cranium in 
profile — we are indebted to Camper, who identified his name with the 
facial angle. 23 Scemmering applied the occipito-frontal arch, the 
horizontal periphery, and longitudinal and transverse diameters of 
the cranium to demonstrate the differences between the heads of 
Europeans and Negroes. 24 During the publication of the Decades, 
the celebrated Jno. Hunter, of London, began his scientifico-medical 
career with an inaugural thesis upon the subjects under considera- 
tion. 25 Nineteen years after the publication of the pentad, by which 
the sis decades of Blumenbach were completed, Morton's great and 
original work, the Crania Americana, was given to the world. 26 From 
that time, human cranioscopy asserted its claims to scientific consi- 
deration, and gave a decided impetus to anthropology. In 1844, 
from the same pen, apeared the Crania JEgyptiaca™ which Prichard 
hailed as a most interesting and really important addition to our 
knowledge of the physical character of the ancient Egyptians. 28 

The only elaborate English contribution to cranioscopy, is the 
Crania Britannica of Messrs. Davis & Thurnam, the first decade of 
which has but recently been issued from the British press. To the 
sterling merits of this work allusion has already been made. Of the 
scientific labors of those eminent Scandinavian craniologists and 
antiquarians, Professors Retzius of Stockholm, Mlsson of Lund, and 
Eschricht of Copenhagen, I need not here speak. To the ethno- 
graphic student the writings of these savants have been long and 
favorably known. The French have done but little in this particu- 

22 See Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences for 1764. Sur la Difference du Grand 
Trou occipital dans V Homme et dans les autres Animaux. 

23 Dissertation snr les Varie'tfe Naturelles, &c, ouvrage posthume de M. P. Camper. Paris, 
1792. 

24 Ueber die Korperliche Verschiedenheit des Negers vom Europaer. Frankfurt und 
Mainz, 1785, p. 50, et seq. 

25 Disputatio Inauguralis qusedam de Hominum Varietatibus et harum cansis exponens, 
&c. Johannes Hunter, Edinburgi, 1775. 

26 Crania Americana ; or a Comparative View of the Skulls of various Aboriginal Nations 
of North and South America, &c. By Samuel George Morton, M. D. Philada., 1839. 

21 Crania iEgyptiaca ; or, Observations on Egyptian Ethnography, &c. By Samuel George 
Morton, M. D. Philada., 1844. Published originally in the Transactions of the Amer. 
Philosoph. Society, vol. IX. 

28 Nat. Hist, of Man, 3d edit. p. 570. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 217 

lar department of science. The names of Serres, Foville, 20 Gosse, 30 
Dunioutier, Blanchard, 31 and others, however, are hefore the public 
in this connection. As far as I have been able to ascertain, cra- 
niology has received more attention at the hands of the Germans. 
Prof. Engel, of Prague, has given us a philosophical dissertation 
upon cranial forms, the mensuration of the skull, &c. 32 To Prof. 
Zeune, we are indebted for a classification of skulls. 33 Dr. C. G. 
Carus, in an elementary work on Cranioscopy, indicates and developes 
to some extent the principles which should guide us in our examina- 
tion of the different cranial formations, in their relation to psychical 
conditions. 34 In a subsequent work, he comments upon and explains 
these principles more fully. 35 Passing over the names of Bidder, 36 
Bruch, 37 Spo3ndli, 38 Kblliker, 38 A 7 irchow, 40 Lucffi,' n Fitzinger 42 and others, 
I must conclude this hasty enumeration by calling attention to the 
laborious and masterly work of Prof. Huschke, of Jena, — the result, 
as we are informed in the preface, of nine years study and reflection. 43 
With the exception of an admirable paper on the Admeasurements 
of Crania of the principal groups of Indians of the United States, con- 
tributed by Mr. J. S. Philips to the Second Part of Schoolcraft's 
work on the Aboriginal Races of America, 44 nothing has been done 
for craniology on this side of the Atlantic since the demise of Dr. 
Morton. Indeed, the labors of Morton embody not only all that 

26 Deformation du Criine resultant de la ra^thode la plus generale de couvrir la Tete des 
Enfants, 1834. Also, Traits complet de l'Anatomie, de la Physiologie et de la Pathologie 
du Systeme Nerveux, 1844. 

30 Essai sur les Deformations artificielles du Crane. Paris, 1855. 

31 Voyage au Pole Sud et dans l'0c6anie, &c, Anthropologic, Atlas par Dr. Dumoutier; 
texte par Emile Blanchard. Paris, 1854. 

32 Untersuchungen uber Schadelformen. Von Dr. Joseph Engel, Prof., Prag, 1851. 

33 Uber Sch'adelbildung zur festern Begriindung der Menschenrassen. Von Dr. A. Zeune. 
Berlin, 1846. 

34 Grundziige einer neuen und wissenschaftlich begriindeten cranioscopie (Sch'adelehre) 
von Dr. C. G. Carus. Stuttgart, 1841. 

35 Atlas der Cranioscopie oder Abbildungen der Schsedel- und Antlitzformen Beruehnrter 
oder sonst merkwuerdiger Personen von Dr. C. G. Cams. Leipzig, 1843. 

36 De Cranii Conformatione. Dorpat, 1847. 

37 Beitrage zur Entwickelung des Knochensystems. 

38 Ueber den Primordialschadel. Zurich, 1846. 

39 Tbeorie des Primordialschadels. (Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Zoologie. 2 Bd.) 

40 Ueber den Cretinismus, namentlich in Franken und iiber pathologische Schadelformen. 
(Verhaudl. der physik. — medic. Gesellschaft in Wiirzburg, 1852, 2 Bd.) 

a De facie humana, Heidelbergse, 1812. — De Symmetria et Asymmetria organorum anim- 
alitatis, imprimis cranii, Marburgi, 1839. — Schadel abnormer Form in Geometrischen Abbil- 
dungen, von Dr. J. C. G. Lucse. Frank, am Main, 1855. 

42 Uber die Schadel der Avaren, &c. Von L. J. Fitzinger. Wien., 1853. 

43 Schsedel, Hirn und Seele des Menschen und der Thiere nach alter, Geschlecht und 
Race dargestellt nach neuen methoden und Untersuchungen von Emil Huschke. Jena, 1 854. 

44 Information respecting the History, Condition, and Prospects of the Indian Tribes 
of the United States. By H. R. Schoolcraft. Part II. Philadelphia, 1852. 



218 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

has been accomplished for this science in America, hut also the 
chief part of all the contributions which it has, from time to time, 
received from different sources. It is well known to the ethnolo- 
gical world, that at the time of his death (1851), he was slowly and 
carefully maturing his views upon the great leading questions of 
his favorite science, by researches of the most varied and extensive 
character. From the cranioscopical details which constitute so im- 
portant a feature in that elaborate work, the Crania Americana, he 
had beeu gradually and almost insensibly led to occupy a more 
comprehensive field — a field embracing ethnology in its physiolo- 
gical and archaeological aspects. The Crania JEgyptiaca was the 
forerunner of a contemplated series of philosophical generalizations 
in Anthropology, — the matured and positive conclusions of years 
of severe and cautious study. In this series, so long contemplated, 
so often delayed for critical examination, and at last so unexpectedly, 
and I may add, so unfortunately arrested, Dr. Morton fondly hoped 
to develope and clearly demonstrate the fundamental principles or 
elements of scientific ethnology. But Providence had ordered other- 
wise ; for at this critical juncture — so critical for the proper expo- 
sition of Dr. M.'s long treasured and anxiously examined views, as 
well as for the proper direction of the infant science — he was stricken 
down, and the rich mental gatherings of a life-time dissipated in a 
moment. 45 

Through the munificent kindness of a number of our citizens, his 
magnificent collection of Human Crania, recently increased by the 
receipt of sixty-seven skulls from various sources, has been perma- 
nently deposited in the Museum of the Academy, 46 a silent but 
expressive witness of the scientific zeal, industry, and singleness of 
purpose of one who, to use the language of Mr. Davis, " has the 
rare merit, after the distinguished Gottingen Professor, of having 
by his genius laid the proper basis of this science, and by his 
labors raised upon this foundation the two first permanent and 
beautiful superstructures, in the Crania Americana, and the Crania 
JEgyptiaca." 47 

Prior to his decease, Dr. M. had received about 100 crania, in 
addition to those mentioned in the third edition of his Catalogue. 
Since 1849, therefore, the collection has been augmented by the 
addition of 167 skulls. Very recently I have carefully inspected, 
re-arranged, and labelled it, and prepared for publication a new and 
corrected edition of the Catalogue. At present the collection em- 
braces 1035 crania, representing more than 150 different nations, 

45 Unpublished Introduction to " Descriptions and Delineations of Skulls in the Mortonian 
Collection." 

46 See Proceedings of the Academy, Vol. VI. pp. 321, 324. 
*' Crania Britannica, decade I., p. 1. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



219 



tribes, and races. It occupies sixteen cases on the first gallery, on 
the south side of the lower room of the Museum. For convenience 
of study and examination, I have grouped it according to Race, 
Family, Tribe, &c, strictly adhering, however, to the classification 
of Dr. Morton. 

The crania are distributed as follows i 48 



I. Caucasian Group. 

1. Scandinavian Race. 

Norwegian 1 

Swedish Peasants 7 

Finland Swedes 2 

Suderinanland Swedes 3 

Ostrogoth 1 

Turannic Swede 1 

Cimbric Swedes..., 3 

Swedish Finns 3 

21 
2. Finnish or Tchudic Race. 
True Finns 10 

3. Suevic Race. 

Germans 11 

Dutchman 1 

Prussians 4 

Burgundian 1 



4. Anglo-Saxon. 



English.. 



5. Anglo- American. 

6. Celtic Race. 
Irish 

Celtic (?) heads from Catacombs of Paris, 
Celt (?) from the field of Waterloo 



17 

4 



7. Sclavonic Race. 
Sclavonians 

8. Pelasgic Race.* 9 

Ancient Phoenician 

Ancient Roman 

Greek 

Circassians 

Armenians 

Parsees 



4 
1 

13 

2 



Affghan 1 

Grseco-Egyptians 23 

39 
9. Semitic Race. 

Arabs 5 

Hebrews 8 

Abyssinian 1 



10. Berber Race. (T 



Guanche\ 



14 
1 



11. Nilotic Race. 

Ancient Theban Egyptians 34 

" Memphite " 17 

" Abydos " 2 

" Alexandrian" 3 

Egyptians from Gizeh 16 

Kens or Ancient Nubians 4 

Ombite Egyptians 3 

Maabdeh Egyptians 4 

Miscellaneous 5 

Fellahs 19 

107 
12. Indostanic Race. 

Ayras (?) 6 

Thuggs 2 

Bengalese 32 

Uncertain 3 

43 
13. Indo-Chinese Race. 

Burmese 2 

II. Mongolian Group. 
1. Chinese Race. 

Chinese 11 

Japanese 1 

12 



ie It is proper to observe, that the above table is not an attempt at scientific classification, 
but simply an arrangement adopted for convenience of study and examination. 

49 Dr. Morton used the term Pelasgic too comprehensively. The Circassians, Armenians 
and Persians should not be placed in this group. 



220 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 



2. Hyperborean Race. 

Burat Mongol 1 

Kainschatkan 1 

Kalmuck 1 

Laplanders 4 

Hybrid Laplander 1 

Eskimo 6 

14 

III. Malay Group. 
1. Malayan Race. 

Malays 24 

Dyaks 2 

26 
2. Polynesian Race. 

Kanakas 7 

New Zealanders 4 

Marquesas 1 

12 

IV. American Group. 
1. Barbarous Race, 
a. North Americans. 

Arickarees.. 3 

Assinaboins 3 

Chenouks 8 

Oregonians 6 

Cherokees 6 

Chetimaches 2 

Chippeways 2 

Cotonays 3 

Creeks 4 

Dacotas 2 

Hurons 4 

Iroquois 3 

Illinois 2 

Klikatat 1 

Lenapes 10 

Mandans 7 

Menominees 7 

Miamis 12 

Minetaris 4 

Mohawks 3 

Naas 2 

Narragansets 10 

Natchez 2 

Naticks 5 

Nisqually 1 

Osages 2 

Otoes ... 4 

Ottawas 4 

Ottigamies...,, 4 

Pawnees 2 



Fenobscots 2 

Pottawatomies 4 

Sauks 3 

Seminoles 16 

Shawnees 4 

Shoshones 4 

Upsarookas 2 

Winnebagos 2 

Yamassees 3 

Californians 2 

Miscellaneous 46 

216 
b. Central Americans. 

Maya 1 

Fragments from Yucatan 2 

3 
c. South Americans. 

Araucanians 12 

From Mounds 2 

Charibs 3 

Pat&gonians 3 

Brazilian 7 

27 
2. Toltecan Race. 

a. Peruvian Family. 

Aricans 20 

Pachacamac 104 

Pisco 62 

Santa 8 

Lima 7 

Callao 3 

Miscellaneous 9 

Elongated skulls from Titicaca, &c. ... 8 

221 
b. Mexican Family. 

Ancient Mexicans 24 

Modern Mexicans 9 

Lipans 2 

35 

V. Negro Group. 
1. American born, 16 

2. Native Africans, 88 

3. Hovas, 2 

4. Alforian Race. 

Australians 11 

Oceanic Negroes 2 

119 



OF THE EACES OF MEN. 



221 



VI. Mixed Eaces. 

Copts 6 

Negroid Egyptians 12 

Nubians 4 

Hispano-Peruvian 2 

Negroid-Indian 3 

Hispano-Indian 1 



Malayo-Chinese 1 

Mulattoes 2 



VII. Lt/NATICS AND IDIOTS, 

VIII. Illustrative of Growth, 

Phrenological Skulls, 

Nation uncertain, 

Total, 



30 

18 

7 

2 

11 

1035 



II. 



" Cranium, quippe quod omnium corporis partium nobilissimas includit, 
indolem ac proprietatem cseterorum organorum reprsesentare existimatur ; 
nam quidquid proprii varise illius partes prje se ferunt, hie parro spatio con- 
junctum, et liniamentis, quae extingui et deleri nunquam possunt, expressum 
reperitur. IUud adumbrationem exhibet imaginis, quam spectator peritus 
ex singulis partibus vivide sibi ante oculos fingere potest." — Hueck. 

In the human brain we find those characteristics which particu- 
larly distinguish man from the brute creation. The differences 
between the various races of men are fundamental differences in 
intellectual capacity, as well as in physical conformation. The 
brain is the organ or physical seat of the mind, and variations 
in its development are, as is well known, the constant accompani- 
ments of mental inequalities. Hence, in the variations in size, tex- 
ture, &c, of the encephalon, and the proportions of its different 
parts, we are necessarily led to seek in great measure for the causes 
which so widely and constantly dispart the numerous families, which, 
in the aggregate, constitute mankind. In accordance with its great 
importance and dignity, the brain has been carefully deposited in an 
irregular bony case, — the calvaria — to which are attached certain 
bony appendages for the lodgment of the organs of the senses, by 
which the brain, and through it the mind — the mental attribute 
of the living principle — is brought into relation with external 
nature. Now as the configuration of the brain is, in general, 
expressed by that of its osseous covering, and as the development 
of the facial skeleton affords an excellent indication of the size of 
the organs which it accommodates, it follows that in the size of the 
head and face, and their mutual relations, we find the best indi- 
cations of those mental and animal differences which, under all 
circumstances and from ante-historic times, have manifested them- 
relves as the dividing line between the Races of Men. Moreover, 
if the construction of each and every part of the fabric is in harmony 



222 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

with, and to a certain extent represented in that of all other parts, 50 — 
as the laws of the philosophico-transcendental anatomy seem firmly 
to have established, — it will be evident that the cranium is the 
index, so to speak, of the entire economy ; for the relation between 
the cranium on the one hand, and the face, thorax, and abdominal 
organs, respectively, on the other, or, in other words, between the 
cerebral or intellectual lobes of the brain, and the sensory ganglia, 
and nerves, is the relation of mental powers to animal propensities, 
and exactly upon this relation depends the nature and character of 
the individual man, and the family group to which he naturally 
belongs. Examples of this fact are everywhere to be found, alike in 
the transitionary, as in the extreme specimens of the human series. 
Thus it is a general and well-marked truth, that in those inferior 
Races — the so-called prognathous — characterized by a narrow skull, 
receding forehead, and enormous anterior development of the max- 
illa, the mental is in entire abeyance to the animal ; so that their 
sensuality is only equalled by their stupidity, as one might readily 
infer from the ample accommodations for the organs of the senses. 
The pyramidal type is another inferior form, singularly analogous to 
the prognathous in certain respects, but differing from it in others 
hereafter to be mentioned. Races possessing this form of cranium, 
manifest corresponding peculiarities in intellectual power. 

Undoubtedly, then, the human cranium recommends itself to our 
earnest attention- as the "best epitome of man," — the individual in 
the concrete ; or, as Zeune has beautifully expressed it, " der Bliithe 
des ganzen organischen Leibes und Lebens ;" and notwithstanding 
the adaptation between it and the rest of the skeleton -=- an adapta- 
tion declaring itself in relations of size, function, nutritive, and 
developmental processes, &c. — we may study the cranium by and 
for itself, with reasonable hopes of success. 

As yet, the labors of the cranioscopist have given to anthropology 
comparatively few fundamental and well established facts. Of these, 
the most important, probably, as well as the best substantiated, is 
that of the permanency and non-transmutability of cranial form and 
characteristics. " There is, on the whole," says Lawrence, " an unde- 
niable, nay, a very remarkable constancy of character in the crania 
of different nations, contributing very essentially to national pecu- 
liarities of form, and corresponding exactly to the features which 

60 " Tout etre organist forme un ensemble, un systeme unique et clos, dont les parties se 
correspondent mutueUment, et concourent a la meme action definitive par une reaction 
reciproque. Aucune de ces parties ne peut changer sans que les autres ne coangent aussi, 
et par consequent chacune d'elles prise separement indique et donne toutes les autres." 
Cuviek. Discours sur les Revolutions du Globe; ridigis par le Dr. Iloefer. Paris, 1850, p. 62. 



Of THE RACES OF MEN. 223 

characterize such nations." 51 !Nor does this fact stand alone. It is 
associated with another which should never be lost sight of in all 
our speculations upon the unity or diversity, geographical origin and 
distribution, affiliation and antiquity of the races of men. I allude 
to that insensible gradation which appears to be the law of cranial 
forms, no less than of all the objects in nature. Erom the isolation 
and exclusive consideration of these facts, have resulted not a few 
erroneous assertions, which have tended to embarrass the science. 
Thus, it has been considered, in general, a matter of but little diffi- 
culty to discriminate between the crania of different races. But 
those who are accustomed to this kind of examination, know that 
this statement is true only for the standard or typical forms of very 
diverse, races, and that as soon as certain divergent forms of two 
allied races or families are compared, the difficulties become very 
apparent. On the other hand, it has been affirmed, that in any 
one nation it is easy to point out entirely dissimilar types of con- 
figuration. Thus the distinguished anatomist, Prof. M. J. Weber, 
misled apparently by the restricted and artificial classification of 
Blumenbach, arrives at the general conclusion that "there is no 
proper mark of a definite race-form of the cranium so firmly 
attached that it may not be found in some other race." 52 The 
assumption of the universality of certain ethnical forms, though 
countenanced by more than one writer, does not rest upon sufficient 
evidence to warrant its acceptance. Another prevalent but equally 
gratuitous notion is, that the more ancient the heads, the more they 
tend to approximate one primitive form or type. What this primi- 
tive model is. like, has not, as far as I can learn, been indicated. 

Again, a confusion highly detrimental to the philosophical status 
and scientific progress of Ethnology, has resulted from the unjustifiable 
assumption, that resemblances in cranial form and characteristics 
necessarily betoken, in a greater or less degree, congenital affilia- 
tions. It by no means follows, as some appear to have thought, that 
because widely and persistently discrepant forms are unrelated ab 
origine, — closely coincident forms are as exact indications of such 
primary relation. To say that the Polar man, — the Eskimo of 
America and the Samoyede of Asia, — should in all natural classifi- 
cation be associated, or at least placed in juxtaposition with certain 
dark races of the tropics, in consequence of well-marked cranial 
similiarities, is a fact as singular as it is true ; but to conclude from 
these similarities alone, that they are affiliated and have one common 

51 Lectures, &c, p. 225. 

52 Crania Britannica, p. 4. — Die Lehre von den Ur- und Racen-Formen der Sch'adel und 
Becken des Menschen, S. 5, 1830. 

11 



224 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

origin, is at once illogical and unwarrantable. Resemblances in 
physical conformation and in intellectual capacity, manners, and 
customs, growing out of, and dependent in great measure upon such 
conformation, are indications rather of a similarity of position in 
the great natural scale of the human family, than of identity of 
origin. To establish identity, proof of another kind is required. 
That positive identity of cranial form, structure and gentilitial cha- 
racters is the best evidence of identity of origin, or, at all events, of 
very close relationship, there can be no doubt. But identity must not 
be inferred from striking similarity. The confusion of terms has led 
to much error. Similarity in the features above alluded to, indicates 
merely an allied natural position, and nothing more. This distinc- 
tion is as important in cranioscopy as that made by the comparative 
anatomist between the analogies and homologies of the skeleton. 

Somebody has said that " when history is silent, language is evi- 
dence." The cranioscopist knows that oftentimes, when both history 
and language are silent, cranial forms become evidence. For the 
cranial similarities and differences above mentioned may be estimated 
with mathematical accuracy and precision, by weight, measurement, 
&c. Hence, while the language of an ante-historic people may be 
lost, the discovery of their skulls will afford us the means of deter- 
mining their rank or position in the human scale, &c. From consi- 
derations of this nature, we are led to recognise the existence of a 
craniological school in Ethnology, a craniological principle of classi- 
fication and research, and a craniological test of affinity or diversity. 
According to Prichard, Ethnology is, equally with Geology, a branch 
of Palaeontology. "Geology," says he, "is the archaeology of the 
globe, — Ethnology that of its human inhabitants." 53 Latham, com- 
menting upon this sentence, very appropriately observes, that "when 
Ethnology loses its palgeontological character, it loses half its scientific 
elements." 54 From this we learn the importance of osteology, espe- 
cially the cranial department, since it constitutes one of the surest, 
and often the only guide in identifying ancient populations. Dr. 
Latham, the well-known philologist, lays great stress upon the ethno- 
logical value of language, which he speaks of as " yielding in defi- 
nitude to no characteristic whatever." .... "Whatever maybe 
said against certain over-statements as to constancy, it is an undoubted 
fact, that identity of language is primd facie evidence of identity of 
origin." 55 Among the apophthegms appended to his work on the 
Varieties of Man, the same opinion occurs. — " In the way of physical 

53 Anniversary Address, delivered before the Ethnological Society of London, in 1847. 
5* Man and his Migrations, Amer. Edit. New York, 1852, p. 41. 
55 Ibid, p. 35. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 225 

characteristics, common conditions develop common points of con- 
formation. Hence, as elements of classification, physical characters 
are of less value than the philological moral ones." 56 There are 
reasons for dissenting from the opinion of this eminent philologist. 
"When we contemplate the mutability and destructibility of languages, 
as abundantly exemplified in the obliteration of the Etruscan dialect 
by the Roman-Latin ; the Celtiberian and Turdetan by the Latin and 
Spanish ; the Syriac by Arabic ; Celtic by the Latin and French ; 
the Celtic of Britain by the Saxon and English ; the Pelhevi and Zend 
by the Persian, and the Mauri tanian by Arabic; 57 when we reflect 
how the Epirotes and Siculi changed their language, without con- 
quest or colonization, into Creek, and how the ancient Pelasgi, all 
the primitive inhabitants of the Peloponnessus, and many of those 
of Arcadia and Attica, abandoned their own language and adopted 
that of the Hellenes ; M when we behold the Negroes of St. Domingo 
speaking the French tongue, the Bashkirs, of Finnish origin, speak- 
ing Turkish ; 59 and when, finally, as one instance of another and 
significant class of facts, we call to mind how the Carelians, in con- 
sequence of certain linguistic analogies, have been classed with the 
Finns, though descended from an entirely different race, who, at an 
early period, overran the region about Lake Ladoga, 60 — we are 
"disposed to believe with Humboldt" — I am using the words of 
Morton — " that we shall never be able to trace the affiliation of 
nations by a mere comparison of languages ; for this, after all, is but 
one of many clews by which that great problem is to be solved." 61 
Surely anatomy aud physiology — those handmaids of the zoologist 
— are more powerful, and, in the very nature of things, better adapted 
to settle the question of the unity of man, to determine whether the 
human family is composed of several species, or of but one species 
comprising many varieties. Surely the human skeleton is more en- 
during and less mutable than the oldest laneuao-e. Instances are 
not wanting, as we have seen above, of a nation forgetting its own 
language in its admiration for the more perfect speech of another 
people. But, as far as I am aware, not a solitary instance can be 
adduced of a nation, genealogically pure, entirely changing its physical 
characters for those of another. Let us conclude then, with Bodi- 
chon, that Physiology is superior to Philology as an instrument of 
ethnological research. — " To throw light upon the question of origins, 
it is necessary to appeal to a science more precise, and founded on 

56 Varieties of Man, p. 562. 5' Hamilton Smith, op. cit., p. 178. 

58 Nicbuhr, Hist, of Rome, 1, 37. 

59 Helwerzen, Annuaire des Mines de Russie, 1840, p. 84. 

6° Haartman, Transactions of the Royal Society of Stockholm, for 1847. 
61 Crania Americana, p. 18. 

15 



226 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

the nature of the object which we examine. This science is the Phy- 
siology of races, or, in other words, a knowledge of their moral and 
physical characters. Through Physiology has been established the 
existence of antediluvian beings, their genera, their species, and 
their varieties ; by it also we shall discover the origin of races of 
men, even the most mysterious. Through it we shall one day be 
able to classify populations as surely as we now class animals and 
plants : history, philology, annals, inscriptions, the monuments of 
arts and of religion, will be auxiliaries in these researches. Herein 
we consider its indications as motives of certitude, and its decisions 
as a criterion." 62 

Anthropology has been involved in not a little confusion by certain 
injudicious departures from the well-tried zoological methods em- 
ployed by naturalists generally. But little difficulty seems to be 
experienced in the practical determination of species in the animal 
and vegetable worlds ; but as soon as the rules and specific distinc- 
tions here employed have been applied to man, exceptions have 
been taken at once, and attempts made to invalidate their appli- 
cability, by excluding man entirely from the pale of the animal 
kingdom, as if, in the latter, development, formation and deformation 
were controlled by laws different from these processes in the former. 
Barbancois regards man as " un type tout a part dans la creation, 
comme-le representant d'un regne particulier — le regne moral." So 
the celebrated Marcel de Serres says, " l'homme ne constitue dans la 
nature ni une espece, ni un genre, ni un ordre, il est a mi seul un 
regne, le rSgne humain." 13 Aristotle, the father of philosophical 
natural history, Pay, Brisson, Pennant, Vic dAzyr, Baubenton, 
Tiedemann, and others equally distinguished, have all unwisely at- 
tempted this disruption of nature. The futility of the arguments 
employed may be learned by reference to Swainson's Nat. Hist, and 
Classification of Quadrupeds. 61 But those who recognize the ani- 
mality of man, and place him accordingly at the head of the Mam- 
malia, are not exactly agreed as to the extent of isolation which 
should be claimed for him in this position, or, in other words, differ- 
ence of opinion exists as to the extent and scientific meaning of the 
gap which separates him from the highest brute. Linnaeus grouped 
Man, the SimiEe and Bats under the general division, Primates. 65 
niiger, 66 Cuvier, 67 Lawrence, 68 and others, assign him a distinct order. 

62 Etudes sur PAlge'rie, Alger, p. 18. 

63 Voyage au Pole Sud. Anthropologic, de Dumoutier, par Blanchard. Paris, 1854, p. 18. 
e*Pp 8-10 

65 He observes, " Nullum characterem hactenus eruere potui, unde Homo a Simia inter- 
noscatur." — Fauna Suecica. Preface, p. ii. 

66 Prodomus Systematis Mammalium. 67 Regne Animal. 68 Op. cit. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 227 

Van Ameinge considers Man the sole representative of a distinct and 
separate mammalian class, to which, he applies the term Psychical 
or Spiritual, in contradistinction to the Instinctive mammals. 69 As 
might be naturally expected frorii the above remarks, still less agree- 
ment is manifested in relation to the classification of the different 
races or tribes of men. This want of accordance arises from the 
difficulty of determining what characters are fundamental and typical, 
and what are not. 

Now, it should never be forgotten that an ethnical, like any other 
natural type, is an ideal creation, not a positive entity. It is analo- 
gous to the mean or average of a series of numbers. These numbers 
may all be but slightly different from each other, and yet none of 
them be exactly identical with the mean. In examining a number 
of objects presenting many peculiarities, the mind instinctively 
figures to itself an object possessing all these peculiarities. This 
object, this ideal image, gradually assumes the dignity and import- 
ance of a standard to which all other similar objects are referred, as 
greater or less approximations to the type, the approximation being 
dependent upon the degree of predominance of the peculiarities in 
question. If, on comparing any body with this imaginary standard 

— "this form which exists everywhere, and is nowhere to be found" 

— the points of resemblance are in number equal to or even less 
than the points of difference, then it is said to diverge from the type. 
It is a divergent form. IS aw, a type as it is manifested in nature is, 
for all practical purposes, fixed and immutable; our mental con- 
ception of it is necessarily a constantly varying one. The more 
numerous the individuals of the group, and the more extensive our 
examination, the more perfect will be our generalization, upon 
which, in fact, the type is based. The examination of but a few 
individuals of a group is apt to lead to an erroneous idea of the type. 

But a singular fact here claims our attention. Along with this 
increasing perfection of the typical idea comes a diminished confi- 
dence in its importance ; for the same observations which serve to 
establish the type, also lead us to perceive that the distance which 
separates one type from another is a plenum, and is not marked by 
gaps, but by transitionary forms — not transitionary in the sense of 
variations from certain persistent forms brought about by climatic 
conditions, &c, but transitionary forms ah origine and self-existent, 
presenting themselves unchanged as they were characterized by the 
Great First Cause, and inherently capable of those known and 
limited variations produced by intermarriage, &c. The elements 

e» An Investigation of the Theories of the Nat. History of Man, &c. New York, 1848, 
p. 72. 



228 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

which establish a type serve to connect it insensibly with those of 
another. Hence the great difficulty experienced in attempting to 
classify the members of the Human Family. The discrepancy of 
opinion has extended not only to the number of divisions to be 
made, but also to the particular races which should be assigned to 
each division. Blumenbach long ago expressed this difficulty. We 
have only to examine the list of writers who have attempted the 
classification of Human Races, and observe how they differ in the 
number of their primary departments, to be convinced of the pre- 
matureness of the whole attempt, and the scanty scientific data upon 
which such very artificial divisions have been erected. It appears to 
me that much of the difficulty arises from the scanty information 
which we possess concerning the number of primaeval cranial types, 
the number of naturally divergent forms of each of these, and the 
degree of divergency permitted, and lastly, the tests by which to 
discriminate between forms naturally aberrant, and those hybrid 
results of blood-crossing. The study of divergent forms is of great 
importance, since in their varied but limited deviations from the 
type — like all exceptions to general rules — -they indicate the 
essentials of the type while demonstrating a serial, archetypal unity 
of the human family in keeping with the entire animal world. To 
speak, therefore, of " developing the limits of a variety," is simply 
to demonstrate the connections, relations, and persistence of those 
varieties. The diversities of cranial form presented by any nation 
or tribe should therefore be regarded as the radii, so to speak, by 
which that tribe is connected with the rest of the humanitarian 
series, whether living or extinct, or, in the course of future geolo- 
gical changes, yet to appear. 

It is well known that naturalists rely mainly upon form, color, 
proportions — the externals, in short. — to establish species. The 
illustrious Cuvier, taking higher ground, attempted to develope the 
laws of classification by a resort to the comparative method in ana- 
tomy. With the osteological branch of this method, as an instru- 
ment of research, he undertook his grand scheme of the restoration 
of the fossil world and the determination of its relation to the living 
zoology. His reliance upon internal structure in preference to 
external characters, was as much a matter of necessity as of choice, 
since of the palseontological objects of his study, the bony skeleton 
and the teeth alone remained from which to recompose the forms 
of the past animal world, and determine their species. In the course 
of his investigations a remarkable fact became evident — that in 
many genera of animals, species externally well chai'acterized, dif- 
fered scarcely at all in their bony frame-work. Regarding these 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 229 

slight differences — by such a practised eye certainly not over- 
looked — as trivial, and losing sight of the singular importance 
they derive from their historical permanency, he was led in the end 
to deny to comparative osteology the value he first assigned it. 
Thus, notwithstanding his great scientific labors, he left it unde- 
cided whether the fossil horse was specifically identical with the 
living or not. 70 On this point naturalists still differ in opinion. 
Whilst by the aid of comparative anatomy — for the cultivation 
of which he enjoyed unusual advantages — he was enabled to startle 
the world with the brilliant announcement that there had been 
several zoological creations, of which man was one, we find him at 
length hesitatingly denying to anatomical characters the power of 
determining species. But the question arises — a question already 
perceived and disposed of in the affirmative by some ethnologists — 
whether anatomical characters have not a higher signification than 
the mere determination of species ; whether, in fact, they are not 
generic. It would, indeed, appear, that while the external or peri- 
pheral form and appendages determine species, the internal organism 
establishes genera. But the genus must contain within itself and 
foreshadow the essential characters of the species ; there must be an 
adaptation between the peripheral conformation and central organic 
structure. As a very slight error committed in the first step of a 
long and complicated mathematical calculation magnifies itself at 
every subsequent step of the process, until a result is obtained very 
different from the true one, so a comparatively minute peculiarity in 
the osseous structure of an animal may repeat itself through the 
muscles, fascia, and integumentary covering, expressing itself at last 
as a characteristic, which, though it might be difficult to point out 
exactly, is seen to be an individual or specific mark by which 
the animal may be discriminated from other individuals or from 
allied species. And as the result of the supposed problem must 
always be the same, so long as the incorporated error is not elimi- 
nated, so the external peculiarity of the animal must ever remain the 
same, while the internal structure mark varies not. This constant 
and historically immutable relation between structure and form is in 
consonance with the law of the "correlation of forms," first sug- 
gested, I believe, by Cuvier, and by him used in such a masterly 
manner in the elucidation of the laws of zoology. 

"The importance to be attached to the zoological characters 
afforded by the slighter modifications of structure," writes Martin, 
" rises as we ascend in the scale of being. In the arrangement of 



™ Diseours sur les Revolutions du Globe, p. 76. 



230 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

mammalia and birds, for example, minutiae which, among the Inverte- 
brata, would be deemed of little note, become of decided value, and 
are no longer to be neglected. Even the modifications, however 
slight, of a common type, now become stamped with a value, the 
ratio of which increases as we advance from the lower to the higher 
orders. Hence, with respect to mammalia, the highest class of 
Vertebrata, every structural phase claims attention ; and, when we 
advance to the highest of the highest class, viz., Man, and the Quad- 
rumana, the naturalist lays a greater stress on minute grades and 
modifications of form, than he does when among the cetacea or the 
marsupials ; and hence, groups are separated upon characters thus 
derived, because they involve marked differences in the animal 
economy, and because it is felt that a modification, in itself of no 
great extent, leads to most important results. Carrying out the 
principle of an increase in the value of differential characters as we 
advance in the scale of being, it may be affirmed that, upon legiti- 
mate zoological grounds, the organic conformation of man, modelled, 
possibly, upon the same type as that of the chimpanzee or orang, 
but modified, with a view to fit him for the habits, manners, and, 
indeed, a totality of active existence, indicative of a destiny and 
purposes participated in neither by the chimpanzee nor any other 
animal, removes Man from the Quadrumana, not merely in a generic 
point of view, but from the pale of the Primates, to an exclusive 
situation. The zoological value of characters derived from struc- 
tural modifications is commensurate with the results which they 
involve ; let it then be shown that man, though a cheiropod (hand- 
footed), possesses structural modifications leading to most important 
results, and our views are at once justified." 71 

It will thus be seen that anatomical differences are valuable to the 
zoologist more from their permanency, than from their magnitude. 
"A species," says Prof. Leidy, "is a mere convenient word with 
which naturalists empirically designate groups of organized beings 
possessing characters of comparative constancy, as far as historic 
experience has guided them in giving due weight to such con- 
stancy." 72 An organic form historically constant is, therefore, a 
simple and exact expression of a species. In this constancy of a 
form lies its typical importance as a standard or point of departure 

71 A General Introduction to the Natural History of Mammiferous Animals, with a parti- 
cular -view of the Physical History of Man, &c. By W. C. S. Martin, F. L. S. London, 
1841, p. 200. 

? 2 Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Vol. VII. p. 201. — See also a letter 
from Prof. L. to Dr. Nott, of Mobile, published in the Appendix to Hotz's translation of 
Gobineau's work on the Inequality of Races, &c, p. 480. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 231 

in all our attempts at classification and developing the laws of forma- 
tion. Tlie mere shape, volume, or configuration, is secondary. 

The polar, brown, and grizzly bears differ but little in their oste- 
ology ; the same is true of the horse, ass, and zebra, and of the lion, 
tiger, and panther. By most naturalists the horse and ass are referred 
to distinct species, — by Prof. Owen to distinct genera. The latter 
gentleman specifically separates a fossil from the recent horse, in 
consequence of a slight curvature in the teeth of the former. Accord- 
ing to Flourens, the dog and fox belong to different genera ; the dog 
and wolf to distinct species, as also the lion and tiger. 73 Now the 
crania of the horse and ass differ in their nasal bones only. The 
pupil of the dog is disc-shaped ; that of the fox, elongated. Says 
Knox : " The nasal bones of the ass differ constantly from those of 
the horse ; so do those of the lion and tiger. The distinction extends 
to the whole physiognomical character of the crania in these four 
species, and in all others. But so it is in man, chiefly in these very 
bones, and in the physiognomy of the skeleton of the face. For it 
is not in the comparative length or size merely of the nasal or maxil- 
lary bones that the cranium of the Bosjieman and the Australian 
differ from the other races of men, although these differences are no 
doubt as constant and real as are the anatomical differences of any 
two species ; they differ in every respect, and especially do they dis- 
play physiognomical distinction, which the experienced eye detects 
at once. When fossil man shall be discovered, he, also, will be 
proved to have belonged to a species distinct from any that now 
live. By the generic law I am about to establish, his affiliation with 
the existing races may and will be proved, first by the fact of his 
extinction, but still more by those slight anatomical differences, 
which, though seemingly unimportant, are not really so. His rela- 
tion to the present or living world will be the same as that of the 
extinct solid-ungular and earnivora to the living — generically identi- 
cal, specifically distinct." 74 

Between the crania of the various races of men, the same slight, 
but constant, and therefore important, differences can be pointed out, 
in some instances even more marked and better characterized than 
those which are considered by naturalists of high distinction, as suffi- 
cient to form a basis upon which to establish species. It is true that 
no human race possesses a bone the more or less in the cranium, than 
the others ; but it is equally true that human crania differ, in some 
instances quite remarkably, in the size and proportions of their con- 
's Op. cit., p. 111. 

" Introduction to Inquiries into the Philosophy of Zoology, by Kobt. Knox, M.D., &c, 
in London Lancet, Oct., 1855. 



232 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

stitnent bones, and these differences are not accidental and fluctua- 
ting, but persistent. Thus, the massive, broad, and outward-shelving 
malar bones of the Polar man are unlike those of any other race. 
So, the superior maxillae of the Coast African is so unlike that of 
any other people, as to have become a standard of comparison for 
inferiority — a standard expressed by the word prognathous. Differ- 
ences in the nasal bones, in the size ol the frontal sinuses, in the 
prominence of the occiput, in the angle at which the parietal bones 
join each other, in the form and arrangement of the teeth, in the 
relation of head to face, in the relative situations of the great occi- 
pital foramen and the bony meatus, in the form of the skull, and the 
configuration of its base ; and, as the result of all these, in the physi- 
ognomy of the facial bones, exist, as I shall presently endeavor to 
show, and are perpetuated from one generation to another as con- 
stant and unaltered features. 

Cranial differentise, however slight, derive additional importance 
from their .relation to the physiognomical character of the skull as 
a whole, and daily observation shows this character to be more im- 
portant than is generally considered. The labors of Porta, Camper, 
Lebrun, Lavater, Bichat, Moreau de la Sarthe, and others, have given 
us the scientific elements of a physiognomy or physiology of the face, 
as those of Blumenbach and Morton have established a physiology 
of the cranium. Between the muscular and integumentary investi- 
titure of the face and head on the one hand, and the bony structure 
of these parts on the other, there is a decided adaptation. Whether 
the soft parts determine the form of the osseous frame-work, or the 
latter that of the former, does not so much concern us, at present, as 
the fact of adaptation. That this adaptation exists, there can scarcely 
be a doubt. " Tout dans la nature," beautifully and truthfully writes 
De la Sarthe, " est rapport et harmonie ; chaque apparence externe 
est le signe d'une propriety : chaque point de la superficie d'un corps 
annonce l'etat de sa profondeur et de sa structure." 75 In virtue of 
this harmony, we find the physiognomy of the skull expressing the 
true value of its osteologic peculiarities, even when these are so 
slight as to appear in themselves trivial and insignificant. Soemmer- 
ing, not perceiving the import of this relation, tells us that he could 
find no well-marked differences between the German, Swiss, French, 
Swedish and Russian skulls in his collection, leaving it to be inferred 
that none such existed. 76 At a later period, and from the same 

' 5 Neuvieme Etude sur Lavater. 

76 Lawrence informs us that his friend, Mr. Geo. Lewis, in a tour through France and 
Germany, observed that the lower and anterior part of the cranium is larger in the French, 
the upper and anterior in the Germans; and that the upper and posterior region is larger 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 233 

cause, Cuvier, while conducting his palasontological researches, more 
than once fell into an analogous error. 

From the foregoing remarks, it will be seen that it is a matter of 
mucin importance to be able to discriminate between typical or race- 
forms of crania, and those modifications of shape produced, to a 
certain extent, by age, sex, development, intermixture of races, arti- 
ficial deformations, &c. Unless these distinctions be observed, and 
due allowance made for them, it will be utterly impossible to deter- 
mine the number and character of the primitive types — an attempt 
already almost hopelessly beyond our power, in consequence of the 
ceaseless migrations and affiliations which have been going on 
amongst the races of men since the remotest antiquity. The modi- 
fications of cranial form, from these various causes, are so many 
associated elements, which must be individually isolated before we 
can determine the true value of each. In proportion as this isolation 
is complete, so will our results approximate the truth. 

It is very well known that the skulls of the lower animals undergo 
certain changes in conformation as they advance in age. In a limited 
degree, this appears to be true of man also ; though the extent of 
these changes, and the period at which they are most noticeable — 
whether during intra-uterine life, or subsequent to birth — are points 
not yet definitively settled. However, from the observations of 
Soemmering, Camper, Blumenbach, Loder and Ludwig, we learn 
that in very young children, even in infants at the moment of birth, 
the race-lineaments are generally but positively expressed. Blumen- 
bach, in his Decades, figures the head of a Jewess, aged five years, 
a Burat child, one and a half years, and a newly-born negro ; in 
each of these the ethnic characters of the race to which it belongs 
are distinctly seen. The Mortonian collection furnishes a number 
of examples confirmatory of this interesting and remarkable fact. 

Occasionally the tardy development of certain parts may give rise 
to apparent modifications, as indicated in the following passage from 
Dr. Gosse's highly interesting essay upon the artificial deformations 
of the skull. "II n'est pas meme rare, en Europe, de voir le front 
paraitre plus saillant chez un grand nombre d'enfants, en raison du 
faible developpement de la face. Toutefois, jusqu'a, l'age de dix a 
douze ans, il existe en general une predominance de la region occipi- 
tale qui parait se developper d'autant plus que l'intelligence est plus 
exercee. Ce n'est souvent que vers cette epoque de la vie que les os 

in the former than in the latter. (Op. cit, p. 239.) — Count Gobineau, in his work already 
alluded to, speaks of a certain enlargement on each side of the lower lip, which is found 
among the English and Germans. 



234 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

propres du nez tendent a se relever davantage suivant les traits des 
individus ou des races." 77 

Some physiologists have supposed that permanent modifications 
of cranial form are produced during severe and protracted accouche- 
ments. Gall, long ago, refuted this notion, and every accoucheur has, 
in fact, constant opportunities of satisfying himself of the untena- 
bility of this doctrine. It has more than once happened to me, as it 
necessarily does to every physician engaged in the practice of ob- 
stetrics, to witness a head, long compressed in a narrow pelvis, born 
with the nose greatly depressed, the forebead flattened, the parietal 
bones overriding each other, and the whole skull completely wire- 
drawn, so as to resemble some of the permanent deformations pic- 
tured in the books ; and yet, in a few days, the inherent elasticity of 
the bony case and its contained parts has sufficed to restore it to its 
natural form. But the great objection to this opinion lies in the fact 
of a conformity between the cranial and pelvic types of a particular 
race. Dr. Vrolick, following up the suggestions of Camper and some 
other observers, relative to certain peculiarities of the negro pelvis, 
has demonstrated the existence of a race-form for the pelvis as for 
the cranium. He has shown that the form of the head is adapted to 
the pelvic passage which it is compelled to traverse in the parturient 
act, and that the pelvis, like the skull, possesses its race-characters 
and sexual distinctions, sufficiently well marked, even at the infantile 
epoch. As in the zoological series, we find the cranium of the mon- 
key differing from that of the animals below it, and approximating 
the human type, so we find the pelvis pursuing the same gradation, 
from the Orang to the Bosjieman, from the Bosjieman to the Ethio- 
pian, from the Ethiopian to the Malay, and so on to the high caste 
"White races, where it attains its perfection, and is the farthest removed 
in form from that of the other mammiferse. I am aware that Weber 
has attempted to deny the value of these observations, by showing 
that, although certain pelvic forms occur more frequently in some 
races than in others, yet exceptions were found in the fact of the 
European conformation being occasionally encountered among other 
and very different races. " This is not proving much," as Be Gobi- 
neau acutely observes, " inasmuch as M. "Weber, in speaking of 
these exceptions, appears never to have entertained tbe idea, that 
their peculiar conformation could only be the result of a mixture of 
blood." 78 

" Essai stir les Deformations Artificielles du Crane, Par L. A. Gosse, de Geneve, &c. 
Paris, 1855. Published originally as a contribution to the "Annales d' Hygiene Publique et de 
Medecine Legale," 2e seric, 1855, tomes III. et IV. 

>» Op. cit., t. 1, p. 193. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 285 

In the study of cranial forms, sexual differences should not be 
overlooked. "The female skull," says Davis, "except in races 
equally distinguished by forms strikingly impressed, does not exhibit 
the gentilitial characters eminently." 79 It is well known to the ob- 
stetrician, that the male skull, at birth, is, on the average, larger than 
the female. 

A complete history of the development of the human brain and 
cranium, in the different races, would constitute one of the most 
valuable contributions to anthropology. Such a history alone can 
determine the true meaning of the various appearances which these 
parts assume in their transition from the ovum to the fully-developed 
typical character, and demonstrate their as yet mysterious relations 
to the innumerable forms of life which are scattered over the surface 
of the globe. To such a history must we look, also, for a solution 
of the question, as to whether the soft and pulpy brain models around 
itself its hard and resisting bony case, or, conversely, whether this 
latter gives shape to the former. 

During the first six weeks of embryonic life, the brain, clothed in 
its different envelopes, exists without any bony investment, being 
surrounded externally with an extremely thin, soft., and pliable carti- 
laginous membrane, in which ossification subsequently takes place. 
About the eighth week, as shown by the investigations of Gall, the 
ossific points appear in this membrane, sending out diverging radii 
in every direction. As this delicate cartilaginous layer is moulded 
nicely over the brain, the minute specks of calcareous matter, as they 
are deposited, must to some extent acquire the same form as the brain. 
Whether this be true or not, there is a manifest adaptation between 
the brain and cranium, the result of a harmony in growth, inseparably 
connected with the action of one developing principle in the human 
economy. From this fact, alone, we might fairly infer that differences 
in the volume and configuration of a number of crania are general 
indications of differences in the volume and configuration of their 
contained brains. One single fact, among many others, proves this 
admirable harmony. It is this : The process of ossification is at first 
most rapid in the bones composing the vault ; but presently ceasing 
here, it advances so rapidly in those of the base and inferior parts 
generally, that at birth the base is solid and incompressible, thus 
protecting from pressure the nervous centre of respiration, which is 
at this time firriier and better developed than the softer and less 
voluminous cerebral lobes. 

According to the embryologic investigations of M. de Serres, of 
all brains, that of the high-caste European is the most complex in 

? 9 Op. cit., p. 5. 



236 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

its organization. In attaining this high development, it passes suc- 
cessively through the forms which belong permanently to fishes, rep- 
tiles, birds, mammals, Negroes, Malays, Americans, and Mongolians. 

The bony structure undergoes similar alterations. "One of the earliest points where 
ossification commences is the lower jaw. This bone is therefore sooner completed than 
any other of the head, and acquires a predominance which it never loses in the Negro. 
During the soft, pliant state of the bones of the skull, the oblong form which they naturally 
assume approaches nearly the permanent shape of the American. At birth, the flattened 
face and broad, smooth forehead of the infant; the position of the eyes, rather towards the 
sides of the head, and the widened space between, represent the Mongolian form, which, 
in the Caucasian, is not obliterated but by degrees, as the child advances to maturity." 
Hamilton Smith, commenting upon these interesting researches, says: "Should the con- 
ditions of cerebral progress be more complete at birth in the Caucausian type, and be 
successively lower in the Mongolic and intermediate Malay and American, with the woolly- 
haired least developed of all, it would follow, according to the apparently general law of 
progression in animated nature, that both — or at least the last-mentioned — would be in 
the conditions which show a more ancient date of existence than the other, notwithstanding 
that both this and the Mongolic are so constituted that the spark of mental development 
can be received by them through contact with the higher Caucasian innervation ; thus 
appearing, in classified zoology, to constitute perhaps three species, originating at different 
epochs, or simultaneously in separate regions ; while, by the faculty of fusion which the 
last, or Caucasian, imparted to them, progression up to intellectual equality would manifest 
essential unity, and render all alike responsible beings, according to the degree of their 
existing capabilities — for this must be the ultimate condition for which Man is created." 80 

From his own researches, Prof. Agassiz concludes that it is impos- 
sible, in the foetal state, to detect the anatomical marks which are 
characteristic of species. These specific marks he assures us become 
manifest as the animal, in the course of its development, approaches 
the adult state. In like manner, the evolution of the physical and 
mental peculiarities of the different races of men appears to com- 
mence at the moment of birth. Dr. Knox, in his recent communi- 
cations in the " London Lancet," already referred to, maintains almost 
the same opinion. He considers the embryo of any species of any 
natural family as the most perfect of forms, embracing within itself, 
during its phases of development, all the forms or species which that 
natural family can assume or has assumed in past time. " In the 
embryo and the young individual of any species of the natural 
family of the Salmonidae, for example," says he, "you will find the 
characteristics of the adult of all the species. The same, I believe, 
holds in man ; so that, were all the existing species of any family to 
be accidentally destroyed, saving one, in the embryos and young of 
that one will be found the elements of all the species ready to re- 
appear to repeople the waters and the earth, the forms they are to 
assume being dependent on, therefore determined by, the existing 
order of things. "With another order will arise a new series of 
species, also foreseen and provided for in the existing world." 

so Nat. Hist, of the Human Species, pp. 176-7. See also Serres' Anatomie Compared. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 237 

If we carefully consider the development of the cranium, it will 
be seen that this development goes on between, and is modified by 
two systems of organs — externally the muscular, internally the 
nervous. The brain exerts a double influence, mechanically or 
passively by its weight, and actively by its growth. That the brain 
completely fills its bony case, is sufficiently well known from the fact 
of the impressions left upon the inner aspect of the cranium by the 
cerebral convolutions and vessels. Very slight allowance need be 
made for the thickness of the meninges. That the progressive 
development of the brain is really capable of exerting some force 
upon the cranial bones surrounding it, is shown in the records of 
cases of hypertrophy of that organ, where, upon post-mortem exami- 
nation, the calvaria being removed, the spongy mass has protruded 
from the opening and could not be replaced. That the bones are 
capable of yielding to a distending force acting from within out- 
wards, is shown in the cases of chronic hydrocephalus, where the 
ventricles are found full of water, the brain-tissue flattened out, and 
the bones greatly distorted. Such a force becomes perceptible in 
proportion to the degree of softness and pliancy of the bones. A 
check to its action will be found in the sutures and in the amount 
of resistance offered by the dura-mater. Now it must be obvious 
that as long as the sutures remain open, and the developmental 
activity of the brain continues, the head must enlarge. If all the 
sutures remain open, this development will be regular and in exact 
proportion to the activity of growth manifested by the different parts 
of the encephalon. When a suture closes, further development in 
that direction will in great measure terminate. Of this proposition 
Dr. Morton gives us the following example : 

"I have in my possession," says he, "the skull of a mulatto boy, who died at the age 
of eighteen years. In this instance, the sagittal suture is entirely wanting ; in conse- 
quence, the lateral expansion of the cranium hiis ceased in infancy, or at whatever period 
the suture became consolidated. Hence, also, the diameter between the parietal protube- 
rances is less than 4.5 inches, instead of 5, which last is the Negro average. The squamous 
sutures, however, are fully open, whence the skull has continued to expand in the upward 
direction, until it has reached the average vertical diameter of the Negro, or 5.5 inches. 
The coronal suture is also wanting, excepting some traces at its lateral termini ; and the 
result of this last deficiency is seen in the very inadequate development of the forehead, 
which is low and narrow, but elongated below, through the agency of the various cranio- 
facial sutures. The lambdoidal suture is perfect, thus permitting posterior elongation; 
and the growth in this direction, together with the full vertical diameter, has enabled the 
brain to attain the bulk of — ■ cubic inches, or about — less than the Negro average. I believe 
that the absence or partial development of the sutures may be a cause of idiocy by check- 
ing the growth of the brain, and thereby impairing or destroying its functions." 81 

81 See a paper on the Size of the Brain in the Various Races and Families of .Man ; with 
Ethnological Remarks; by Samuel George Morton, M. D. : published in "Types of Man- 
kind," by Nott and Gliddon, Philadelphia, 1854, p. 303, note. See also Proceedings of Phila. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. for August, 1841. 



238 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

From the Mortonian collection, other illustrations of this fact might 
be drawn ; but neither space nor time permits their introduction here. 

In the study of the sutures, considerations of a highly philosophical 
character are involved. Their history enables us to perceive why 
the cranium was not formed of one piece, and why there should be 
two frontal and two parietal bones, and only one occipital. Such an 
arrangement obviously allows the fullest development of the anterior 
and middle lobes of the cerebrum, — the organs, according to Carus, 
of intelligence, reflection, and judgment. 82 That the sutures are 
tutamina cerebri, that in the foetus they permit the cranial bones to 
overlap during parturition, and thus, by diminishing the size of the 
head in certain of its diameters, and producing anaesthesia, facilitate 
labor, curtailing its difficulties and diminishing its dangers to both 
mother and child, there can be no doubt. Such provisions are of 
high interest, as exhibiting the harmony of nature. But when we 
call to mind that the skull is a vertebra in its highest known state 
of development ; that the enclosed brain, as the organ of intellection, 
is the distinguishing mark of man ; that the development of the 
cranium goes on pari passu with that of the encephalon ; that the 
various degrees of human intelligence are definitely related to certain 
permanent skull-forms ; and that the cranial sutures, in conjunction 
with the ossific centres, are the guiding agents in the assumption of 
these forms — it will be evident that a higher and far more compre- 
hensive significance is attached to these bony interspaces. Again, 
no extended investigation has been instituted, as far as I am aware, 
to determine the period at which the different cranial sutures are 
closed in the various races of men. The importance of such an in- 
quiry becomes apparent, when we ask ourselves the following ques- 
tions : — 1. Does the cranium attain its fullest development in all the 
races at the same, or at different periods of life ? and 2. To what 
extent are race-forms of the cranium dependent upon the growth and 
modifications of the sutures ? 

"The most obvious use of the sutures," according to Dr. Morton, "is to subserve the 
process of growth, which they do by osseous depositions at their margins. Hence, one of 
these sutures is equivalent to the interrupted structure that exists between the shaft and 
epiphysis of a long bone in the growing state. The shaft grows in length chiefly by accre- 
tions at its extremities ; and the epiphysis, like the cranial suture, disappears when the 
perfect development is accomplished. Hence, we may infer that the skull ceases to expand 
whenever the sutures become consolidated with the proximate bones. In other words, the 
growth of the brain, whether in viviparous or in oviparous animals, is consentaneous with 
that of the skull, and neither can be developed without the presence of free sutures." 83 

82 " Das besondere Organ des erkenuenden, vergleichenden und urtheilenden Geistesleben." 
— Symbolik der menschlichen Gestalt, von Dr. C. G. Carus, Leipzig, 1853. 

83 See article on Size of the Brain, &c, quoted above, p. 303. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 239 

From investigations of this nature, and from other considerations, 
Dr. M. concluded that the growth of the brain was arrested at the 
adult age, that the consolidation of the sutures was an indication of 
the full development of both cranium and brain, and that any in- 
crease or decrease in the size or weight of the brain after the adult 
period would not be likely to affect the internal capacity of the cra- 
nium, which, therefore, indicates the maximum size of the encephalon 
at the time of its greatest development. Combe, however, affirms 
that when the brain contracts in old age, the tabula vitrea of the 
cranium also contracts, so as to keep itself applied to its contents, 
the outer or fibrous table undergoing no change. 84 It is, to some 
extent, true that in the very aged, even when the skull-bones become 
consolidated into one piece, some changes may result from an undue 
activity of the absorbents, or some defect in the nutritive operations. 
Under such circumstances, the cranial bones may be thinned and 
altered slightly in form. Davis gives an example of this change, in 
the skull of an aged Chinese in his collection, in which the central 
area of the parietal bones is thinned and depressed over an extent 
equal to four square inches to about one-third of an inch deep in the 
central part. 85 Such changes, however, are too limited in their extent 
to demand more than a passing notice. 

The pressure of the brain, exerted through its weight, is felt 
mainly upon the base and inferior lateral parts. 

Prof. Engel, in a valuable monograph upon skull-forms, 86 particu- 
larly calls attention to the action of the muscles in determining these 
forms. He considers the influence of the occipito-frontalis as almost 
inappreciable, — so slight, indeed, that it may be neglected in our 
inquiries. The action of the temporal and pterygoid muscles and of 
the group attached to the occiput, though more evident, is still not 
worthy of much consideration. To the action of the musculus 
sterno-cleido-mastoideus, he assigns a greater value. 

" This muscle," says he, "tends to produce a downward displacement at the mastoid por- 
tion of the temporal bone, which will be the more considerable, as the lower point of its attach- 
ment — the sternum and clavicle — is able to offer much greater resistance than the upper. 
In addition to this, the unusual length of the muscle produces, by its contraction, more 
effect, and, hence, favors a greater displacement of the bones to which it is attached. The 
bone upon which it exerts its influence is also very loose in early life, and even during the 
first year of our existence, when extensive motions of the muscle already take place, it is 
not as firmly fixed as the other bones ; hence, it becomes probable that the influence of this 
muscle upon the position of the bones of the skull will be a demonstrable one. 

" It may, however, be admitted & priori, that in spite of all these favorable circumstances, 

84 System of Phrenology, p. 83. 

85 Cr. Brit., p. 6. See also Gall, " Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau," III, 53, 1825. 
ss Op. cit. 



240 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

the displacement will not exceed a magnitude of one, or, at most, three millimetres. With 
this alone, we will, it is true, not yet explain that variety in the form of the skull which not 
only distinguishes one man from another, but has also been characterized as the type of 
progeny and race. Notwithstanding its seeming insignificance, however, this muscular 
action is a very important agent, and plays the principal part in the formation of the skull, 
although other circumstances of an auxiliary or restrictive nature must not be neglected — 
circumstances which may increase, diminish, or modify this displacement. 

" The effect of this muscular action is considerably increased by superadded conditions. 
The head rests upon the condyles of the occipital bone. Partly on account of muscular 
action, and partly from the pressure of the brain, the basal bones of the skull are exposed 
to a downward displacement : the condyloid portions of the occiput, alone, are not. This 
impossibility to change their position parallel with the displacement of the other basal bones, 
is equivalent to an upward pressure of the occipital condyles, and this must considerably 
increase the downward traction of the sterno-cleido-mastoideus. 

" The occipital and temporal regions, then, are subjected to a downward traction, while 
the condyles are pressed upward : moreover, the brain produces, upon all the basal bones 
except the condyles, a downward pressure corresponding to its height; at the partes condy- 
loidea, this downward pressure is obviated by the resistance of the vertebral column." 

Notwithstanding the significance of the facts thus far adduced, it 
has been boldly and unhesitatingly maintained that civilization — by 
which is meant the aggregate intellectual and moral influences of 
society — exerts a positive influence over the form and size of the 
cranium, modifying not only its individual, but also its race-charac- 
ters, to such an extent, indeed, as entirely to change the original 
type of structure. This doctrine finds its chief advocates among the 
writers of the phrenological school, though it is not wholly confined 
to them. Among its most recent supporters we find the Baron J. "W", 
de Muller, who, in a quarto pamphlet of 74 pages, 87 devotes a sec- 
tion to the consideration of the "Action de I' intelligence sur les formes 
de la tete:" 

"Nous espe>ons prouver," says he, "de meme que les formes du crane ont des rapports 
intimes avec le degre' de civilisation auquel un peuple est parvenu, et que par consequent 
elles non plus ne peuvent justifier une division en races des habitants de la terre, a moins 
de classer les hommes d'apres leur plus ou moins d'intelligence, et de justifier ainsi, au nom 
de la supr^matie de la raison, non-seulment tous les abus de l'esclavage,mais encore toutes 
les tyrannies individuelles." 

The subject-matter embodied in the above quotation, though pro- 
fessedly obscure, is beginning to assume a more certain character in 
consequence of the facts brought to light during the controversies 
between the Unitarians and Diversitarians in Ethnology — facts which 
intimately affect the great question of permanency of cranial types. 
Confronted with the facts presently to be brought forward, it will be 
seen that the doctrine of the mobility of cranial forms under the 

87 Des Causes de la Coloration de la Peau et des differences dans les Formes du Crane, 
au point de vue de l'unite' du genre humain. Par le Baron J. W. de Muller. Stutt- 
gart, 1853. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 241 

influence of education, &c, is by uo means a settled fact, as many 
of its advocates appear to think. " Speaking of the great races of 
mankind," very appropriately remarks Davis, "whether it be in the 
size of the brain, or whether in its quality, or whether it be, as the 
phrenologists maintain, in the development of its particular parts, 
each race is endowed with such special faculties of the mind, moral 
and intellectual, as to impart to it a distinct and definite position 
within which its powers and capabilities range. "We know of no 
valid evidence that can be brought forward for thinking this definite 
position can be varied in the mass. We may therefore take this 
further ground for questioning the assumed pliancy of the form 
of skull." 

The indefatigable traveller and "Directeur du Jardin Royal de 
Zoologie de Bruxelles," has condensed in a few pages, at once the 
best and most commonly used arguments to sustain the hypothesis 
which constitutes the starting-point of the above-mentioned article. 
It has appeared to me not inappropriate to devote a few words, in 
this hasty sketch, to the examination of the tenability of the two 
most important examples adduced by Baron M., whose brochure I 
subject to critical inquiry, simply because it is one of the most con- 
cise exponents of a generally-spread, but, as it appears to me, erro- 
neous, and therefore injurious view. And I am the more especially 
urged to this, since the question of the permanency or non-perma- 
nency of human types occupies the highest philosophical position in 
the entire field of Ethnographic inquiry. Its relations are, indeed, 
fundamental ; for, according as it is definitively settled in the affirma- 
tive or negative, will Ethnography — especially the cranioscopical 
branch — assume the dignity and certainty of a science, or be de- 
graded to the vague position of an interesting but merely speculative 
inquiry. "If the size of the brain," says Mr. Combe, in allusion to 
the labors of Morton, as published in Crania Americana, "and the 
proportions of its different parts, be the index to natural national 
character, the present work, which represents with great fidelity the 
skulls of the American tribes, will be an authentic record in whieb 
the philosopher may read the native aptitudes, dispositions, and 
mental force of these families of mankind. If this doctrine be 
unfounded, these skulls are mere facts in Natural History, present- 
ing no particular information as to the mental qualities of the 
people." If there be this permanency of cranial form in the great 
leading or typical stocks — if, in other words, Nature alters not, 
but ever truly and unchangeably represents that primitive Divine 
Idea, of which she is but the objective embodiment and indi- 
cation — then the labors of Blumenbach, Morton, Retzius, ISTilss n, 
16 



242 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

Davis, and other cranio scopists, have not been toilfully wrought out 
in vain ; if, however, this permanency is but a dream, if typical 
skull-forms vary in periods of time not greater than the historic, 
then all is confusion and uncertainty, and the labors of the craniolo- 
gist hopeless for good, alike without objects and without results. 

Now a moment's reflection will show that this question of perma- 
nency underlies and in great measure substitutes itself for the fiercely- 
vexed problem of the unity or diversity of human oiigin. 

"S'il est demontreV' says Gobineau, "que les races humaines sont, chacune, enferme'es 
dans une sorte d'individualite' d'ou rien ne les peut faire sortir que le melange, alors la doc- 
trine des Unitaires se trouve bien pressee et ne peut se soustraire a reeonnaitre que, du 
moment ou les types sont si eompletement he're'ditaires, si constants, si permanenis, en un 
mot, malgre' les climats et le temps, l'humanite' n'est pas moins completement et in4branla- 
blement partagee que si les distinctions spe'cifiques prenaient leur source dans une diversity 
primitive d'origine." 88 

After citing the Barabra or Berberins of the Eile-valley, and the 
Jews, in proof of the proposition under consideration, our author 
proceeds to speak of the Turks in the following manner. 

"Les Turcs d'Europe et de 1'Asie mineure nous offrent une autre preuve que la forme 
caracteristique du crane peut se modifier completement dans le cours des siecles. Ce peuple 
nous prfeente le modele d'un type elliptique pur et ne se distingue rien de la masse des 
nations 6urope"ennes. Par contre, il differe tant avee les Turcs de TAsie centrale, que 
beaucoup d'e'crivains le placent au nombre des nations caucasiques, tandis qu'ils rattachent 
les Turcs d'Asie a la race mongole. Or, I'histoire demontre d'une maniere irrefutable que 
ces deux peuples appartiennent au groupe de lAsie septentrionale, avec lequel les Turcs de 
l'Orient conservent les relations les plus intimes, non-seulement au point de vue ge"ogra- 
pMque, mais par la concordance de tous les usages de la vie. La transformation du crane 
a eu lieu non chez les Turcs de l'Asie centrale, mais chez ceux de FEurope. Ceux-ci ont 
perdu peu a peu le type pyramidal de leurs peres et ils l'ont e'change' contre la plus belle des 
formes elliptiques. Or, tout en 6tant les reprtisentants par excellence de cette forme, ils 
sont aussi les consanguins les plus proches de ce peuple hideux aux yeux louches, qui mene 

paitre ses chevaux dans les steppes de la Tartarie Nous devons attribuer cette 

modification du crane aux ameliorations sociales, a la civilisation qui tend toujours a, <5qui- 
librer toutes les anomalies des formes faciales, a niveler toutes les protuberances du crane 
pyramidal ou prognatique et a les mener a la syme'trie du type de l'ellipse. Les Turcs 
orientaux sont Teste's ce qu'6taient les anciens Turcs ; place's sur le meme degrti inf6rieur de 
la civilisation, ils ont conserve le type des peuples nomades." 

The mode of argument here employed appears to be this. In the 
first place it is taken for granted that the Turks are of Asiatic origin ; 
secondly, in consequence of certain unimportant resemblances, they 
are assumed to be affiliated with the Laplanders and Ostiacs through 
what are erroneously supposed to be their Finnic or Tchudic branches ; 
and lastly, as relations of the Lapps, (?) it is inferred that they must 
have originally presented all the Mongolic characters in an eminent 
degree, and been remarkable for low statures, ugly features, &c. 

88 Op. cit, 1. 1, p. 212. 



OF THE RAGES OF MEN. 243 

These premises supposed to be established, a comparison is next 
instituted between the Turks of Europe and of Asia Minor, and a 
conclusion drawn adverse to permanency of cranial types. 

It is of vital importance to cranioscopy, that these arguments 
should be carefully sifted, and examined in detail. It has been re- 
cently shown that at so remote a period as the days of Abraham, 
numerous Gothic tribes occupied those boundless steppes of High 
Asia, which lie outstretched between the Sea of Aral and Katai, and 
between Thibet and Siberia. 89 From the Altai Mountains of this 
region appear to have descended, at this distant epoch, the Orghuse 
progenitors of the Turks. ISTow it is a note-worthy fact, that the 
Oriental writers, though familiar with the European standards of 
beauty, have filled their writings, even at a very early period, with 
the highest eulogies upon the form and features of the tribes inhabi- 
ting Turkestan. 'The descriptions they give of these tribes by no 
means apply to the true Mongol appearance, to be met with on the 
desert of Schamo. Haneberg describes Schafouz, the daughter of 
the Ehakan of the Turks, who lived in the early part of the sixth 
century, as the most beautiful woman of her time. 90 Alexander von 
Humboldt tells us that the monk Rubruquis, sent by St. Louis on an 
embassy to the Mongolian sovereign, spoke of the striking resem- 
blance which the Eastern monarch bore to the deceased M. Jean de 
Beaumont, in complexion, features, &c. " This physiognomical ob- 
servation," says Humboldt, " merits some attention, when we call to 
mind the fact, that the family of Tchinguiz were really of Turkish, 
not of Mogul origin." Further on, he remarks, "The absence of 
Mongolian features strikes us also in the portraits which we possess 
of the Baburides, the conquerors of India." 91 

"The Atrak Turks," writes Hamilton Smith, "more especially the Osmanlis, differ from 
the other Toorkees, by their lofty stature, European features, abundant beards, and fair 
complexions, derived from their original extraction being Caucasian, of Yuchi race, or from 
an early intermixture with it, and with the numerous captives they were for ages incor- 
porating from Kashmere, Afghanistan, Persia, Syria, Natolia, Armenia, Greece, and eastern 
Europe. Both these conjectures may be true, because the Caucasian stock, wherever we 
find it, contrives to rise into power, from whatever source it may be drawn, and therefore, 
may in part have been pure before the nation left eastern Asia, while the subordinate 
hordes remained more or less Hyperborean in character ; as, in truth, the normal Toorkees 
about the lower Oxus still are. All have, however, a peculiar form of the posterior portion 
of the skull, which is less in depth than the European, and does not appear to be a result 
of the tight swathing of the turban. Osmanli Turks are a handsome race, and their chil- 
dren, in particular, are beautiful." 92 

89 Consult, among other works, Humboldt's Asie Centrale, vol. II. ; Ritter's Erdhunde 
Asien, vol. II. ; and Lassen's Zeitschrifl fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vol. n. 

90 Zeitschrifl fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vol. I., p. 187. 

91 Asie Centrale,, vol. I., p. 248. See also Gobineau, Sur V InegaliU, $c, Chap. XI. 

92 Op. cit. p. 327. 



244 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

Now, the beautiful Osmaulis are the lineal descendants of the 
warlike Seldjuks, who, in the ninth century, suddenly made their 
appearance in Southern Asia, overthrew the empire of the Khalifs, 
and founded the states of Iran, Kerman, and Roum, or Iconium. 
History informs us that these Seldjuks were, by no means, careful 
about preserving the purity of their genealogy ; for it is not difficult 
to adduce instances of their chiefs intermarrying with Arabian and 
Christian women. In short, when we consider that, as a body, they 
were constantly engaged in extensive predatory excursions, during 
which they enjoyed almost unlimited opportunities for capturing 
slaves and amalgamating with them ; that in compliance with the 
invitation of Osman, the son of Ortogrhul, great numbers of the 
adventurous, the discontented, and the desperate, from all the sur- 
rounding nations, fled to his standard, and gradually swelled the ranks 
of the Osmanlis ; that at a later period, the thinning of their num- 
bers in war was avowedly provided for by the capture of slaves ; 
that in the ranks of the Janissaries, a military order instituted in the 
early part of the fourteenth century by Orkhan, one-fifth of all the 
European captives were enrolled ; that for two centuries and a half 
this body was entirely dependent for its renewal upon the Christian 
slaves captured in Poland, Germany, Italy, &c. ; that in the course 
of four centuries, at least half a million of European males derived 
from the above-mentioned sources, and by piracy along the Mediter- 
ranean, had been incorporated into the Turkish population ; — when 
we consider all these, and many other facts of a like nature, we are 
forced to conclude with the erudite Gobineau, that the history of so 
amalgamated a nation furnishes no arguments, either for or against 
the doctrine of permanency of type. 

Further on, and confirmatory of the above remarks, the reader 
will find some allusion to the special character of the Turkish 
cranium, and the marks which distinguish it from the Mongolian, 
Finnic, and other forms of the skull. 

The Magyars are also produced as an example of the mutability 
of cranial form. 

" Bien qu'ils ne le cedent a aucun peuple ni en beauty physique ni en deVeloppenient 
intellectuel, ils descendent, d'apres les indications de l'histoire et de la linguistique com- 
pared, de la grande race qui occupe 1'Asie septentrionale. lis sont du meme sang que les 
Samoiedes indolents, les Ostiacs stupides et dSbiles, les Lapons indomptables. II y a envi- 
ron urille ans, les codescendants de ces peuplades meprisees, les Magyars modernes, furent 
chassis par une invasion de Turcs bors de la Grande-Hongrie, pays avoisinant l'Oural, 
qu'ils habitaient a cette e'poque. A leur tour ils expulserent les races slaves des plaines 
fertiles de la Hongrie actuelle. Par cette migration, les Magyars ^cbangerent un des plus 
rudes climats de Fancien continent, une contre'e sauvage dans laquelle FOstiac etle Samoi'ede 
ne peuvent s'adonner a, la chasse que pendant quelques mois, contre un pays plus meri- 
dional, d'une luxuriante fertility. Ils furent entrainfe it se depouiller peu a peu de leurs 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 245 

moeurs grossieres et a se rapprocher de leurs voisins plus civilises. Apres uu millier d'an- 
n6es, la forme pyramidale de leur crane est devenue elliptique. L'hypothese d'un croise- 
ment general de races n'est pas admissible quand il s'agit des Magyars si fiers, yivant dans 
l'isolement le plus severe. La simple expatriation ne suffit pas non plus pour modifier la 
forme du crane. Le Lapon, issu du meme sang que le Magyar, a comme lui aussi change' 
de demeure ; il vit maintenant en Europe ; mais il y a conserve le type pyramidal de son 
crane avec sa vie de nomade sauvage." 

This asserted transformation of the Samoiede or Northern Asiatic 
type into the Hungarian, in the short space of eight hundred, or, at 
most, one thousand years, stands unparalleled in history. But we 
may ask, if the Magyar has thus changed the form of his head, why 
have not his habits and mode of life changed accordingly ? Why, 
after a residence of nearly one thousand years in Hungary, does he 
still withhold his hand from agricultural pursuits, and, depending 
for his support upon his herds, leave to the aboriginal Slovack popu- 
lation the task of cultivating the soil? Why does he jealously pre- 
serve his own language, and, though professing the same religion, 
refuse to intermingle with his Slavonian neighbors ? Can it be that 
the language, manners, and customs of a people are more durable 
than the hardest parts of their organism — the bony skeleton ? If 
the reader will consult the able essay of Gekando, upon the origin 
of the Hungarians, 93 he will find a simple explanation of these appa- 
rent difficulties. It is there shown by powerful philological argu- 
ments, and upon the authority of Greek and Arabian historians and 
Hungarian annalists, that the Magyars are a remnant of the warlike 
Huns, who in the fourth century spread such terror through Europe. 
Now, the Huns were by no means a pure Mongolic race, but, on the 
contrary, an exceedingly mixed people. In the veins of the so-called 
White Huns, who formed a portion of Attila's heterogeneous horde, 
Germanic blood flowed freely. " In the whole of the high region 
west of the Caspian," says Hamilton Smith, "to the Euxine and 
eastern coast of the Mediterranean as far as the Hellespont, it is 
difficult, if uot impossible, to separate distinctly the Finnic from the 
pure Germanic and Celtic nations." 94 Humboldt, in the Asie Centrale, 
alludes to the Khirghiz-Kasakes as a mixed race, and tells us that, in 
569, Zemarch, the ambassador of Justinian H., received from the 
Turkish chief Dithouboul a present of a Khirghiz concubine who 
was partly white. He Gobineau considers the Hungarians to be 
White Suns of Germanic origin, and attributes to a slight intermix- 
ture with the Mongolian stock their somewhat angular and bony 
facial conformation. 95 

93 Essai Historique sur FOrigine des Hongrois. Par A. De Gerando. Paris, 1844. See 
also Hamilton Smith's Nat. Hist, of Human Species, pp. 323, 325. 
<» Op. cit., p. 325. »5 Op. cit., p. 223. 



246 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

The facts attesting the pertinacity with which the distinguishing 
physical characters of the different races of men maintain themselves 
through long periods of time, and iinder very varying conditions, are 
as numerous as they are striking. The Arabian type of men, as 
seen to-day upon the burning plains of Arabia, or in the fertile 
regions of Malabar, Coromandel, and the islands of the Indian Ocean, 
is identical with the representations upon the Egyptian monuments, 
where, also, we find figures of the prognathous ISTegro head, differing 
not a whit from that type as it now exists. From their original borne 
in Palestine, the Jews have been scattered abroad through countries 
differing most widely in climatic and geographical features, 96 and, in 
many instances, have departed from their primitive habits of life, yet 
under every sky, and in every latitude, they can be singled out from 
amidst other human types. In the streets of San Francisco or Lon- 
don, on the arid wastes of Arabia, and beneath a cloudless Italian 
sky, the pure unmixed Jew presents us with the same facial linea- 
ments, and the same configuration of skull. " J'ai eu occasion," 
writes Gobineau, " d' examiner un homme appartenant a cette der- 
niere categorie (Polish Jews). La coupe de son visage trahissait 
parfaitement son origine. Ses yeux surtout etaient inoubliables. 
Cet habitant du Nbrd, dont les aneetres directs vivaient, depuis 
plusieurs generations, dans la neige, semblait avoir ete bruni, de la 
veille, par les rayons du soleil Syrien." The Zingarri or Gypsies 
everywhere preserve their peculiar oriental physiognomy, although, 
according to Borrow, there is scarcely a part of the habitable world 
where they are not to be found ; their tents being alike pitched on 
the heaths of Brazil, and the ridges of the Himalayan hills ; and 
their language heard at Moscow and Madrid, in the streets of London 
and Stamboul. "Wherever they are found, their manners and cus- 
toms are virtually the same, though somewhat modified by circum- 
stances ; the language they speak amongst themselves, and of which 
they are particularly anxious to keep others in ignorance, is in all 
countries one and the same, but has been subjected more or less to 
modification; their countenances exhibit a decided family resem- 
blance, but are darker or fairer, according to the temperature of the 
cliruate, but invariably darker, at least in Europe, than the natives 
of the countries in which they dwell, for example, England and 

96 We find them scattered along the entire African Coast, from Morocco to Egypt, and 
appearing in other parts of this continent, numbering, according to Weimar, some 504,000 
souls. In Mesopotamia and Assyria, Asiatic Turkey, Arabia, Hindostan, China, Turkistan, 
the Province of Iran ; in Russia, Poland, European Turkey, Germany, Prussia, Netherlands, 
France, Italy, Great Britain, and America, they are numbered by thousands. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 247 

Russia, Germany and Spain. 97 The physical characters of the present 
Assyrian nations identify them with those who anciently occupied 
the same geographical area, and who are figured on the monuments 
of Persepolis, and the has-reliefs of Khorsabad. 

"Notwithstanding the mixtures of race during two centuries," says Dr. Pickering, "no 
one has remarked a tendency to a deveiopment of a new race in the United States. In 
Arabia, where the mixtures are more complicated, and have been going on from time imme- 
morial, the result does not appear to have been different. On the Egyptian monuments, I 
was unable to detect any change in the races of the human family. Neither does written 
history afford evidence of the extinction of one physical race of men, or of the development 
of another previously unknown." 98 

The population of Spain, like that of France, consists of several 
races ethnically distinct from each other. Erom these different strata, 
so to speak, of the Spanish people, have been derived the inhabitants 
of Central and South America. Of these settlers in the New "World, 
Humboldt thus speaks : 

" The Andalusians and Carrarians of Venezuela, the Mountaineers and Biscayans of 
Mexico, the Catalonians of Buenos Ayres, evince considerable differences in their aptitude for 
agriculture, for the mechanieal arts, for commerce, and for all objects connected with intel- 
lectual development. Each of these races has preserved in the New as in the Old World, 
the shades that constitute its national physiognomy ; its asperity or mildness of character ; 
its freedom from sordid feelings, or its excessive love of gain ; its social hospitality, or its 

taste for solitude In the inhabitants of Caraccas, Santa Fe", Quito, and Buenos 

Ayres, we still recognise the features that belong to the race of the first settlers." " 

A remarkable instance of this permanence of physical character is 
shown in the Maragatos or Moorish Goths, whom, Borrow informs 
us, are perhaps the most singular caste to be found amongst the 
chequered population of Spain. 

"They have," says he, "their own peculiar customs and dress, and never intermarry 

with the Spaniards There can be little doubt that they are a remnant of those 

Goths who sided with the Moors on their invasion of Spain It is evident that their 

blood has at no time mingled with that of the wild children of the desert : for scarcely 
amongst the hills of Norway would you find figures and faces more essentially Gothic than 
those of the Maragatos. They are strong athletic men, but loutish and heavy, and their 
features, though for the most part well formed, are vacant and devoid of expression. They 
are slow and plain of speech, and those eloquent and imaginative sallies, so common in the 
conversation of other Spaniards, seldom or never escape them; they have, moreover, a 
coarse, thick pronunciation, and when you hear them speak, you almost imagine that it is 
some German or English peasant attempting to express himself in the language of the 
Peninsula." 100 True to their Gothic character, they have managed to monopolize almost 
the entire commerce of one-half of Spain. They thus accumulate great wealth, and arc 
much better fed than the parsimonious Spaniard. Like men of a more northern clime, they 
are fond of spirituous liquors and rich meats. 

97 The Zincali ; or, An Account of the Gypsies of Spain. By Geo. Borrow. New York, 
1851, p. 8. 

38 Races of Men. U. S. Exploring Expedition, vol. IX., 1848, p. 345. 

W Personal Narrative. i°° Bible in Spain, Chap. XXIII. 



248 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

In another place, Borrow tells us that in the heart of Spain, he 
came across two villages — Villa Seca and Vargas — the respective 
inhabitants of which entertained for each other a deeply-rooted hos- 
tility — rarely speaking when they met, and never intermarrying. 
The people of Vargas — according to tradition, " Old Christians," — 
are light and fair ; those of Villa Seca — of Moorish origin — are par- 
ticularly dark complexioned. 101 Many examples similar to this can 
he pointed out, where a mountain ridge, a valley, or a narrow stream 
forms the only dividing line between races who differ from each other 
in language, religion, customs, physical and mental qualities, &c. 
This is particularly seen, according to Hamilton Smith, in the Keel- 
gherries, the Crimea, the Carpathians, the Pyrenees, the Alps, the 
Atlas, and even in the group of Northern South America. 102 

"The Vincentine district," says a writer in the Edinburgh Review, "is, as every one 
knows, and has been for ages, an integral part of the Venetian dominions, professing the 
same religion, and governed by the same laws, as the other continental provinces of Venice ; 
yet the English character is not more different from the French, than that of the Vincentine 
from the Paduan ; while the contrast between the Vincentine and his other neighbor, the 
Veronese, is hardly less remarkable." 103 

In a letter, dated United States Steamer John Hancock, Puget 
Sound, July 1st, 1856, and recently received from my friend and 
former school-mate, Dr. T. J. Turner, U. S.K, I find the following 
paragraph, which bears upon the subject under consideration : " On 
each side of the Straits of Juan de Fuca live very different tribes, 
and although the Straits are, on an average, about sixty miles wide, 
yet they are crossed and re-crossed again and again by canoes, and 
no admixtures of the varieties (races ?) has taken place." 

Among other instances of the persistence of human cranial forms, 
Dr. Nott figures, in Types of Mankind, two heads — an ancient 
Asiatic (probably a mountaineer of the Taurus chain), and a modern 
Kurd — which strongly resemble each other, though separated per- 
haps by centuries of time. A still better example of this perma- 
nence of type, and one which involves several peculiar and novel 
reflections as to the relation of the Scythse to the modern Suomi or 
Finns, and through these latter to the Caucasian, or Indo-Germanic 
forms in general, is found in the fact that the skull of a Tchude, 
" taken from one of the very ancient burial-places which are found 
near the workings of old mines in the mountainous parts of Siberia," 
and figured by Blumenbach, is exactly represented in Morton's col- 
lection by several modern Finnic heads. 

™ Op. cit., chap. XLIII. 102 Op. cit., p. 174. "« No. 84, p. 459. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 249 



"Plerasque nationes peculiare quid in capitis forma sibi vindicare con- 
stat." — Vesalius, De Corpor. Human. Fab. 

"Of all the peculiarities in the form of the bony fabric, those of the skull 
are the most striking and distinguishing. It is in the head that we find the 
varieties most strongly characteristic of different races." 

Prichard, Researches, I. 275. 

One of the most difficult problems in the whole range of cranio- 
scopy, is a systematic and accurate classification of cranial forms. 
The fewer the groups attempted to be made, the greater the diffi- 
culty ; since the gradation from one group to another is so insensible, 
as already intimated, that it is exceedingly perplexing to draw sharp 
and exact lines of demarcation between them. A moment's reflection 
will show that a comprehensive group must necessarily embrace many 
skulls which, though possessing in common certain features by which 
they are distinguished from those of other groups, will differ from 
each other, nevertheless, in as many minor but none the less pecu- 
liar characters. The difficulty is increased by the utter impossibility 
of pronouncing positively whether the varieties thus observed are 
coeval in point of time, as the " original diversity" doctrine main- 
tains; whether they are simply so many "developments" the one 
from the other, as the advocates of the Lamarkian system aver ; or, 
finally, whether, as the supporters of the " unity" dogma contend, 
they are all simple modifications of one primary type or specific 
form. Again, as each group or family of man consists of a number 
of races, and these, in turn, are made up of varieties and sub-varieties, 
in some instances almost innumerable, it will be evident that a true 
classification can only result from the careful study of a collection of 
crania so vast as to contain not only many individual representations 
of these races, varieties, &c, but also specimens illustrative of both 
the naturally divergent and hybrid forms. And here another obstacle 
presents itself. As a type is the ideal embodiment of a series of allied 
objects, and as the perfection of this type depends upon the number 
of the objects upon which it is based, the very necessity of a large 
number renders it no easy matter to determine what is typical and 
what is not; or, in other words, what are the respective values of the 
different characters presented by a skull. 

It has not yet been determined how far the physical identity of the 
individuals composing a nation is a proof of purity of race and the 
homogeneity of the nation. Neither is the law demonstrated, in 
obedience to which individual dissimilarities are produced by inter- 



250 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

mixtures of allied races. The first effect of such intermixture is to 
disorder the homogeneity of type by the introduction of divergent 
forms. If the influx of the foreign element is suddenly arrested, 
these abnormal or accidental forms are absorbed into the primary 
type. If the introduction is continued over a long period, the homo- 
geneous aspect of the nation is destroyed, and the physical characters 
of the primary stock, together with those of the disturbing element, 
disappear, as the fusion proceeds to give rise to a hybrid race blend- 
ing the characters of both, and assuming a homogeneousness of its 
own, which, if the fusion were perfect, would very likely lead to the 
supposition of its being a pure form, especially if the history of these 
changes was not made known. A cranioscopist having the skulls of 
such a people in his cabinet, together with specimens of those of the 
primary stocks from which it sprung, could easily assign it a place 
in classification, between the other two, but would be puzzled not a 
little to determine whether it was a primary or secondary form, a 
pure race or uot. A resort to history would here be necessary, just 
as it is with the naturalist. As the latter, by studying the anatomi- 
cal peculiarities of an animal in conjunction with its history, esta- 
blishes its primordial character and durability, so the ethnographer, 
ascertaining the osteologic differentiae of the races of men, and con- 
trasting them with the records of remote, historic times, is enabled 
to point out the durability of certain types through all the vicissi- 
tudes of time and place. In this way, alone, can he discriminate 
primary typical forms from secondary or hybrid — a pure race from 
a mixed breed. 

The thoroughness of the fusion, and the time required to effect it, 
will depend very much upon the degree of difference between the 
parent stocks, and upon the relative numbers which are brought 
into contact. The more closely allied the groups, the more likely 
are they to fuse completely; the more widely separated, the less 
likelihood is there of a perfect intermixture. 

" The amalgamation of races, there are strong reasons for believing, depends chiefly on 
their original proximity — their likeness from the beginning. Where races are remote, their 
hybrid products are weak, infertile, short-lived, prone to disease, and perishable. Where 
they are primitively nearer in resemblance, there is still an inherent law operating and 
controlling their intermixture, by which the predominant blood overcomes that which is in 
minor proportion, and causes the offspring ultimately to revert to that side from which it 
was chiefly derived. As it is only where the resemblance of races is most intimate that 
moral antagonisms can be largely overcome, so it is in these cases alone that we may expect 
to meet with the physical attraction productive of perfect amalgamation ; nature, probably, 
still, at times, evincing her unsubdued resistance by the occurrence of families bearing the 
impress of one or the other of their original progenitors." 104 

104 Crania Britannica, p. 8. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 251 

The aboriginal tribes of Australia are among tbe lowest specimens 
of humanity — the farthest removed from tbe European. Now, ac- 
cording to Strzelecki, tbe women of tbese tribes are incapacitated 
from reproducing with males of tbeir own race, after they have once 
been impregnated by a European. 105 Dr. Thompson, however, ex- 
presses bis doubt of this statement, and denies its truth with regard 
to the New Zealand women. 106 

" II est remarquable que, quoiqu'un grand nombre d'Europe'ens habitent maintenant dans 
les memes contre'es que les Andanienes, on ne mentionne pas encore P existence d'hybrides 
resultant de leur union. Cette circonstance est peut-gtre due a ce que la difference entre 
ces deux extremities de la s^rie humaine rend plus difficile la procreation des hybrides." 107 

Here, then, are the elements of a theory, or rather the indications 
of an unknown physiological law, whose importance is self-evident, 
and whose elucidation connects itself with an allied series of pheno- 
mena. I allude to the instances in which the progeny of the female 
by a second husband resemble the first husband in physical appear- 
ance, temperament, constitutional disease, &c. 

From the above remarks, it will be readily inferred that every 
additional foreign element introduced into a nation will only serve 
to render a thorough fusion more and more difficult. Indeed, an 
almost incalculable time would be required to bring the blending 
stocks into equilibrium, and thus cause to disappear the innumerable 
hybrid forms or pseudo-types. As long as tbe blood of one citizen 
of such a nation differed in the degree of its mixture from that of 
another, diverse and probably long-forgotten forms would crop out 
in tbe most unaccountable manner, as indications of the past, and 
obstacles to the assumption of that perfectly homogeneous character 
which belongs to the pure stocks alone. To be assured of the truth 
of these propositions, we have but to examine with care the popula- 
tion of any large commercial city, as London, Constantinople, Cadiz, 
Sew York, &c. 

If, now, it be true, as Count de Gobineau maintains, in bis philo- 
sophical inquiry into the Cause of National Degeneracy, that a nation 
lives and flourishes only so long as the progressive and leading eth- 
nical element or principle, upon which it is based, is preserved in a 
vigorous state, and that the exhaustion of this principle is invariably 
accompanied with political death, then should the American states- 
man turn aside from the vapid and mischievous party-questions of 
the day — questions whose very littleness should permit them to pass 

105 physical Description of New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, London, 1845. 

106 British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review for April, 1855. 

107 Des Races Humaines, ou Elements d'Ethnographie. Par J. J. D'Omalius D'Halloy. 
Paris, 1845, p. 186. 



252 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

unheeded — and earnestly compare the historical phases of our youth- 
ful Republic with those of the fallen Greek and Roman empires, and 
the already enfeebled English Commonwealth, that he may learn 
those unalterable laws of political reproduction, evolution, and decay, 
and thus, forewarned, provide intelligently for the amelioration of 
that disease whose seeds were planted when the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was proclaimed, and whose deadly influences threaten, 
sooner or later, like the Lianes of a tropical forest, to suffocate the 
national tree over which they are silently spreading. 

Though war and slavery, those powerful agents in amalgamation, 
have been going on, without interruption, from the earliest recorded 
history of our race down to the present moment, yet certain primary 
types have maintained themselves, amidst every conflict, and under 
the most destructive influences, as vestiges or wrecks of the remotest 
times, and in virtue of a certain inherent and mutual antipathy, as 
old as the oldest varieties of our race. The instability of human 
hybrids is as remarkable as the permanency of the pure stocks. The 
area of the hybrid forms is in all cases limited, and their existence 
devoid of a self-sustaining power. "Where the mixed races are sub- 
jected to a modified climatic influence, they for a while appear to 
maintain themselves, and even extend their locality beyond their 
primary centres of creation ; but, sooner or later, they disappear, 
either through extermination, or absorption by the purer races, or in 
consequence of a mysterious degradation of vital energy. Neverthe- 
less, long after their obliteration, they leave their impress upon the 
conquering and exterminating races, in the shape of modifications 
of the skull, stature, habits, intellectual conditions, &c. In this in- 
stability, this inherent tendency to decay, we discover the great cheek 
to the assumption by the hybrid types of that homogeneity which, in 
all probability, once characterized the primeval groups of man. 

"As it is with individual life, so families, tribes, and nations, most likely even races, 
pass away. In debatable regions, their tenure is only provisional, until the typical form 
appears, when they are extinguished, or found to abandon all open territories, not positively 
assigned them by nature, to make room for those to whom they are genial. This effect is 
itself a criterion of an abnormal origin ; for a parent stock, a typical form of the present 
genus or species, perhaps with the sole exception of the now extinct Flatheads, is, we be- 
lieve, indestructible and ineffaceable. No change of food or circumstances can sweep away 
the tropical, woolly-haired man ; no event, short of a general cataclycis, can transfer his 
centre of existence to another ; nor can any known cause dislodge the beardless type from 
the primeval high North-Eastern region of Asia and its icy shores. The white or bearded 
form, particularly that section which has little or no admixture, and is therefore quite fair, 
can only live, not thrive, in the two extremes of temperature. It exists in them solely as 
a master race, and must be maintained therein by foreign influences ; and the intermediate 
regions, as we have seen, were in part yielded to the Mongolic on one side, and but tempo- 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 253 

rarily obtained, by extermination from the woolly-haired, on the other." 103 Hybrid forms 
cannot be regarded as characteristic of a new race ; amidst all the confusion of blood, "we 
look in vain for a new race. Nature asserts her dominion on all hands in a deterioration 
and degradation, the fatal and depopulating consequences of which it is appalling to con- 
template." 109 

To the cranioscopist, the most interesting point, perhaps, in this 
whole inquiry, is the determination of the particular influence exerted 
by each parent stock upon the formation of the hybrid cranium. 
So much obscurity surrounds this question, however, and the facts 
concerning it are so scanty and conflicting, that I am compelled to 
forego its discussion in this place, and refer the reader to the writings 
of "Walker [Intermarriage ; or, Beauty, Health, and Intellect); Combe 
[The Constitution of Man); Blaine {Outlines of the Veterinary Art); 
Edwards (Des Caracteres Physiologiques des Races Surnames)) Harvey 
{Monthly Journal of Medical Science, Aug. 1854); Berard (Cours de 
Physiologic) ; and particularly, Lucas (Traite Philosophique et Physio- 
logique de V Seredite Naturelle). 

As already intimated, the attempted classifications of the human 
family are as numerous as they are various. Those based upon the 
form of the skull are perhaps the most reliable, since the skull is 
intimately connected with the intellectual organs, and resists, in a 
remarkable manner, the altering influences of climate. Among 
others, the most simple, though in some respects objectionable, is that 
of Prof. Retzius, who, in an essay upon the cranial forms of Northern 
Europe,' 10 divides all heads into Long (Dolichocephalce) and Short 
{Brachycephalcp). Each of these he again subdivides into Straight- 
Jaws (Orthognathy) and Prominent-Jaws (Prognaihcc). The races 
comprised in each of these divisions are seen in the accompanying 
scheme. 

T irl ] / Straight jaws 1 Celtic and Germanic tribes. 

° \ Prominent jaws J Negroes, Australians, Oceanians, Caribs, Greenlanders, &c. 

Short heads / Straight jaws 1 Laplanders, Finns, Sclaves, Turks, Persians, &c. 
\ Prominent jaws / Tartars, Mongolians, Malays, Incas, Papuas, &c. 

Prof. Zetjne, after animadverting upon what he calls the " one-sided 
polarity" of this classification, adopts three main forms or types of 
skull for the Eastern, and three corresponding types for the "Western 
hemisphere, thus dividing mankind into six races, as is shown in the 
subjoined table : m 

108 Hamilton Smith, op. cit., p. 175. 

109 Davis, Cran. Brit., p. 7. 

110 TJeber die Sch'adelformen der Nordbewohner. — Miiller's Archives, 1845, p. 84. 

111 tiber Schiidelbildung, pp. 19, 20. 



254 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

North. 
New World. Old World. 

I. High Skull. 



4. Apalachian, 1. Caucasian, 

or Natchez Race. or Iran Race. 

II. Broad Skull. 



5. Guianian, 2. Mongolian, 

or Carib Race. or Turan Race. 

III. Long Skull. 



6. Peruvian, 3. Ethiopian, 

or Inca Race. or Sudan Race. 

South. 

A serious objection to this division exists in the fact that the so- 
called high skulls, in many important features, differ as much from 
each other, as they do from the broad and long skulls, and this is 
equally predicable of each of these last two varieties, as compared 
with the first. Moreover, the requirements of science discounte- 
nance all attempts at the indiscriminate arrangement of artificially 
deformed with natural skulls. Prichard divides all skulls into 
1. The symmetrical or oval form, which is that of the European and 
Western Asiatic nations ; 2. The narrow and elongated or progna- 
thous skull, of which the most strongly marked specimen is perhaps 
the cranium of the Negro of the Gold Coast; 3. The broad and 
square-faced or pyramidal skull, which is that particularly of the 
Turanian nation. 112 

"Want of space, alone, prevents reference to other systems. How- 
ever, regarding nature as an harmonious and indivisible whole, and 
believing with the venerable Humboldt, that it is impossible to 
recognize any typical sharpness of definition between the races ; 1I3 
and with the eminent German physiologist, Johannes Muller, that 
it is incontestably more desirable to contrast the races by their con- 
stant and extreme forms ; lM and finally, inclining to the opinion so 
ably argued by Gerard," 5 and entertained by Knox, 116 and others, 

112 Researches into the Physical History of Mankind. London, 1836. Vol. I. p. 281. 

113 Cosmos : A Sketch of a Physical Description of the Universe. By Alexander Von 
Humboldt. Translated from the German by E. C. Otte\ New York, 1850. Vol. I. p. 356. 

114 Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen. Bd. II., s. 775. 

115 Dictionnaire Universel d'Histoire Naturelle. Dirige' par M. Chas. d'Orbigny. Art. 
Espece, par Gerard ; t. 5eme. 

i 16 "In time there is probably no such thing as species; no absolutely new creations 
ever took place ; but as viewed by the limited mind of man, the question takes another 
aspect. As regards his individual existence, time is a short span ; a few centuries, or a 
few thousand years, more or less ; this is all he can grasp. Now, for that period at least, 
organic forms seem not to have changed. So far back as history goes, the species of ani- 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 255 

that species occupy no absolutely permanent place in nature's method, 
and that all specific distinctions are, therefore, fallacious — I have 
deemed it more judicious, in the present state of our science, to 
avoid any similar attempt at a classification, preferring to lay before 
the general reader a panoramic view of a few of the almost innu- 
merable cranial forme which the traveller meets with in making a 
tour of the surface of the earth. But, in order to avoid miscon- 
ceptions, a few preliminary remarks will be necessary before pro- 
ceeding with our proposed survey. If, to facilitate our progress, we 
divide the earth's surface into several regions or realms, the limits 
of each being determined by the geographical distribution of its 
peculiar organic forms, and represent each by a cranial form selected 
from among its most numerous and apparently indigenous inhabi- 
tants, we will obtain a series of typical or standard figures, similar to 
those constituting the second column of the extensive "Ethnographic 
Tableau" accompanying this work. With one exception, the crania 
figured in the tableau are contained in the Mortonian collection. 
Taken by means of the camera lucida, in the hands of the accom- 
plished Mrs. Gliddon, I can vouch for the general accuracy of the 
drawings, and their truthfulness to nature. The exception alluded 
to is a drawing of Schiller's skull (C), borrowed from the cranioscopic 
atlas of Carus. Forced by the arrangement of the Tableau to repre- 
sent- the entire European area by two crania instead of many, I 
have selected the above figure because it embraces both Gothic 
and Sclavonic characters, and may be taken therefore as a standard 
for Central and Eastern Europe in general ; while the more elongated 
Circassian skull (D) may be regarded as a not inappropriate repre- 
sentative of Southern and South-eastern Europe. Now it is quite 
evident that all attempts at representing the skull-forms of the 
numerous races of men by a few figures (as in the Tableau), must 
necessarily be imperfect, and consequently open to criticism. I wish 
the reader, therefore, distinctly to understand that the skulls figured 
in the Tableau are merely so many examples, each of a cranial type, 
more or less numerously represented, and prevailing over a greater 
or less extent of the particular geographical area to which it belongs. 
Each figure represents not the whole realm in which it is placed, 
but one only of the characteristic forms of that realm. The Negro 
head (E), for example, is not the standard of the entire African con- 
tinent, but a peculiar form found there, and nowhere else. To 
represent the whole of this continent, many heads would be required. 

mals, as we call them, have not changed; the races of men have been absolutely the same. 
They were distinct then for that period as at present." — Races of Men, p. 34. 



256 THE CEAJSTIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

This is true of all the other realms. "With each of the nine figures 
(except that from Carus) the facial angle and internal capacity have 
heen given. The reader will observe, and perhaps with surprise, 
that the Eskimo and Kalmuck heads have the largest internal 
capacity, larger even than the European skulls ; while the Kal- 
muck possesses also the highest facial angle. Let him not be 
misled, however, by this accidental fact. Eor these measurements 
in this instance express individual peculiarities, rather than race- 
characters. Moreover, the heads in question have been selected 
entirely with reference to their external osteological characters. 
The facial angles given by Morton in his Catalogue should not 
be relied upon too implicitly, since they have been taken by means 
of an instrument which, in different, but equally careful hands, 
yields different results for the same head. To measure the facial 
angle with unerring mathematical precision, an accurate photo- 
graphic outline of the head in a lateral view should be first ob- 
tained ; upon this figure the facial and horizontal lines of Camper 
should next be drawn, and the angle then measured with a finely 
graduated protractor. To avoid any further allusion to the cranial 
capacity of the different races of men, I here subjoin the two fol- 
lowing tables, taken from my manuscript copy of the fourth edition 
of Morton's Catalogue. Table I. has been enlarged from that given 
on page viii. of the third edition, by the interpolation of forty measure- 
ments, with the effect of increasing the mean cranial capacity of the 
Teutonic Family, the Mongolian and American Groups by 1.5, 5, 
and 1.3 cubic inches respectively; and slightly diminishing that 
of the Negro Group. Table II. has been constructed from the 
measurements recorded in different parts of the Catalogue. 
(The letters "I. C." mean internal capacity.) 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



257 



TABLE I. — Showing the She of the Brain in cubic inches, as obtained from the internal mea- 
surement of 663 Crania of various Races and Families of Man. 



RACES AND FAMILIES. 



Modern Caucasian Group. 
Teutonic Family. 



Swedes 

Germans 1 
Prussians / 



English . 
Anglo-Americans , 



True Finns . 



Tchudic Family. 



Native Irish , 



Celtic Family. 



Persians.. 
Armenians.. 
Circassians . 



Pelasgic Family. 



Arabs... 
Fellahs- 



Ayras.. 
Bengalees 



Semitic Family. 

Nilotic Family. 

Indosianic Family. 



Ancient Caucasian Gkoup. 

Pelasgic Family. 
Graeco-Egyptians , 

Nilotic Family. 
_ Egyptians 



Mongolian Group. 

Chinese Family 

Hyperborean Family 



Malay Group. 

Malayan Family 

Polynesian Family 



Peruvians . 
Mexicans.. 



American Group. 
Toltecan Family. 



Barbarous Tribes. 

Iroquois 

Lenape 

Cherokee , 

Shoshone\ &c 



Negro Group. 

American-born Negroes 

Native African Family 

Hottentot Family 

Alforian Family 

Australians 

Oceanic Negroes 



no. of 
skulls. 



11 



17 



5 

7 

9 

6 
10 

3 

18 

8 
25 

18 
55 

10 



20 
5 



152 
25 



164 



12 

64 

3 



LARGEST 
I. C. 



SMALLEST 
I. C. 



108.25 

114 

105 

97 

112.5 
97 
94 

98 

96 

91 
90 



97 
96 



98 
102 



97 
90.5 



101 
92 



104 



86 
99 
83 

83 
77 



65 

70 

91 
82 

81.5 

78 

75 

84 

66 

79 
67 

73 

68 



70 

78.75 



68 
82 



58 
67 



69 



73 
65 
68 

63 
76 



93 

95 

96 
90 

94.3 

87 
84 

89 

79 

86 
78 



87 

80 

85 



86 
84.3 



75.3 
81.7 



84 



80.8 
83.7 
75.3 

75 
76.5 



k93.5 



.81.7 



•87 



-85 



■ 80.3 



82.25 



258 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 



TABLE II. 
Amebican Crania. 



Barbarous Tribes. 



North Americans. 

Arickarees 

Assinaboins 

Chenouks 

Oregon Tribes 

Cherokees 

Chetimaches 

Chippeways 

Cotonay 

Creeks 

Dacota 

Hurons 

Iroquois 

Lenape 

Lipans 

Mandans 

Menominees 

Miamis 

Minetaris 

Mohawks 

Narragansets 

Osage 

Otoes 

Ottawas 

Ottigamies . ... 

Pawnees 

Penobscot 

Pottawatomies 

Sauks 

S'eminoles 

Shawnees 

Shoshones 

Upsarookas 

Winnebagos 

Tamassees 

Californians 

Miscellaneous, , 
Mound, Caves, 
Uncertain, &c. 

Central American. . . 

South Americans. 

Araucanians 

Brazilians 

Charib 



11 



No. of Skulls 
measured. 



3 
4 
5 
4 
2 
2 
3 
4 
1 
4 
2 
4 
2 
7 
7 
5 
4 
3 
10 
2 

3 
4 
2 
2 
1 
3 
2 
13 
4 
4 
2 
2 
1 
1 

27 

1 

7 
3 

1 



Mean 
I. 0. 



76 

90 

79 

82 

88.7 

79.5 

91 

86 

88.7 

90 

81.5 

96 

79.5 

91.5 

83.5 

84 

86 

86.5 

84 

81 

82.5 

85.6 

81.7 

93.5 

74.5 

80 

91 

90.7 

84 

89.6 

80.7 

94 

89 

70 

87 

84.8 



91 

76 

73.6 

89 



Toltecan Race. 



Peruvian Family. 

Arica 

Pachacamac 

Pisco 

Santa 

Lima 

Miscellaneous 



Mexican Family. 

Tlahuica 

Azteck 

Oturaba 

Tacuba 

Otomie 

Chechemecan 

Tlascalan 

Pames .. ...... 

Miscellaneous 

Modern Mexicans.. 



No. of Skulls 
measured. 



14 

77 

44 

5 

5 

7 

1 
2 
3 
3 
5 
1 
1 
2 
4 



Mean\ 
I. C. 



79 

74.9 

74 

78 

78 

75.5 



84 

80.5 

82.6 

81.6 

76.6 

83 

84 

79.5 

87 

82.6 



*^* If we take the collective races 
of America, civilized and savage, we 
find that the average size of the brain 
as measured in the whole series of 341 
skulls, is but 80.3 cubic inches. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



259 



Upon those outstretched desert wastes which skirt the Icy Sea — 
the frozen tundras of Siberia, and the barren lands of America — 
amidst the snowy islands and everlasting icebergs of the Polar Ocean 
itself, the human family presents us with a cranial form or type, to 
which the learned Prichard has very happily applied the term pyra- 
midal. Amongst all the Hyperboreans, whose life is one continued 
struggle with a stern and rugged nature, the central and far northern 
Eskimos present us with the most strongly marked specimens of this 
type. I have been induced, therefore, to select, as the standard or 
typical representative of Arctic Man, a well-characterized Eskimo 
cranium, procured by that zealous and intrepid navigator, Dr. E. K. 
Kane, during his first voyage to the North, and by him kindly placed, 
along with three other specimens, in the collection of our Academy. 
Through the kindness of Dr. I. I. Hayes and Dr. J. K. Kane, I have 
been' enabled to mature my studies of the pyramidal form over seven 
Eskimo skulls in all, a detailed account of which I hope shortly to 
be able to present to the ethnological public through another channel. 
The following brief resume of the characteristics of an Eskimo cra- 
nium will serve as a commentary upon the accompanying figures, 
which represent the front and lateral views of the head above men- 
tioned (No. 1558 of the Mortonian collection). The male Eskimo 

Fig. 11. 



Fig. 10. 





Lateral view of Cranium. Front view of same. 

Eskimo. 
( From Dr. Kane's First Arctic Voyage. ) 

skull is large, long, narrow, pyramidal ; greatest breadth near the 
base; sagittal suture prominent and keel-like, in consequence of the 
angular junction of the parietal and two halves of the frontal bones ; 
proportion between length of head and height of face as 7 to 5 ; 
proportion between cranial and facial halves of the occipito-mental 
diameter as 4J to 5 ; attachment for the temporal muscle large ; 
zygomatic fossse deep and capacious ; mastoid processes thick and 



2G0 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 



prominent; glenoid cavity capacious, and adapted to considerable 
lateral motion of the condyles ; forehead flat and receding ; occiput 
full and salient ; face broad and lozenge-shaped, the greatest breadth 
being just below the orbits ; malar bones broad, high, and promi- 
nent, the external surface looking antero-laterally ; orbits large and 
straight ; zygomatic arches massive and widely separated ; length of 
the face one inch less than the breadth ; nasal bones flat, narrow, and 
united at an obtuse angle, sometimes lying in the same plane as the 
naso-maxillary processes ; superior maxilla massive and prognathous, 
its anterior surface flat and smooth ; superior alveolar margin oval ; 
inferior margin of anterior nares flat, smooth, inclining forwards and 
downwards ; inferior maxilla large, long, and triangular ; semi-lunar 
notch quite shallow ; angles of the jaw flared out, and chin promi- 
nent ; teeth large, and worn in such a manner as to present, in the 
upper jaw, an inclination from without inwards, upwards, and late- 
rally, and in the lower jaw, just the reverse ; antero-posterior diameter 
of cuspids greater than the transverse ; configuration of the basis 
cranii triangular, with the base of the triangle forward between the 
zygomse, the truncated apex looking posteriorly ; breadth of base 
about one-half tLe length ; shape of foramen magnum an irregular 
oval ; anterior margin of foramen magnum on a line with the poste- 
rior edge of the external meati. 117 

The female cranium differs from the male in being smaller, lighter, 
and presenting a smoother surface and more delicate structure. The 
malar bones are less massive, the face not quite so broad, and the 
anterior surface of the superior maxilla concave rather than flat. 

With very slight and insigni- 
ficant variations, this type pre- 
vails along the whole American 
coast north of the 60th parallel, 
and from the Atlantic Ocean 
to Bhering's Straits, ranging 
through 140° of longitude, or 
over a tract of some 3500 miles. 
ISTor does it altogether stop 
here, as is shown in the accom- 
panying figure of a Tchuktchi 
skull — one of three, brought by 
Mr. E. M. Kern from the Island 
Arakamtchetchem, or Kayne, 
at Glassnappe Harbor, Lat. 64° 



Fig. 12. 




TCHDKTCHI. 

(N. Pacific Explor. Exp., U. S. Corvette " Vin- 
cennes," under Capt. Rodgers, V. S. N., 1856.) 



u ' From my unpublished " Descriptions and Delineations of Skulls in the Mortonian Col- 
lection." 



OF THE RACES OP MEN. 261 

40' 1ST., Long. 172° 59' "W. of Greenwich — and by him kindly loaned 
to me for examination and study. The above island forms part of 
the western bank of Bhering's Straits. " The name of the village," 
writes Mr. Keen, " to which the burial-place belonged, whence the 

skulls were procured, is Yergnynne In stature, the (Tchuktchi) 

men are of good height, well built and active. The women are 
generally small, well made, and have exceedingly pretty hands and 
feet. Their mouths are generally large ; the upper lip is full and 
projecting, and the eyes long and narrow." 118 

Leaving the Koriaks, and travelling southward, we next encounter 
the Kamschatkans, a once numerous, though now scanty and mise- 
rable race, occupying chiefly the southern portion of the peninsula 
which bears their name. It has been observed that this people, 
though presenting most of the physical characters common to the 
Polar tribes, are not strictly identical with the latter, as is shown in 
their moral and intellectual character. Stoller was led by their 
physical traits to class them among the Mongolians, while Prichard 
speaks of them as " a distinct race, divided into four tribes, who 
scarcely understand each other." 119 Dr. Morton appears to consider 
them as a hybrid people. " It must be admitted," says he, " that the 
southern Kamskatkans, in common with the southern tribes of Tun- 
gusians and Ostiaks, have so long mixed with the proximate Mongol- 
Tartar hordes, that it is, in some measure, arbitrary to class them 
definitively with either family, for their characters are obviously de- 
rived from both." 12 ° An attentive study of the cast of a Kamtskatkan 
cranium (ISTo. 725 of the Mortonian collection), and comparison with 
Plate LXH. of Blumenbach's Decades, leave little doubt in my mind 
of a sensible departure from the pyramidal type which predominates 
to the north. The cast in question was presented to Dr. Morton by 
Dr. 0. S. Fowler. It is long and flat, and presents quite a different 
proportion between the bi-temporal, longitudinal, and vertical dia- 
meters from what we find in the heads of the true Hyperboreans. The 
low, flat, and smooth forehead is devoid of the keel-like formation 
perceptible in the Eskimo. The carinated ridge makes its appear- 
ance along the middle and posterior part of the inter-parietal suture. 
The widest transverse diameter is near the superior edge of the tem- 
poral bone ; from this point the diameter contracts both above and 
below. As in the Eskimo, the occiput is full and prominent, as is 
also the posterior surface of the parietal bones, which surface, in the 
Eskimo, however, is flat. The forehead inclines upwards and back- 

118 Letter to Mr. Geo. R. Gliddon, dated Washington, Oct. 16th, 1856. 
"» Nat. Hist, of Man, 3d Edition, p. 223. 
120 Crania Americana, p. 52. 



262 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

wards to a prominence in the middle of the inter-parietal suture, 
from which point it is rounded off posteriorly. The face forms a 
broad oval ; the orbits are large, deep, and have their transverse axes 
at right angles with the median line of the face. The malar bones, 
though large, are neither so prominent nor high as in the Eskimo. 
They are laterally compressed, more rounded, and less flared out at 
their inferior margin than in the Polar man. The anterior nares are 
flat and smooth, and the alveolar arch somewhat more prominent 
than in the typical Eskimo, as is shown by comparing them by the 
norma verticalis. Upon examining the basis cranii, we observe, at 
once, the globular fulness of the occipital region, and an alteration 
in the general configuration of the base, as compared with that of 
our Arctic standard. The greatest breadth is not confined to the 
zygomatic region, for lines drawn from the most prominent point of 
the zygomse to the most prominent point of the mastoid process, on 
either side, are parallel to each other. Did space permit, other dis- 
tinctions could readily be pointed out. 

From this description, coupled with the foregoing statements, it 
will be seen that the Kamtskatkans are either a distinct people, occu- 
pying the gap or transitionary ground between the Polar tribes and 
the Mongols ; or, they are the hybrid results of an intermixture of 
these two great groups ; or, finally, and to this opinion I incline, they 
constitute the greatest divergency of which the true Arctic type is 
capable. The cast above described being that of a female, and the 
only one, moreover, to which I can obtain access, I am unable to 
arrive at any more definite conclusion. 

Of the skulls of the Yukagiri, an obscure and very little known 
race, dwelling to the westward of the Koriaks, Morton's collection, 
unfortunately, contains not a single specimen ; nor can I find draw- 
ings of them in any of the many works which I have consulted. 
According to Prichard, as a pure race they are now all extinct, having 
been exterminated in their wars with the Tchuktchi and Koriaks. 121 

Extending along the cheerless banks of the Lena, from the borders 
of the Frozen Ocean as far south as Alden, and occupying the country 
between the Kolyma and Yennisei, we find the Yakuts, or " isolated 
Turks," as Latham styles them, a people who, although surrounded 
by Hyperboreans, contrast remarkably with the latter in language, 
civilization, and physical conformation. These people constitute an 
interesting study for the cranioscopist. They are described as a pas- 
toral race, of industrious and accumulative habits, and manifesting 
a higher degree of civilization than their ichthyophagous Tungusian 
and Yukagyrian neighbors. In consonance with this higher condi- 

i 21 Op. cit, p. 223. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 263 

tion, the skull, as shown in Tab. XV. of the Decades, differs decidedly 
from the prevailing pyramidal form of this region. The reader will 
at once observe, upon referring to that table, the nearly square con- 
tour of the head, approximating the Mongolian type, presently to be 
represented, the large and widely separated orbits, the full and pro- 
minent glabella, the ossa nasi narrow and curving to a point above, 
and the parietal bones projecting laterally. The descriptions given 
by Gmelin and Erman of the Yakuts are, to some extent, confirma- 
tory of the characters above indicated. 

The present remarkable locality of the Yakuts is undoubtedly not 
their original home. Their language is Turkish — intelligible in 
Constantinople — and their traditions, unlike those of their Arctic 
neighbors, point to the South. They afford a singular example of " a 
weak section of the human race pressed into an inhospitable climate 
by a stronger one." 122 Difficulties of classification have been raised 
upon certain slight physical resemblances between the Yakuts and 
the surrounding tribes. These resemblances may be regarded as the 
indirect results of the great Mongolic expansion, which, while it 
crowded the main body of the Turkish population to the South, 
allowed a small portion to escape to the North-East, in the inhospi- 
table region of the Lena, where, intermarriage, to some extent, soon 
followed. We may readily suppose that, in consequence of the 
numerical predominance of the aboriginal inhabitants of these re- 
gions over the new comers, the intermixture resulted in the latter 
assuming, to a certain extent, some of the physical characters of the 
former. But the language of the Yakuts, being more perfect than 
that of the Indigense, has maintained its supremacy. 

Upon the mountainous tract, comprised between the Yennesei 
River and the Okhotsk Sea in one direction, and the Arctic Ocean 
and Alden Mountains in the other, we encounter an interesting 
people, represented by the Tongus in the North and the Lamutes in 
the East. They possess a peculiar language, and, anterior to the 
sixteenth century, appear to have been a powerful race. In his 
physical description of the Tungusians, Pallas says that their faces 
are flatter and broader than the Mongolian, and more allied to the 
Samoiedes, who lie to the west of them. 123 In his Table XVI., Blu- 
menbach represents the cranium of a Northern or Reindeer Tungus. 
Though the characteristic breadth of face below the eyes is preserved, 
and with it, thereby, the lozenge-shaped face, yet Jhe general form 
of the head has undergone some modification. Blumenbach very 
briefly describes this head in the following terms : 

122 Latham, Varieties of Man, p. 95. 

123 Voyages en diverses Provinces, T. 6. 



264 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 



" The face flat, and very broad between the zygomatic arches ; the forehead depressed, 
and the nasal openings ample: the occiput remarkably prominent, so that the distance 
between the external occipital protuberance and the superior incisors is equal to nine 
inches." 

The Samoiedes present us with a conformation of the cranium 
approximating more closely to the Eskimo than any of the tribes 
just mentioned. They are conterminous with the Tungus of North- 
Eastern Asia, on the one hand, and the great Tchudic or TJgrian 
tribes of European Russia, on the other. Pallas says of them, " ils 
ont le visage plat, rond, et large." .... "lis ont de larges levres 
retrousees, le nez large et ouvert, peu de barbe, et les cheveux noirs 
et rudes." Tooke ascribes to them " a large head, flat nose and face, 
with the lower part of the face projecting outwards ; they have large 
mouths and ears, little black eyes, but wide eyelids, small lips, and 
little feet." 124 "Of all the tribes of Siberia," says Latham, "the 
Samoiedes are nearest to the Eskimo or Greenlanders in their phy- 
sical appearance." 125 
Blumenbach tells us that a Samoiede cranium in his collection, 

bears a striking resemblance to the skulls 
of native Greenlanders, two of which are 
figured in the Decades. The resemblance 
is shown in the broad, flat face, depressed 
or flattened nose, and general shape or 
conformation of the skull. The nasal 
bones are long and narrow. This head is 
represented in Fig. 13, reduced from Tab. 
LIV. of Blumenbach's series. 

Of all the Northern or Arctic races of 
men, thus hastily passed in review, the 
Eskimo alone appear to exhibit the pyra- 
midal type of cranium in its greatest in- 
tensity. Viewed in conjunction with the 
following statements, this apparently isolated and accidental fact 
acquires a remarkable significance. — On the shores of Greenland and 
the banks of Hudson's Straits, along the Polar coast-line of America, 
and over the frozen tundras of Arctic Asia, on the desolate banks of 
the Lena and Indigirka, and among the deserted Isles of New Siberia 

— visited only at long intervals by the daring traders in fossil ivory 

— everywhere, in fact, throughout the Polar Arch, are found the 
same primitive graves and rude circles of stones, the same stone axes 
and fragments of whalebone rafters - 




Samoiede. 
(Decades, Tab. LIV.). 



•the ancient and mysterious 



124 Russia, III., p. 12, quoted in Crania Americana, p. 51. 

125 Varieties of Man, p. 267. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 265 

vestiges of a people presenting, in general, the same physical charac- 
ters, speaking dialects radically the same, and differing but little in 
manners and customs — a people once numerous, hut now gradually 
hastening on to extinction. Arctic navigators speak of the diminish- 
ing numbers of the Eskimo, and Siberian hunters tell of the disap- 
pearance of entire tribes, such as the Omoki, " whose hearths were 
once more numerous on the banks of the Lena than the stars of an 
Arctic night." The earlier whalers who dared the northern waters 
of Baffin's Bay, often allude to the great numbers of the natives 
seen on the land in this region, and from the recent intrepid seekers 
of the ill-fated Sir John Franklin, we learn that the traces of these 
people increase in numbers with the latitude. Thus, according to 
Osborn, the northern shores of Barrow's Strait and Lancaster Sound 
bear numerous marks of human location, whereas, upon the southern 
side, they are comparatively scarce. He tells us, also, that from the 
estuary of the Coppermine to the Great Fish River, the Eskimo 
traces are less numerous than on the north shore of Barrow's 
Strait. 126 Again, the traditions of the Eskimo point to the north 
as their original home. Erasmus York spoke of his mother as 
having dwelt in the north ; while the inhabitants of Boothia told 
Boss that their fathers fished in northern waters, and described to 
him, with considerable accuracy, the shores of North Somerset. 
When Sacheuse told the natives of Prince Regent's Bay, that he 
came from a distant region to the south, they answered "That can- 
not be ; there is nothing but ice there." 127 So, the natives of North 
Baffin's Bay were ignorant of the existence of numerous individuals 
of their own race, living to the south of Melville's Bay. According 
to Egede and Crantz, the southern Eskimo of Greenland consider 
themselves of northern origin. Their traditions speak of remote 
regions to the north, and of beacons and landmarks set up as guides 
upon the frozen hills of that dreary laud. In connection with these 
facts, consider for a moment the unfavorable physical conditions to 
which the Eskimo is exposed. Guyot thus forcibly alludes to these 
conditions : 

"In the Frozen Regions," says he, "man contends with a niggardly and severe nature; 
it is a desperate struggle for life and death. With difficulty, by force of toil, he succeeds 
in providing a miserable support, which saves him from dying of hunger and hardship, 
during the tedious winters of that climate." And again, "The man of the Polar Regions 
is the beggar, overwhelmed with suffering, who, too happy if he but gain his daily bread, 
has no leisure to think of anything more exalted." 128 

126 Arctic Journal; or, Eighteen Months in the Polar Regions. By Lieut. S. Osborn. 

127 Ross's First Voyage to Baffin's Bay, p. 84. 

i 2 * Earth and Man. By Arnold Guyot, Boston, 1850, p. 270. 



266 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

In this melancholy picture, nature is seen warring with herself. 
A people forced to protect themselves against the severity of an ex- 
cessive climate by the consumption of a highly carbonaceous and 
stimulant diet, which, sooner or later, begets plethora and its attend- 
ant hemorrhagic tendencies, can scarcely be regarded as a normal 
people, harmoniously adapted to the circumstances by which they 
are surrounded. Yet such is the condition of hyperborean man. 
But here a singular question presents itself. Have the Arctic tribes 
of men always been subjected to the inhospitable climate which, 
at the present day, characterizes the North ? Was there, in other 
words, a time when they enjoyed a climate as mild as that which 
surrounds their cranial analogues — the Hottentots — who roam the 
plains of Kafirland in temperate Southern Africa ? To the recent 
speculations of climatologists, concerning the distribution of tempe- 
rature about the pole, and the probable existence of an open Polar 
Sea ; to the observations of the physical geographer relative to the 
gradual and progressive upheaval of the Arctic coast, and the cli- 
matic changes which necessarily accompanied such alterations in the 
relation of land and water ; and, finally, to the facts and theories 
adduced by the geologist to account for the presence, in very high 
latitudes, of fossil remains, both animal and vegetable — whose living 
representatives thrive in tropical climates only, — must we look for a 
solution of the above curious question, which I introduce here merely 
as one of a connected series of facts and arguments which seem to 
indicate that the Eskimo are an exceedingly ancient people, whose 
dawn was probably ushered in by a temperate climate, but whose 
dissolution now approaches, amidst eternal ice and snow ; that the 
early migrations of these people have been from the north south- 
wards, from the islands of the Polar Sea to the continent and not 
from the mainland to the islands; and that the present geographical 
area of the Eskimo may be regarded as a primary centre of human 
distribution for the entire Polar Zone. 

To this subject I hope to return, in a more detailed manner, here- 
after. 

"We are now in Europe, upon the terra damnata, so graphically 
described by Linnseus, where the Laplander offers himself for our 
inspection, as the only European who in any way, represents the 
Arctic type of cranium. 

The exact position of the Lapps in classification, is still an open 
question. Prof. Agassiz classifies them with the Eskimos and 
Samoiedes. 

"Within the limits," says he, "of this (Arctic) fauna we meet a peculiar race of men, 
known in America under the name of Eskirnaux, and under the names of Laplanders, 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 267 

Samoiedes, and Tchuktshes in the north of Asia. This race, so well known since the 
voyage of Captain Cook, and the Arctic expeditions of England and Russia, differs alike 
from the Indians of North America, from the Whites of Europe, and the Mongols of Asia, 
to whom they are adjacent. The uniformity of their characters along the whole range 
of the Arctic seas forms one of the most striking resemblances which these people exhibit 
to the fauna with which they are so closely connected." 129 

Prichard, relying upon philological evidence — a very unsafe 
guide when taken alone — maintains that the Lapps are Finns 
who have acquired Mongolian features from a long residence in 
Northern Europe. 

"On considere souvent les Lapons," observes D'Hallot, "comme appartenant h la 
famille finnoise, a. cause des rapports que l'on a observes entre leur langue et celle des 
Finnois ; mais les caracteres naturels de ces deux races sont si differents, qu'il me semble 
indispensable de les se'parer. D'un autre cot*;, tous les linguistes ne sont pas d'accord sur 
l'analogie de ces langues, et il est probable que les ressemblances se r^duisent a l'intro- 
duction, dans le langage des Lapons, d'un certain nombre de mots finnois; effet qui a 
ordinairement lieu quand un peuple sauvage se trouve en relation avec un peuple plus 
avanceV' 130 

Latham arranges them, along with Finns, Magyars, Tungus, &c, 
under the head of Turanian Mongolidse. 131 Dr. Morton ohjects to 
this association of Lapps and Finns, and very appropriately inquires 
" how it happens that the people of Iceland, who are of the unmixed 
Teutonic race, have for six hundred years inhabited their polar 
region, as far north, indeed, as Lapland itself, without approxi- 
mating in the smallest degree to the Mongolian type, or losing an 
iota of their primitive Caucasian features?" 132 Indeed, the fact that 
the Lapps, at a remote period, lived in Sweden, and even as far 
south as Denmark, 133 in close juxtaposition with the Finns, is suffi- 
cient to account for any resemblances in physical characters, which 
may be detected between the two. According to Mr. Brooks, the 
Laplanders and Finns "have scarcely a single trait in common. 
The general physiognomy of the one is totally unlike that of the 
other ; and no one who has ever seen the two, could mistake a Fin- 
lander for a Laplander." 134 He proceeds to state that they differ in 
mental and moral characters ; in the diseases to which they are 

129 Sketch of the Natural Provinces of the Animal World, and their relation to the dif- 
ferent Types of Man, in Types of Mankind, p. Ixi. 

130 Des Races Humaines, &c, p. Ill, note. m Op. cit., p. 101. 

132 On the Origin of the Human Species, Types of Mankind, p. 322. 

133 ii ii s (i es Lapons) forment une petite peuplade Sparse dans la Laponie, mais il parait 
qu'ils ont 6t6 beaucoup plus developpfe, car on trouve dans la Suede et dans le Danemark 
des ossements d'hommes qui se rapprochent plus des Lapons que des Scandinavcs." 
D'Hallot, op. cit., p. 111. 

134 x Winter in Lapland and Sweden. By Arthur de Capell Brooks, M. A., &c. Lon- 
don, 1827, pp. 536-7. 



268 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

subject, and, according to Prof. Retzius, even the intestinal para- 
sitic worms of the two are unlike. 135 Hamilton Smith remarks that 
the " Finnic race repudiates in national pride all consanguinity with 
the Laplander." 136 Dr. Morton considers the Lapps as unquestion- 
ably Mongolian. Luke Burke, the able editor of the London Ethno- 
logical Journal, appears to adopt another view : 

" The Eskimaux, the Lapp, and the Samoide, are three entirely distinct beings. They 

represent each other . They consequently offer a host of resemblances ; but resemblances 

and affinity are often entirely distinct matters in zoology, though they are constantly con- 
founded, even in cases of the utmost importance The Lapp is entirely European, 

possessing a quite distinct constitution from the Eskimaux and the Samoide, and being 
very much higher than either in the human scale, though still by far the lowest portion of 
the European family. The Samoide is in all respects a Mongolidse. Indeed, he has the 
leading traits of the family even in excess." Is ' 

A critical examination of three Laplander crania, and two casts, 
contained in the collection of Dr. Morton, and a comparison of these 
with a Kalmuck head and a number of Finnic skulls, convince me 
that the Laplander cranium should be regarded as a sub-typical 
form, occupying the transitionary place between the pyramidal 
type of the true Hyperboreans on the one hand, and the globular- 
headed and square-faced Mongol on the other. Just as upon the 
shores of Eastern Asia, we behold the Arctic form passing through 
the Kamtsckatkan and the Southern Tungusian into the Central 
Asiatic type, so in the western part of the great Asio-European 
continent, we behold a similar transition through the Lapponic into 
the Tchudic and Scandinavian types — the most northern of the 
European. 

It is strictly true that the skulls of the Eskimo, Laplander, and 

135 The following curious paragraph, relating to entozoal ethnology, I find in Prof. Owen's 
admirable Lectures on the Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Invertebrate Animals 
(2d edition, p. 67) : " The Taenia Solium is that which is most likely to fall under the notice 
of the British medical practitioner. It is the common species of tapeworm developed in the 
intestines of the natives of Great Britain ; and it is almost equally peculiar to the Dutch 
and Germans. The Swiss and Russians are as exclusively infested by the Bolhrioeephalus 
latus. In the city of Dantzig it has been remarked, that only the Taenia Solium occurs ; 
while at Kb'nigsberg, which borders upon Russia, the Bolhrioeephalus latus prevails. The 
inhabitants of the French provinces adjoining Switzerland are occasionally infested with 
both kinds of tapeworm. The natives of North Abyssinia are very subject to the Taenia 
Solium, as are also the Hottentots of South Africa. Such facts as to the prevalent species 
of tapeworm in different parts of the world, if duly collected by medical travellers, would 
form a body of evidence, not only of elminthological, but of ethnological interest. In the 
Bolhrioeephalus latus of some parts of Central Europe and of Switzerland we may perceive 
an indication of the course of those North-Eastern hordes which contributed to the sub- 
version of the Roman Empire ; and the Taenia Solium affords perhaps analogous evidence 
of the stream of population from the sources of the Nile southward to the Cape." 

13S Op. cit., p. 321. 

1S ' Charleston Medical Journal and Review, July 1856; pp. 446-7. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



269 



Samoiede are not identical, in the fullest sense of the word. Neither 
are the localities of these people. The various portions of the so-called 
Arctic realm, of Agassiz, do not accord precisely in geographical and 
climatic conditions. Arctic America and Asia more closely resemble 
each other than they do Arctic Europe. The same thing is true, of the 
skulls, and of the organism generally, of their human inhabitants. A 
deeply indented sea-border ; direct and positive relations to the Gulf 
Stream which divides upon the Norwegian coast into two great cur- 
rents, bathes and tempers the whole north-western shore, and supplies 
an immense body of warm, humid air, which serves to ameliorate the 
otherwise extremely harsh and rugged climate ; a range of lofty moun- 
tains running parallel with the western coast, and acting as great con- 
densers of atmospheric vapor ; — such are the physical peculiarities 
which give to Lapland-Europe an organic physiognomy somewhat 
different from other sections of the Arctic realm. In this region the 
tree-limit obtains its highest northern position in lat. 70°-71° N., and 
if we trace this line eastward, on a physical chart, we will find that, 
under the influence of a continental climate, it recedes towards the 
Equator, until in Kamtsehatka it reaches the ocean in 58° N. latitude. 
So that while in a considerable portion of Lapland we find a wooded 
region, in Asia it will be observed that a large part of the country of 
the Samoiedes and Tungus, and the whole of that of the Koriaks, 
Yukagirs and Tchuktchi, lie to the north of the wooded zone. Upon 
the American continent, which is colder under the same parallels 
than the Asiatic — in consequence of the presence of a greater quan- 
tity of land in these high latitudes — the Eskimo live entirely in a 
treeless region. The distribution of the bread-plants in Northern 
America, Europe, and Asia, reveals to us similar irregularities. We 
need not be surprised, therefore, if, in harmony with these varying 
physical and organic conditions, we should 
find the Lapland cranium differing more 
from those of the Eskimo and Samoiede 
than these two do from each other. 

The skull here figured is reduced from 
Tab. XLIII. of the Decades. Blumen- 
bach describes it as "large in proportion 
to the stature of the body ; the form and 
appearance altogether such as prevail in 
the Mongolian variety ; the calvaria almost 
globose ; the zygomatic bones projecting 
outwards; the malar fossa, plane ; the fore- 
head broad; the chin slightly prominent Laplander. 



Fig. 14. 




270 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

and acuminated ; the palatine arch level ; the fissure in the floor of 
the orbit very large." 

Turning our backs upon the Frozen Ocean, and tracing to their 
sources the three great rivers — the Obi, Yennisei, and Lena — which 
drain the slopes of Northern Asia, we gradually exchange the region 
of tundras and barren plains, for elevated steppes or table-lands, the 
region of the reindeer and dog for that of the horse and sheep, the 
region whose history is an utter blank for one which has witnessed 
such extensive commotions and displacements of the great nomadic 
races, who, probably, in unrecorded times, dwelt upon the central 
plateaux of Asia, before these had lost their insular character. Tra- 
velling thus southward, we further remark that a globular conforma- 
tion of the human skull replaces the long, narrow, pyramidal type of 
the North. 

In our attempt to exhibit a general view of the cranial forms or 
types of Central Asia, I deem it best to direct attention to the region 
of country which gives origin to the Yennisei, about Lake Baikal, 
and in the Greater Altai chain, south of the TJriangchai or Southern 
Samoiedes. For we here encounter, in the Kalkas and Mongolians 
proper of the desert of Shamo, a type of head which is distinct from 
that of the Hyperboreans, and to which the other great nomadic races 
are related, in a greater or less degree. I have selected, as the most 
fitting representative of this Asiatic type or form, the cranium of a 
Kalmuck (No. 1553 of the Mortonian Collection), sent to the Aca- 
demy by Mr. Cramer, of St. Petersburg, shortly after the decease of 
Dr. Morton. This skull is chosen as a standard for reference, on 
account of the " extent to which the Mongolian physiognomy is the 
type and sample of one of the most remarkable divisions of the 
human race." 138 Moreover, the Mongols possess the physical cha- 
racters of their race in the most eminent degree, 139 they are the most 
decidedly nomadic, and their history, under the guidance of Tchengiz- 
Khan and his immediate successors, constitutes a highly-important 
chapter in the history of the world ; and, finally, because they occupy 
the centre of a well-characterized and peculiar floral and faunal re- 
gion, extending from Japan on the east to the Caspian on the west. 

In the accompanying figure, the reader will observe that the cra- 
nium is nearly globular, while the forehead is broad, flat, and less 
receding than in the Eskimo and Kamtskatkan. Without being 

138 Latham, Varieties of Man, p. 63. 

139 " It is easy," says Pallas, " to distinguish, by the traits of physiognomy, the principal 
Asiatic nations, who rarely contract marriage except among their own people. There is 
none in which this distinction is so characterized as among the Mongols." See Prichard's 
Nat. Hist, of Man, p. 215. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



271 




ridged or keel-like, the medium line K S- 15 - 

of the cranium forms a regular arch, 
the most prominent point of which 
is at the junction of the coronal and 
sagittal sutures. Behind and above 
the meatus, the head swells out into 
a globe or sphere, instead of tapering 
away postero-laterally towards the 
median line, as in the Eskimo cra- 
nia. This appearance is also well 
seen in the head figured by Blumen- 
bach. 140 He says of it, "habitus to- 
tius cranii quasi iiiflatus et tumidus." 

The eye at once detects the striking difference between the facial 
angle of this cranium and that of the Eskimo above figured. In the 
latter, the facial bones resemble a huge wedge lying in front of the 
head proper. This appearance, it is true, is somewhat dependent 
upon the obtuseness of the angle of the lower jaw, but mainly, as 
will be seen, upon the prominent chin and prognathous jaw. In the 
Kalmuck, the facial bones form a sort of oblong figure, and are by 
no means so prominent. The face is broad, flat, and square; the 
superciliary ridges are massive and prominent ; the orbits are large, 
and directed somewhat outwards ; the ossa nasi are broad and rather 
flat, forming an obtuse angle with each other ; the malar bones are 
large, strong, protuberant, and roughly marked. 

The impropriety of classifying the Eskimo, Samoiedes, &c, along 
with the Mongols — an error which pervades many of the books — 
is clearly manifested, I think, by the above figure and description. 
IT we apply the term Mongolian to the Eskimo, then we must seek 
some other epithet for the Kalmuck. The heads of the two races 
contrast strongly. The one is long and narrow, the face very broad, 
flat, and lozenge-shaped, and decidedly prognathous ; the other is 
globular, swelling out posteriorly, while the face is broad, fiat, and 
square. On the other hand, Prichard has very properly observed, 
that " the Mongolian race decidedly belongs to a variety of the human 
species, which is distinguished from Europeans by the shape of the 
skull." 141 

Morton's collection contains, also, a cast of the skull of a Burat 
Mongol, 142 in which the above characters are readily distinguished. 

»o Table XIV. of the Decades. ™ Nat. Hist, of Man, p. 214. 

112 The Bouriats, dwelling about Lake Baikal, manifest more aptitude for civilization than 
either the Kalmucks or the Mongols proper. Tchihatcheff informs us that the Russian 
Government employs, in frontier service, several regiments of these people, "who have been 



272 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

These characters agree perfectly with, those represented in Tab. 
XXIX. of the Decades, and in Fischer's Osteological Dissertation. 10 
The descriptions, given by travellers, of the Mongolic physiognomy, 
correspond very well with the foregoing observations upon the 
cranium. 

" The Mongols and Bouriats have so great a resemblance to them" (the Kalmucks), says 
Pallas, " both in their physiognomy, and in their manners and moral economy, that what- 
ever is related of one of these nations will apply as well to the others The charac- 
teristic traits in all the countenances of the Kalmucks, are eyes, of which the great angle, 
placed obliquely and downwards towards the nose, is but little open and fleshy ; eyebrows 
black, scanty, and forming a low arch ; a particular conformation of the nose, which is 
generally short, and flattened towards the forehead ; the bones of the cheek high ; the head 
and face very round. They have also the transparent cornea of the eye very brown ; lips 
thick and fleshy ; the chin short ; the teeth very white : they preserve them fine and sound 
until old age. They have all enormous ears, rather detached from the head." 144 

Between the Caspian Sea on the west, and the Great Altai Moun- 
tains on the east, and between the parallel of Tobolsk on the north, 
and the head-waters of the Oxus on the south, lies a country, whose 
physical aspects are not more interesting to the geologist and the 
physical geographer, than are its human inhabitants to the ethno- 
grapher. In this region we are called upon to study an extensive 
steppe, intersected with lofty mountains, among which are the feeding 
springs of many large rivers. Over this steppe, and among these 
mountains, have wandered, from the remotest times, a distinct and 
peculiar type of people, who have played a most important part in 
the history of the world — a people who had established, centuries 
ago, a vast empire in the heart of Asia, having China for its eastern, 
and the Caspian Sea for its western border', and who, when pressed 
towards the south-west by their nomadic neighbors, the Mongols, 
in their turn fell, with devastating fury, upon Europe, and long held 
its eastern portions in subjection. I allude to the Turkish family, 
whose history would be replete with interest, even if it offered us but 
the single fact, that the Turks, like the Goths of Europe and the 
Barbarian Tribes of North America — races occupying, in their re- 
spective countries, about the same parallels of latitude — were selected 
at a former period, to break in upon the high, but at that time lethar- 
gic, civilization of a more southern clime. "In the Yakut country 
we find the most intense cold known in Asia ; in Pamer the greatest 
elevation above the sea-level ; in the south of Egypt, an inter-tropical 
degree of heat. Yet in all these countries we find the Turk." U5 

well organized and disciplined after the European system. See his Voyage dans V Altai 
orientate, p. 190. 

143 Dissertatio Osteologica de Modo quo Ossa se vicinis accommodant Partibus. Ludg. 
Bat. 1713, 4to., tab. 1. 

144 Quoted from Prichard, op. cit., p. 215. 145 Latham, op. cit., p. 77. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 273 

It is while studying the physical characters of this intei'esting 
people, that the cranioscopist, in view of the little attention which 
his favorite science has received, and the scanty materials, therefore, 
by which he is guided, is forced to exclaim, in the language of St. 
Augustine, "Mirantur homines altitudines montium, ingentes fluctus 
maris, altissimos lapsus numinum et oeeani ambitum et gyros siderum 
et relinquunt se ipsos, nee mirantur." 

Much discrepancy of opinion exists with regard to the origin, 
homogeneity, and characteristic physical conformation of the Turkish 
family. In consequence of the application of the term Tartar, their 
origin has been assigned to the tribes of Lake Bouyir, in East Mon- 
golia. Remusat, Klaporth, and Ritter regard them as descendants 
of the Hiong-lSTu, who, prior to the Christian Era, threatened to 
overrun and subjugate China with their mighty hordes. Pkichard 
is inclined to consider this opinion unquestionable. 146 D'Omalius 
D'Halloy classifies them along with the Finns and Magyars, as de- 
scendants or representatives of the ancient Scythse. 1 " Latham makes 
a remark which evinces a concurrence of opinion — " A large, perhaps 
a very large portion of the Scythse must have been Turk ; and if so, 
it is amongst the Turks that we must look for some of the wildest 
and fiercest of ancient conquerors." On a preceding page he ob- 
serves, "Practically, I consider that the Mongoliform physiognomy 
is the rule with the Turk, rather than the exception, and that the 
Turk of Turkey exhibits the exceptional character of his family."" 3 

Much of this difference of opinion appears to result from the nota- 
ble fact that, in traversing the Turkish area, we encounter different 
types of countenance and of physical conformation generally. In 
the absence of an adequate collection of crania representing the 
numerous tribes composing this family — which collection would be 
of the greatest utility in deciding this mooted point — we are forced 
to adopt, by way of explanation, one or other of the three following 
suppositions : — Either the typical Mongolian of Eastern Asia passes, 
by certain natural transitionary forms, — displayed by the tribes of 
Turkish Asia — into the European type ; or, the Turk once possessed 
a peculiar form, standing midway between that of the European and 
Mongol, the intervening sub-types or forms having resulted from a 
double amalgamation on the part of the Turk ; or, lastly, we must 
recognise in the Mongolian form a primitive type, which, by amal- 
gamation with the European, has begotten the Turk. The second 
of these propositions appears to me the most tenable. However, as 
Dr. Morton's collection contains no skulls of the Turkish tribes, I 

i« Nat. Hist, of Man, p. 209. "' Des Races Humaines, p. 83. 

1 48 Varieties of Man, pp. 78-9. 
18 



274 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 



Fig. 16. 




have not the necessary data to arrive at a positive conclusion as to 
the existence of a primary and peculiar cranial type among the 

Turks. Nevertheless, if the reader will 
carefully inspect the accompanying figure 
of a Turkish cranium in the Blunienba- 
chian collection, and compare it with our 
Kalmuck standard, I deem it highly pro- 
bable that he will with me recognize for 
the Turkish region a sub-typical form, 
which, though closely related to the Mon- 
golic, differs from it mainly in possessing 
a more oval face, and a more decidedly 
globular skull. Blumenbach thus de- 
Ttok. scribes the head in his possession: 

" The cranium is nearly globular ; the foramen magnum is placed almost at the posterior 
end of the basis cranii, so that there seems to be no occiput ; the forehead broad ; the 
glabella prominent; the malar fossa? gently depressed, and the proportions of the face, 
upon the whole, symmetrical and elegant. The external occipital protuberance is but little 
developed ; the occipital condyles very large and convex ; the alveolar edge of the superior 
maxilla very short, so that just beneath the nose it scarcely equals in height the breadth 
of the little finger." 

Judging from the accounts of travellers, it would seem that among 
the most Eastern of the Turkish races, such as the Kirghis of Bal- 
kash and the irreclaimable nomades of the dreary plains of Turkistan, 
the Mongolic physiognomy more especially predominates. This, it 
will be recollected, is the region in which the Mongols proper and 
the Turks meet and overlap. The skull of a Kirghis, figured by 
Blumenbach (Tab. XLTI.) furnishes a good exemplification of the 
cranial form of this region. In a Don Cossack (Tab. IY.) the Mon- 
golian tendency is equally manifest. The Yakuts of the Lena, before 
described, and the Nbjai Tartars (judging from a figure in Hamilton 
Smith's work), also belong to this type. 149 South of the Kirghis are 
the Uzbecks, who, according to Lieut. Wood, resemble the former, 
but are better proportioned. The reader will obtain some general 
idea of the points of resemblance and difference between the Uzbecks 
and their Eastern conquerors/ by referring to the portrait of Sjah 
Mierza, an Uzbeck Tartar, in the "Ethnographic Tableau" illus- 
trating Mr. Gliddon's Chapter VI. 

Through the skulls of the Osmanli Turks and the Tartars of the 
Kasan — especially the latter — the Turkish head proper graduates 



«= Op. cit., plate 9, fig. 2. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



275 



into the European form 
anciently civilized of the race. The 
high European forms so often seen 
among the Osmanlis are no longer pro- 
blematic. A knowledge of the hete- 
rogeneous additions accepted' by their 
Seldjukian ancestors, and already re- 
ferred to in sufficient detail, has served 
not a little to dissipate the mystery 
attached to this subject. Of the genea- 
logical impurity of the Turks I think 
there can be but little doubt. Their 
indiscriminate amalgamations are thus 
briefly hinted at by D'Halloy : 



Both these tribes are among the most 



Fig. 17. 




Tartar. 



"Tl parait," says he, "d'apres les portraits d'anciens peuples turos, que Ton a trouve's 
dans les historiens chinois, que ces peuples avaient originairement des cheveux roussatres, 
et que leurs yeux 6taient d'un gris verdatre ; mais ces caracteres se sont perdus, et main- 
tenant on remarque que les Turcs qui habitent au nord-est du Caucase, participent plus ou 
moins des caracteres des Mongols, et que ceux e^ablis au sud-ouest pr£sentent les formes 
de la race blanche d'une maniere trfe-prononce'e, mais avec des cheveux et des yeux noire ; 
circonstances qui s'expliquent par le melange avec les Mongols pour les premiers, et par 
celui avec les Perses et les Aranie'ens pour les seconds, d'autant plus que les Turcs, qui 
sont ge'ne'ralement polygames, ont beaucoup de gout pour les femmes (itrangeres." 15 ° 

Quite recently, Major Alexander Cunningham, of the Bengal 
Engineers, has given us an excellent account of the physical charac- 
ters of the Bhotiyahs, an interesting race occupying a considerable 
portion of Thibet and the Himalayan range of mountains. 

"The face of the Boti," says he, "is broad, flat, and square, with high cheek-bones, 
large mouth, and narrow forehead. The nose is broad and flat, and generally much turned 
up, with wide nostrils, and with little or no bridge. The eyes are small and narrrow, and 
the upper eyelids usually have a peculiar and angular form that is especially ugly. The 
eyes are nearly always black; but brown, and even blue eyes, are seen occasionally. The 
inner corners are drawn downwards by the tension of the skin over the large cheek-bones ; 
the eyelids are therefore not in one straight line, parallel to the mouth, as is the case with 
Europeans, but their lines meet in a highly obtuse angle pointing downwards. This gives 
an appearance of obliquity to the eyes themselves that is very disagreeable. The ears are 
prominent, very large, and very thick; they have also particularly long lobes, and are 
altogether about one-half larger than those of Europeans. The mouth is large, with full 
and somewhat prominent lips. The hair is black, coarse, and thick, and usually straight 
and crisp. Bushy heads of hair are sometimes seen, but I believe that the frizzly appear- 
ance is not due even in part to any natural tendency to curl, but solely to the tangled and 
thickly agglomerated matting of the hair consequent upon its never having been combed or 
washed from first to second childhood." 151 

iM Op. cit., pp. 89, 90. 

161 Ladak, Physical, Statistical, and Historical, with Notices of the Surrounding Countries, 
London, 1854, p. 296. 



276 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

A Penjur of Lhassa is thus described by Hodgson : 

" Face moderately large, sub-ovoid, widest between angles of jaws, less between 

cheek-bones, which are prominent, bnt not very. Forehead rather low, and narrowing some- 
what upwards ; narrowed also transversely, and much less wide than the back of the head. 
Frontal sinus large, and brows heavy. Hair of eye-brows and lashes sufficient ; former not 
arched, but obliquely descendent towards the base of nose. Eyes of good size and shape, 
but the inner angle decidedly dipt, or inclined downwards, though the outer is not curved 
up. Iris a fine, deep, clear, chestnut-brown. Eyes wide apart, but well and distinctly 
separated by the basal ridge of nose, not well opened, cavity being filled with flesh. Nose 
sufficiently long, and well raised, even at base, straight, thick, and fleshy towards the end, 
with large wide nares, nearly round. Zygomte large and sabent, but moderately so. Angles 
of the jaws prominent, more so than zygomte, and face widest below the ears. Mouth 
moderate, well-formed, with well-made, closed lips, hiding the fine, regular, and no way 
prominent teeth. Upper lip long. Chin rather small, round, well formed, not retiring. 
Vertical line of the face very good, not at all bulging at the mouth, nor retiring below, and 
not much above, but more so there towards the roots of the hair. Jaws large. Ears mode- 
rate, well made, and not starting from the head. Head well formed and round, but longer 
H parte post than a parte ante, or in the frontal region; which is somewhat contracted cross- 
wise, and somewhat narrowed pyramidally upwards Mongolian cast of features 

decided, but not extremely so ; and expression intelligent and amiable." 152 

Klaporth has shown that a general resemblance prevails between 
the languages of the Turk, Mongolian, and Tungusian. The fore- 
going remarks upon the cranial characters of these people, are, to 
some extent, confirmatory of the slight affinity here supposed to be 
indicated. The Turk and Mongol, however, appear to me to be 
more related to each other than to the Tungusian, whose cranial 
conformation must rather be regarded as transitionary from the 
pyramidal type. Indeed, the Tungusian tribes seem to connect the 
Chinese with the frozen Worth ; for, in a modified degree, the same 
differences which separate the true Hyperborean from the typical 
Mongol, also separate the Chinese from the latter. In other words, 
the Chinese nation, in the form of their heads, resembles the great 
Inuit family more than the Mongolian. This opinion is based upon 
the critical examination of eleven Chinese skulls, obtained from 
various sources, and now comprised in the Mortonian collection. 

If we compare together the lateral or profile view of the Eskimo 
(Fig. 10) with that of a Chinese (ISTo. 94 in Morton's'collection — the 
head of " one of seventeen pirates who attacked and took the French 
ship 'Le aSTavigateur,' in the China Sea"), it will be seen that they 
both present the same long, narrow form, appearing as if laterally 
compressed. In both the temporal ridge mounts up towards the 
vertex, and in both a large surface is presented for the attachment 
of the temporal muscle. In both the forehead is recedent, and the 
occiput prominent. But, while in the Eskimo (and this is a charac- 

162 Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. xvii., part 2, p. 222. See also Prichard's 
Nat. Hist, of Man, edited by Edwin Norms, vol. I. p. 219. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



277 




Chinese (No. 94). 



teristic feature) the greater portion Fl §- 18 - 

of the malar surface looks ante- 
riorly, thus giving the dispropor- 
tionate sub-orbital breadth to the 
face ; in the Chinese, on the con- 
trary, I find that the greater por- 
tion of this surface looks laterally, 
the zygomatic arches not being 
separated so widely. Hence, the 
greatest transverse diameter of 
the base of the Chinese cranium 
does not fall in the anterior re- 
gion between the zygomse, as we 
have seen to be the case in the 
Eskimo cranium. It should be observed, moreover, that the jaw is 
more rounded and less massive in the latter than in the former. In 
the Chinese, the chin is more acuminated ; but it is a curious fact 
that in both we have the same prognathous character of the upper 
jaw. "When we compare the two facially, we become aware that 
they differ, not only in breadth of face, but also in that particular 
element which helps to give to the face of the Eskimo its diamond 
or lozenge shape. In this latter, the forehead is flat, narrow, and 
triangular ; in the Chinese, a broader, less flat, and square forehead 
changes the character of the face, as is shown in all the specimens 
which I have examined, especially in ISTos. 426 and 427 of Morton's 
collection. Other features equally interesting I might point out, but 
my space does not permit, and, moreover, I hope to be able to return 
to this inquiiy in a future publication. On page 45 of the Crania 
Americana, I find the following description, from the pen of Dr. 
Morton : 



" The Chinese skull, so far as I can judge from the specimens that have come under my 
inspection, is oblong-oval in its general form ; the os frontis is narrow in proportion to the 
width of the face, and the vertex is prominent: the occiput is moderately flattened; 153 the 
face projects more than in the Caucasian, giving an angle of about seventy-five degrees; 
the teeth are nearly vertical, in which respect they differ essentially from those of the 
Malay ; and the orbits are of moderate dimensions and rounded." 

Blanchard thus alludes to the Chinese cranium : 

" Dans les cranes de Chinois, 154 la face vue par devant est allonge's ; elle n'a plus ces 
cotes paralleles que nous avons signaled dans les races oceaniques, elle s'amincit graduelle- 
ment vers le bas. Le coronal est large ; mesurf dans sa plus grande e'tendue, la largeur 
equivaut a peu pres a la hauteur, prise de I'origine des os nasaux a sa jonction avec les 



153 This feature I cannot detect in any of the above-mentioned eleven skulls. 

154 PI. 43 of Dumoutier'a Atlas. 



278 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

parietaux sur la ligne mediane. Observe par devant, on voit clairement, que sans affeeter 
la forme vraiment pyramidale propre aux Polynesiens et un peu aux Malayo-Polynesieus, il 
se retrecit graduellement vers le sommet. Vu de profil, le front se montre en general assez 
rejete en arriere. Le maxillaire superieur est assez etroit et assez allonge ; le maxillaire 
inferieur est egalement etroit, comparativenient an developpement de la portion superieure 
de la tete. Les os maxillaires sont assez proeminents comme on peut s'en rendre compte 
aisdment en considerant une tete de Chinois par le profil. La region occipitale s'etend peu 
en arriere. Ces caracteres se voient nettement dans les tetes representees par M. Dumou- 
tier, et nous les avons retrouvds dans plusieurs sujets qui existent dans la collection anthro- 
pologique du Museum d'histoire naturelle de Paris. 

"Si nous comparons ces tetes de Chinois avec celles des habitants des Philippines, 155 
les differences sont bien palpables, et pourtant il y a une grande analogie dans la forme 
gendrale, dans le contour coronal observe par devant. La face, chez les Chinois, est beau- 
coup plus allongee ; le front, vu de profil, est moins oblique, ce qui donne necessairement 
plus d'ampleur a, la partie autero-superieure de la tete ; les os niaxillaires sont aussi sensi- 
blement moins avancds : de la un angle facial un peu plus onvert. Enfin, dans tous les 
cas, la partie posterieure de la tete est un peu moins allongee. 

" De ces faits il resulte que la tete des Chinois, tres-analogue sons bien des rapports a, 
celle des Malais, en differe d'une facon notable et se rapproche d'autant du type europeen. 
Mais lorsq'on vient a. mettre en presence les cranes de Chinois et d'Europeens, c'est une 
difference bien autrement importante qui se manifeste devant des yeux exerces a, ce genre 
d'etude. Un naturaliste de la Hollande, M. Vander Hqsven, a deja indique plusieurs 
differences dans les proportions du crane. 156 Chez le Chinois, la face est plus longue que 
chez 1'Europeen, 15 ' Tangle facial est bien moins ouvert, le coronal deprime, sauf une ligne 
courbe presqne reguliere de la base au sommet, tandis que dans la tete de TEuropeen, le 
front est presqne droit et forme presque un coude au sommet, pour aller rejoindre les 
parietaux ; tout cela, sans doute, avec des nuances bien prononcees, mais ce qui n'en est 
pas moins encore tres-marque, quand on compare des tetes d'hommes de races aussi 
differentes. 

" En mettant en presence des tetes de Chinois et d'hommes de race semitique, il y a un 
peu plus de rapport, plus de rapport surtout dans la longueur de la face. Chez les Juifs, 
les Arabes, etc., cependant, si le frontal est plus rejete en arriere que chez les Europeens, 
quand on le considere par devant, on voit qu'il reste large au sommet, au lieu de se retreeir 
comme chez les Chinois. Dans les tetes de Chinois, les os nasaux sont moins saillants, les 
os maxillaires sont plus proeiuinents, la partie posterieure de la tete est moins oblongue. 

" Enfin les Chinois, d'apres tous les caracteres anthropologiques que nous pouvons 
observer, se montrent dans le genre humain comme un type bien earacterise et comme un 
type inferieur aux races europeennes et semitiques, ainsi que cela resulte d'un angle facial 
moins ouvert, d'une ampleur moins grande de la portion antero-superieure de la tete, et 
d'une saillie plus considerables des os maxillaires. Or comme il n'est pas douteux que 
l'ampleur de la partie antero-superieure de la tete ne soit un indice de superiorite, et le 
developpement des os maxillaires un indice d'inferiorite, l'anthropologiste doit classer la 
race chinoise comme inferieure aux races de l'Europe et de l'Orient. L'etude de l'histoire, 
des mceurs, des resultats intellectuels de ces peuples conduit absolument a la memo 
classification." 15s 

The Japanese are generally considered as belonging to the same 
type as the Chinese. The collection contains but one Japanese 
skull, presented by Dr. A. M. Lynch, TJ. S.E". The appearance of 

i 55 PI. 40 of Dumoutier's Atlas. 

166 Annales des Sciences naturelles, 2" sdrie. 

m Dumoutier's Atlas, pi. 25, bis. 158 Op. cit., pp. 228-34. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN". 



279 




this cranium does not exactly Fig. 19. 

comport with the above state- 
ment. Knowing nothing of its 
history, and having no other for 
comparison, I simply annex a 
representation of it without fur- 
ther comment. 159 

These observations, in the ag- 
gregate, conflict with the opinion 
of Pmchard, — an opinion sus- 
tained by many others — that "the 
Chinese, and the Koreans, and the 

Japanese belong to the same type of the human species as the 
nations of High Asia." He explains away the evident differences 
by a certain softening and mitigation of the Mongolian traits. 
Latham also calls the Chinese a "Mongol softened down." Such 
expressions are unfortunate; they lead to misconceptions which 
often seriously retard the progress of science, particularly its dif- 
fusion among the masses. 160 

The Indo-Chinese nations, including the Mantchurian Tungus, or 
those south of the Alden, should be regarded as a distinct but closely 
allied type, a type bearing certain resemblances to the pyramidal 
form on the one hand, and the globular on the other, but positively 
separated from these two by certain slight but apparently constant 
differences. 

The Koreans, judging from the description of Siebold, exhibit the 
same type. 

"L' ensemble de leurs traits perte, en general, le caractere de la race Mongole; la largeur 
et la rudesse de la figure, la preeminence des pommettes, le de>eloppement des machoires, 



159 " Les Japonais," says D'Halloy, " ont en g^neVal les caracteres mongoliques moins 
prononce"es que les Chinois, ce que l'on attribue a un melange avec d'autres peuple, peut- 
etre des Kouriliens, qui auraient habits le pays avant eux." Op. cit., p. 124. 

160 Upon p. 235 of bis Nat. Hist, of Man, Prichard gives a profile view of a Chinese 
cranium, which, he says, "appears to differ but little from the European." Now if any 
one, at all familiar with European skull-forms, will take the trouble to inspect the figure in 
question, he will at once perceive how erroneous is the above statement. Every careful 
craniographer must object to such loose remarks. Again, upon the third and fourth plates 
of his work, he compares together the crania of a Congo negro, a Chetimache Indian of 
Louisiana, and a Chinese of Canton, and from the manifest resemblances between them, he 
ventures to assert that the characteristics of these widely-separated races cannot be relied 
upon as specific. In the Mortonian collection, so numerously represented in American and 
African skulls, and containing twelve Chinese crania, also, I cannot find a parallel instance 
of this similarity. I am forced to conclude, therefore, either that Dr. P. was mistaken as 
to the sources of these skulls, or that we should regard their similarity as one of those 
exceptional or aberrant examples, which occasionally arise to puzzle the cranioscopist in 
the present unsettled state of the science. 



280 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

la forme e'crase'e de la racine nasale et les ailes 61argies du uez, la grandeur de la bonche, 
l'fipaisseur des levres, l'apparente obliquity des yeux, la chevelure roide, abondante, d'un 
noir bruDatre ou tirant sur le roux, 1'epaisseur des sourcils, la raret*; de la barbe, et enfin 
un teint couleur de froment, rouge jaunatre, les font reconnaitre, au premier abord, pour 
des naturels du nord et de FAsie. Ce type se retrouve ehez la plupart des Cortiens que nous 
avons vus, et ils conviennent eux memes que c'est celui qui distingue le niieux leur nation." 

He proceeds to express his conviction of the co-existence of two 
distinct types in this region. 

Of the tribes of the Trans-Gangetic or Indo-Chinese Peninsula, 
the Mortonian collection contains but one representative — a Cochin- 
Chinese from Turon Bay (ISTo. 1527) — which appears to me artiUcially 
deformed. I am therefore unable, at present, to arrive at any deter- 
mination of their cranial type. Finlayson describes these tribes in 
the following manner : 

" The face is remarkably broad and flat ; the cheek-bones prominent, large, spreading, 
and gently rounded ; the glabellum is flat, and unusually large ; the eyes are, in general, 
small ; the aperture of the eyelids, moderately linear in the Indo-Chinese nations and the 
Malays, is acutely so in the Chinese, bending upwards at its outer end ; the lower jaw is 
long, and remarkably full under the zygoma, so as to give to the countenance a square 
appearance ; the nose is rather small than flat, the alse not being distended in any uncommon 
degree; in a great number of Malays, it is largest towards its point; the mouth is large, 
and the lips thick ; the beard is remarkably scanty, consisting only of a few straggling 
hairs ; the forehead, though broad in a lateral direetion,'is in general narrow, and the hairy 
scalp comes down very low. The head is peculiar; the antero-posterior diameter being 
uncommonly short, the general form is rather cylindrical ; the occipital foramen is often 
placed so far back that from the crown to the nape of the neck is nearly a straight line. 
The top of the head is often very flat. The hair is thick, coarse, and lank ; its color is 
always black." 161 

Dr. Rtjschenberger thus describes the Siamese : 

" The forehead is narrow at the superior part, the face between the cheek-bones broad, 
and the chin is again narrow, so that the whole contour is rather lozenge-shaped than oval. 
The eyes are remarkable for the upper lid being extended below the under one at the corner 
next to the nose ; but it is not elongated like that organ in the Chinese or Tartar races. 
The eyes are dark or black, and the white is dirty, or of a yellowish tint. The nostrils are 
broad, but the nose is not flattened, like that of the African. The mouth is not well formed, 
the lips projecting slightly ; and it is always disfigured, according to our notions of beauty, 
by the universal and disgusting habit of chewing areca-nut. The hair is jet black, renitent 
and coarse, almost bristly, and is worn in a tuft on the top of the head, about four inches 
in diameter, the rest being shaved or clipped very close. A few scattering hairs, which 
scarcely merit the name of beard, grow upon the chin and upper lip, and these they cus- 
tomarily pluck out. 

" The occipital portion of the head is nearly vertical, and, compared with the anterior 
and sincipital divisions, very small ; and I remarked, what I have not seen in any other 
than in some ancient Peruvian skulls from Pachacamac, that the lateral halves of the head 
are not symmetrical. In the region of firmness the skull is very prominent ; this is remark- 
ably true of the talapoins." 162 

161 Embassy to Siam and Hue, p. 230. 

162 \ Voyage Round the World ; including an Embassy to Muscat and Siam. By W. S. W 
Ruschenberger, M. D. Philada,, 1838, p 299. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 281 

Neal [Residence in the Kingdom of Siam) assures us that the Siamese 
differ in their physical characters from all the surrounding nations. 

According to Morton, among the inhabitants of Cochin-China, or 
Annam, "the general form of the face is round, so that the two 
diameters are nearly equal. The forehead is short and broad, but 
the occipital portion of the head is more elongated than in the 
people of Siam. The chin is large and broad ; the beard grisly and 
thin, the hair copious, coarse, and black; the nose small, but well-' 
formed, and the lips moderately thick." 

Blanchard alludes to the inhabitants of Malacca, and the forms 
of their crania, in the following terms : 

"La population de Malacca, du reste, comme celle des lies de la Sonde, n'est pas homo- 
gene ; il y en a vine partie qui priSsente mie civilisation analogue a celle des Malais ; il y en 
a une autre, form6e de tribus incultes, qui habite les forets de l'inte'rieur du pays. Lea 
tetes des naturels de Malacca representees dans l'atlas de M. Dumoutier ne sauraient etre 
rapproche'es indifferemment de toutes celles que nous avons decrites des habitants de la 
Malaisie. 

"Vues par devant, ce sont des faces courtes comme chez tous les peuples des races 
malaises. Mais ici il n'y a pas cette ampleur du coronal et des parigtaux que nous avons 
signaled chez le naturel d'Amboine, represent*; dans notre atlas, ni chez le Bughis de 
Ouadjou, ni chez les naturels des Philippines. 

" Chez nos individus de Malacca, Ton observe aussi un plus grand developpement des os 
maxillaires, et Ton retrouve ainsi cette forme a cotes paralleles que nous avons vu si I16- 
quemment dans les types pre'ce'demment dticrits. 

" M. Dumoutier a place les tetes de naturels de Malacca sur la meme planche que lo 
naturel d'Amnoubang de Tile de Timor; nous ne croyous pas qu'il faille venir chercher ici 
une ressemblance bien grande. Dans la tete du Timorien, le front est plus bas et plus large 
vers le haut, la partie posterieure de la tete est plus allong^e, les maxillaires sont plus 
avanc^s, etc. 

"Ces hommes de Malacca ressemblent, au confraire. d'une maniere frappante, au Bughis 
de 1'Etat de Sidenring dont il a 6t& question plus haut. 

"C'estla meme face, courte, avec le coronal £troit, pen €1e\6, rejete' en arriere, dSprime 
au-dessus des arcades sourcilieres; seulement chez le Bughis il y a une tendance un pcu 
plus marquee a la forme pyramidale. Les apophyses zygomatiques sont de meme extre- 
mement saillantes ; le maxillaire supijrieur est large et court, sans i'etre autant que chez 
le naturel de Celebes, et le maxillaire infe"rieur est aussi fort large. Enfin chez les uns et 
les autres la region posterieure n'est que peu dtendue en arriere. 

"En rfcuine\ il n'est pas douteux que le Bughis represents dans l'atlas de M. Dumoutier 
et les individus de Malacca appartiennent a la meme race. Le fait que nous constatons ici 
devient une grande preuve a l'appui de l'opinion tres-re"pandue parmi les ethnogrnphes que 
les Bughis sont les descendants d'individus originaires du continent. Ce qui jette toujoui-s 
dans un grand embarras, e'est la diversity des types observes sur la plupart des points de 
la Malaisie et dans les divers endroits du continent indien." 163 

The above descriptions evidently lead to the recognition of several 
varieties or sub-types of cranial form in the Indo-Chinese Peninsula, 
some of which are more or less related to the predominating type of 

163 Op. cit., pp. 220-2. 



282 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

Central Asia, while others approximate the Malayan, and through 
these the Polynesian forms. Indo-China may therefore be regarded 
as the transitionary or debatable ground between Asia and Polynesia. 

Concerning the skull-forms of the mysterious aboriginal tribes of 
this region, who here and there "crop out" above the prevailing 
type (the perplexing representatives of an earlier and perhaps primi- 
tive humanitarian epoch), I have nothing to say, being without the 
necessary material. Among these relics of a former time may be 
enumerated the savage Garo, or hill-tribes of South-west Assam, 
with their Negro characteristics ; the savage blacks of the Andam- 
man Isles ; and certain wild tribes dwelling to the north of Ava, and 
differing from the dominant population in language, religion, and 
physical characters. These, in common with the Bheels and Govand 
tribes of Guzerat, the Puharrees of Central, the Cohatars of Southern, 
and the Jauts of Western India, all seem to be the remnants of a 
once powerful and widely-spread people. 

Very few, if anj r , people are more varied in their physical charac- 
ters than the great Indostanic Family. Conquest and amalgamation 
have disguised and altered its primitive types in a remarkable degree. 
Only here and there, in the mountainous regions, do we catch a glimpse 
of these types. A portion of the aborigines appear to have been of a 
dark or quite black complexion. 

"In general, the face is oval, the nose straight or slightly aquiline, the mouth small, the 
teeth vertical and well-formed, and the chin rounded and generally dimpled. The eyes are 
black, bright, and expressive, the eyelashes long, and the brow thin and arched. The hair 
is long, black, and glossy, and the beard very thin. The head of the Hindoo is small in 
proportion to the body, elongated and narrow especially across the forehead, which is only 
moderately elevated." 16i 

The collection contains in all forty-three crania of the Indostanic 
Race. Among these skulls, at least two types can be distinguished. 
1st. The fair-skinned Ayras, a conquering race, speaking a Sanscrit 
dialect, and occupying Ayra-Varta, which extends from the Vindya 
to the Himalaya Mountains, and from the Bay of Bengal to the 
Indian Ocean, and comprises the Mahrattas, and other once powerful 
tribes, who have so boldly and obstinately resisted the English arms. 
These tribes are of Persian origin. They migrated to India, accord- 
ing to M. Guigniaut, as early as 3101 b. c. 2d. The Bengalee, 
represented by thirty-five skulls. Dr. Morton considers these small- 
statured, feeble-minded, and timid people as an aboriginal race upon 
whom a foreign language has been imposed. 

Of the eight Ayra skulls in the collection, six are of the Brahmin 

16i Crania Americana, p. 32. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



283 




caste, and two are Thuggs. Fig. 
20 — the skull of Sumboo-Sing, 
hanged at Calcutta for murder — 
very well represents this peculiar 
type. In the Anthropologic of 
Emile Blanchard, the reader will 
find an interesting comparison 
drawn between the Hindoo, Malay, 
and Micronesian forms of the cra- 
nium. 

I have already, in substance, ex- 
pressed the opinion that the cra- 
nium of the Lapp, in point of con- Hindu (1330). 
formation, must be regarded as 

constituting the connecting link between the types predominating 
in the Boreal Zone, and those encountered among the European or 
Indo-Germanic races. I have also ventured the opinion that, through 
the Osmanlis and the Khazan Tartars, the Mongolic form, character- 
izing the Asiatic realm, glided, by an easy transition, into the Euro- 
pean. But Asia graduates into Europe still more naturally, perhaps, 
through the races constituting the widely-spread Finnic or Tchudic 
family, which, at an epoch antedating the earliest records, occupied 
the country extending from Norway to the Yennisei, north of the 
55th degree of latitude in Asia, and the 60th in Europe. I have now 
to state that, through the Affghan skull, the Indostanic blends with 
the Semitic foirn. Thus, then, it appears that, in pursuing our cra- 
nial investigations, it is immaterial what route we take in passing 
from the Asiatic into the so-called European or Caucasian area. 
Whether we journey from Hindustan through Affghanistan, seeking 
the table-lands of Iran ; or, setting out from the heart of Mongolia, 
traverse the Turkish region, and so enter Asia Minor ; or, penetrate 
from the North-East into Scandinavia, through the intervening Lapps 
and Finns, we meet with the same result — a type which is, in general, 
as unlike that of the great region just surveyed, as are the animal 
and vegetable forms of these two countries. 

The home of the so-called European, Caucasian, or White race, 
comprehends Europe, Africa north of the Saharan Desert, and South- 
western Asia. This extensive region may, for convenience of study, 
be divided into four provinces, of which the first, extending from 
Finnmark southward into the heart of Europe, is occupied by the 
Teutonic, Gothic, or Scythic family ; the second comprises Western 
and Southern Europe, and is inhabited by the Celtic family; the 
third, located in Eastern Europe, contains the great Shlavic group ; 



284 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

while the fourth, or Africo-Asiatic, extends along the southern shore 
of the Mediterranean into Asia, as far east as Affghanistan, and is 
occupied by the expansive Semitic family. A closer and more criti- 
cal examination of these four divisions compels us to recognise for 
each a number of minor areas or limited districts, which, while they 
bear to each other a general family likeness, are also characterized 
by floral and faunal peculiarities, in harmony with certain cranial 
distinctions about to be noticed. 

When to the increasing number of naturally sub-typical forms are 
added the innumerable hybrid varieties resulting from the extensive 
migrations and endless intermixtures which, from remote times, have 
been going on in this region, it becomes evident that any attempt at 
a successful generalization of these forms must necessarily be at- 
tended with much difficulty. To grasp the idea of a European type 
is one thing; to select from a number of skulls one which shall 
embody the essentials of this idea, so as to serve for a standard, is 
quite another. 

In the consideration of European types, I commence with the 
Finns. 

Attempts have been made to associate the Ugrian family, in point 
of origin, with the nomadic races of Central Asia. But historically, 
no proof can be adduced that they ever dwelt as a body upon the 
plateaux of this latter region. They are not true nomades ; and, as 
far as I can learn, differ in physical characters from their neighbors. 
The only support to the opinion is a certain affinity of language. 
Anciently the Ugrian area extended from the Baltic into Trans- 
Uralian Siberia. The western extremity penetrated Europe, and 
was inhabited by the True Finns, whose relation to the Lapps I have 
al ready briefly alluded to. The eastern extremity mainly comprised 
the Ugrians or Jugorians. Between the two dwelt the Tchudas 
proper. Latham is disposed to bring the Samoiedes, Yenniseians, 
and Yukahiri into this area, thus carrying the Ugrians nearly to 
Bhering's Strait, and almost in contact with the Eskimo. 165 Ana- 
tomical characters not to be slighted, not to be explained away, are, 
however, against the attempt. 

Through the kindness of Prof. Retzius, of Stockholm, the Mor- 
tonian collection has been lately increased by the addition of nine 
specimens of the true Finnic stock. Of these heads, I find the largest 
internal capacity is 112-5, the smallest 81 - 5, and the mean, 95-3 cubic 
inches. From an examination of these skulls, the following brief 
description is derived : The regularly developed head has a square or 

165 The Native Races of the Russian Empire. By R. G. Latham, M. D., &c, being vol. II. 
of the Ethnographical Library, conducted by E. Norris, Esq. London, 1854, pp. 12, 13. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



285 



somewhat angularly round appear- 
ance. The antero-posterior dia- 
meter being comparatively short, 
it falls within the brachy-cephalic 
class of Retzius. The forehead is 
broad, though less expansive than 
in the true Germanic race. This 
frontal breadth, the lateral expan- 
sion of the parietalia, and the flat- 
ness of the os occipitis, give to the 
coronal region, when viewed per- 
pendicularly, a square, or rather 
slightly oblong appearance. The 



Fig. 21. 




Finn (1537). 



face is longer and less broad than in the Mongolian head, while the 
lower jaw is larger, and the chin more prominent. Hence, the lower 
part of the face is advanced, somewhat in the manner of the Scla- 
vonian face. The whole head is gather massive and rude in struc- 
ture, the bony prominences being strongly characterized, and the 
sutures well defined. The general configuration of the head is 
European, bearing certain resemblances, however, to the Mongolian 
on the one hand, and the Sclavonian on the other. 

I have already alluded to the great diversity of opinion relative 
to the affiliations of the Finns, and the position to which they should 
be assigned in ethnic classification. Malte-Brun distinguishes them 
from both the Sclavonians and Germans, but associates them with 
the Lapps. 166 Pinkerton coincides in this view, but is inclined 
to consider the Lapps a peculiar variety. 167 Burdach classes the 
Finns with the Sclaves and Lapps. 168 Bort de St. Vincent con- 
siders the Lapps, Samoiedes, and Tchuktchi as Hyperboreans, and 
recognizes in the Finns a variety of the Sclavonic race. 169 Htjece 
regards the Finns as a distinct people, differing from both the Euro- 
pean and Mongolian families. 170 "The Fin organization," writes 
Latham, "has generally been recognized as Mongol — though Mon- 
gol of the modified kind." 171 The original identity of the Finns 
and Lapps has been argued from certain linguistic affinities between 
the two races. Prichard considers the evidence of their consan- 



lro System of Universal Geography. Edinburgh, 1827. Vol. VT. p. 75. 

1C ' Modern Geography. Philadelphia, 1804, Vol. I. pp. 383, 404. Walckenaee, the 
French translator and editor of this work, draws a strong line of distinction between the 
Finns and Lapps. Geographic Moderne. Paris, 1804, t. 3eme, p. 258, note. 

168 Der Mensch, cited by Hueck. 

169 L'Homme, Essai Zoologique sur le Genre Humaine. 3e edit., t. 1. 

1.0 De Craniis Estonum, p. 11. 

1.1 Native Races of the Russian Empire, p. 72. 



286 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

guinity to be sufficiently well demonstrated, 172 and cites Leemius, 
G-tjnnerus, Porthan, Ihre, Rask, and others as advocates of this 
opinion. Opposed to this identity, however, are the well-marked 
physical differences observed by tiearly all the travellers who have 
visited these people. Linn-^us, long ago, pointed out, in the con- 
cise terms of the naturalist, the most prominent of these differences. 
" Fennones corpore toroso, capillis flavis prolixis, oeulorum iridibus 
fuscis. Lappones corpore parvo, capillis nigris, brevibus, rectis; 
oeulorum iridibus nigrescentibus." Very ingenious theories have 
been advanced to reconcile this assumed consanguinity with the 
anatomical differentiae above indicated. Thus Von Buch ascribes 
this difference to the fact, that of the two people, the Finns alone 
use hot baths and warm clothing. Long separation and exposure to 
different physical influences have also been deemed sufficient to 
account for the discrepancy. 

In consideration of the animated controversy which has been 
carried on by the learned concerning the relationship of the Lapp 
and the Finlander, it may be well to introduce here the carefully 
drawn description of an Esthonian skull, originally published in 
Latin by Dr. A. Hueck, of Dorpat. 173 There are reasons for con- 
sidering the Finnic type to be preserved in its greatest purity among 
the Esthonians. These people appear to be the indigence of Esthonia; 
at least, "no earlier population seems to have preceded them." 17 * 

"In the Esthonian race," says Dr. H., "the skull, though angular, is not very robust. 
A square form is most frequently observed, and even when it passes into an oval shape, 
which is often the case, it presents a well-defined appearance of angularity. A pyramidal 
or wedge-like figure (forma cuneata) is more rarely encountered, and it has never happened 
to me to observe a round Esthonian skull. 

"At first sight, the calvaria, when compared with the facial skeleton, appears large; 
and, if viewed from above or behind, square : for not only are the parietal bosses very 
prominent, but the occiput, in the region of the superior linea semicircularis, is strongly 
arched both posteriorly and towards the sides. The sinciput is a little less broad than the 
occiput; the forehead is plane, less gibbous than usual and low. The frontal breadth is 
only apparent, because the more projecting external orbitar process, with the equally 
prominent malar bones below, is continuous with the smoother posterior part of the semi- 
circular line of the os frontis. The temporal fossa is capacious, though not very deep, and 
is terminated anteriorly by the firm posterior margin of the frontal process of the malar 
bone, and externally by a sufficiently strong zygomatic arch, under which juts out in the 
posterior side the articular tubercle or crest, by which the zygomatic arch is continued 
above the external opening of the ear. Moreover, the condyloid processes of the occipital 
bone appear to me larger and more prominent than in the other skulls. On the other hand, 

172 Researches, iii., 297. 

173 De Craniis Estonum commentatio anthropologica qua viro illustrissimo Joanni Theo- 
doro Busgh, doctoris dignitatem impetratam gratulatur Ordo. Med. Univers. Dorpatensis, 
interprete Dr. Alexander Hueck, Dorpati Livonorum, 1838, 4to., pp. 7-10. 

171 See Latham's Native Races of the Russian Empire, p. 75. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 287 

the mastoid process, in all the (Esthonian) skulls which I have examined, is small and less 
rough ; the Kussian crania, on the contrary, excel in long and thick mastoid processes. 
Not more developed is the external occipital protuberance ; nor in general are the impres- 
sions of the muscles very conspicuous on the occipital bone. 

" Upon comparing the base of the skull, I have found no differences of greater moment. 
However, the internal occipital protuberance appears to me greater than usual ; the crucial 
lines are strongly characterized, and the transverse furrows deeper. While the ossa petrosa 
project considerably into the cranial cavity, the os occipitale, where it forms the inferior 
occipital fossa, is less convex ; hence, from this conformation, the space occupied by the 
cerebellum is manifestly narrowed. Nothing else is observable, except that the depressions 
in the anterior part of the cranium present a more angular form, and, finally, the jugular 
foramina appear to me larger than in the skulls of other races of men. 

" The facial part, compared with the calvaria, is small, broad, and low. The breadth 
(of the face) is produced, not so much by the development of the malar bones, as in skulls 
of the Mongolian variety, but rather by a greater prominence of the malar process of the 
superior maxilla. On this account, the inter-malar, compared with the frontal, diameter, 
appears much greater than in Europeans in general. Hence, the external orbital margins 
are flared out more, the distance between these margins is greater chan the breadth of fore- 
head, and the orbits themselves are wider. Therefore, the malar process of the maxillary 
bone, being thus rendered more prominent, the antrum Highmorianuni becomes necessarily 
more capacious. For a similar reason, the sphenoidal sinuses, also, are deeper than in 
German heads. And even the cells of the ethmoid are greater, and the paper-like lamina, 
which is ordinarily vertical, is rather arched in the Esthonians, and projects towards the 
orbit, blending gradually with the orbital surface of the body of the superior maxilla. The 
frontal sinuses are very large, which, in the external aspect, is indicated by a prominent 
glabella and projecting superciliary arches 

"The malar process of the upper maxilla is stronger than usual; on the other hand, the 
frontal and alveolar processes of the same bone are shorter ; hence, the whole face, from 
the naso-frontal suture to the alveolar margin, is shortened in length. This broad and lon- 
gitudinally contracted form of the face especially affects the form of the orbits, and gives 
to the 6kull of the Esthonians its most characteristic type. For, in comparison with their 
breadth, the orbits are low, and transversely oblong or almost square in shape. This ap- 
pearance depends upon the above-mentioned proportions of the superior maxilla, and is 
the more noticeable, because the supra-orbital margin descends lower under a very convex 
superciliary arch, and is less curved in shape, while, opposite to it, the infra-orbital margin 
also makes a very prominent edge. 1 ' 5 .... Antero-posteriorly, the orbit is somewhat 
deeper than in other skulls, and, on account of the contracted entrance (humilem introilum) 
appears to be deeper than it really is. 

" The root of the nose, above which the glabella projects considerably, is compressed and 
flat, and the nasal bones, but little arched, terminate in a pyriform aperture. The frontal 
process of the upper maxillary bone being shorter, and the alveolar process lower, and, at 
the same time, the body of the upper maxillary bone less broad than usual, the space sur- 
rounded by the teeth is necessarily narrower. The incisor teeth of the upper jaw are 
seldom perpendicular, but incline obliquely forwards, so that their alveolar edge, not formed 
as in other crania, at the angle of the foramen incisivum, merges gradually into the hard 
palate. The peculiar evolution of the organs inservient to mastication, gives rise to differ- 
ences even in the skull. For the whole surface of the temporal fossa is more exactly de- 

ro The prominence of the malar bones, the narrowness of the orbits, and the squareness 
of their margins, was also observed about Dorpat, by Isenflamm (Anatomische Untersuch- 
ungen. Erlangen, 1822, pp. 254-6). C. Seidlitz appears to have been the first to describe 
the form of the orbits accurately ; he has attempted to show that this form gave rise to two 
affections, common in this region — trichiasis and entropium. (Disserlatio lnauguralis de 
Prcecipuis Oculorum Morbis inter Eslhonos obviis Dorpati Livonorum, 1821.) 



288 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

fined, not only by the semicircular line of the os frontis, hut also by a very prominent crest 
above the external meatus, into the posterior part of which the zygomatic processes are 
continued. Moreover, in nearly all the Esthonian skulls, the external pterygoid processes 
are very broad ; often the spinous process of the sphenoidal bone is, at the same time, so 

prolonged, that it coalesces with the posterior margin of the former process This 

conformation indicates a greater evolution of the external pterygoid muscle than in others 
less broad. This muscle being efficient, the lateral motion of the lower jaw is increased, in 
consequence of the smallness of the condyles as compared with the large glenoid cavity ; 
hence, the crowns of the teeth, already worn down in the young, are proofs of the posses- 
sion of the most powerful organs for masticating vegetable food. It only remains to be 
observed that, in the lower jaw, the ascending ramus is lower than in skulls of the Cauca- 
sian variety, the angle more obtuse, and the posterior part of the body of the jaw less broad, 
and the anterior part higher, and the chin itself rounded, and rarely angular." 

Such, according to Dr. Hueck, are the characters of the Esthonian 
skull — characters which, he further assures us, are more pronounced 
in proportion as these people are less mixed with others. He also 
expresses a belief in the possibility of tracing the Finns to their 
primitive sources, by a careful study of the heads found in ancient 
sepulchres of this region. 

From the foregoing descriptions the reader will readily perceive 
the differences between the Finnic and Mongolic types of skull. 
The Mongolian face is broad and high, the cheek-bones very robust, 
the malar fossa shallow, the nasal bones small and flat, teeth strong 
and straightly placed, bounding a large space ; the orbits are deep and 
less square. Oblique palpebral openings correspond to the formation 
of the facial bones, for the internal orbital process of the frontal bone 
descends more deeply than in the Caucasian variety, and the Estho- 
nians especially, whence the lachrymal bone and the entrance to the 
canal are lower down. The internal canthus being adjacent to this, 
is placed lower; hence the obliquity of the palpebral opening, so 
peculiar to the Mongolian. "We thus find nothing common to the 
Mongolian type and to the shape of the Esthonian skull except a 
certain squareness of figure which is not constant. 

It will thus be seen that the cranial type of the Laplander belongs 
to a lower order than that of the Finn, and that the former race falls 
properly within the limits of the Arctic form, while the latter leans 
decidedly towards the Lido-Germanic type, finding its relation to the 
latter through the Sclavonian rather than the true Scandinavian 
types. But inferiority of form is to some extent a natural indi- 
cation of priority of existence. We are thus led from cranial investi- 
gations alone to recognize the Lapps as the autochthones of North- 
western Europe, who at a very remote period have been overlaid by 
the encroaching Finn. This opinion is countenanced by the follow- 
ing facts. GrEUER assures us that the earliest historical accounts of 



OF THE RACES OF MEN". 289 

the Lapps and Finns testify to their diversity and primitive separa- 
tion. Under the combined pressure of the Swedes and Norwegians 
on the west, and the Finns on the east, the Lapponic area has, from 
the dawn of history, been a receding one. Lapponic names for places 
are found in Finland, and, as already observed, human bones more 
like those of the Laplanders than the Scandinavians have been found 
in ancient cemeteries as far south as Denmark. Peter Hogstrom 
tells us that the Lapps maintain that their ancestors formerly had 
possession of all Sweden. We have it upon historical record, that so 
late as the fifteenth century Lapponic tribes were pushed out of 
Savolax and East Bothnia towards the north. 

Prof. S. Nilsson, of Lund, thinks that the southern parts of Sweden 
were formerly connected with Denmark and Germany, while the 
northern part of Scandinavia was covered with the sea ; that Scania 
received its post-diluvian flora from Germany ; and that as vegeta- 
tion increased, graminivorous animals came from the south, followed 
by the carnivora, and finally by man, who lived in the time of the 
Bos primigenius and Ursus Spelteus. In proof of the antiquity here 
assigned to Scandinavian man, he tells us that they have in Lund a 
skeleton of the Bos pierced with an arrow, and another of the Ursus, 
which was found in a peat-bog in Scania, under a gravel or stone 
deposit, along with implements of the chase. 176 From these imple- 
ments, he infers that these aborigines were a savage race of fishers 
and hunters. 

"The skulls of the aboriginal inhabitants found in these ancient barrows are short 
(brachy-cephalie of Retzius), "with prominent parietal tubers, and broad and flattened occi- 
put. It is worthy of remark, that the same form of cranium exists among several very 

1,6 The reader will find some highly interesting and curious speculations upon the 
antiquity of British Man, in a paper entitled. On the Claims of the Gigantic Irish Deer to be 
considered as contemporary with Man, recently read (May, 1855), by Mr. H. Denny, before 
the Geological and Polytechnic Society of the West Riding of Yorkshire. " In my endeavor 
to trace the Megaceros down to the human era," says Mr. D., in concluding his paper, "I 
am by no means advocating the idea that they have, as species, been equally long inhabi- 
tants of this earth. On the contrary, I suppose that the last stragglers only, which escaped 
annihilation by physical changes and causes, may have continued to exist down to Man's 
first appearance on the British Isles ; and as precisely similar views regarding the extinction 
of the Dinornis in New Zealand have been advocated by Dr. Mantell in one of his last com- 
munications to the Geological Society, I shall make no apology in concluding with his 
remarks when speaking of the Moa-beds: — Both these ossiferous deposits, though but of 
yesterday in geological history, are of immense antiquity in relation to the human inhabi- 
tants of the country. I believe that ages, ere the advent of the Maoris, New Zealand was 
densely peopled by the stupendous bipeds whose fossil remains are the sole indications of 
their former existence. That the last of the species was exterminated by human agency, 
like the Dodo and Solitaire of the Mauritius, and the Gigantic Elk of Ireland, there can be 
no doubt; but, ere man began the work of destruction, it is not unphilosophical to assume 
that physical revolutions, inducing great changes in the relative distribution of the land 

19 



290 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

ancient people, such as the Iberians or Basques of the Pyrenees, the Lapps and Samoiedes, 
and the Pelasgi, traces of whom are still found in Greece. 

"Next in succession to this aboriginal race, subsisting by fishing and hunting, comes 
another with a cranium. of a more lengthened oval form, and prominent and narrow occiput. 
I think this second race to have been of Gothic extraction, to have first commenced the 
division of the land for agricultural purposes, and consequently to have had bloody strife 
with the former inhabitants 

"The third race which has inhabited Scandinavia came possibly from the North and 
East, and introduced bronze into the country ; the form of the skull is very different from 
that of the two former races. It is larger than the first, and broader than the second, and 
withal prominent at the sides. I consider this race to have been of Celtic origin." The 
fourth, or true Swea race, introduced into Sweden weapons and instruments of iron, and 
appear to have been the immediate ancestors of the present Swedes. With this race 
Swedish history fairly begins. 1 ' 7 

Prof. Retzius, in the main, coincides with the opinion of Prof. 
Nilsson. He applies to the Lapps the term Turanic, and regards 
them as the relics of the true Scandinavian aborigines — a people 
who once occupied not only the southern part of Sweden, but also 
Denmark, Great Britain, Northern Germany, and France. He calls 
the Turanic skull, brachy-cephalic (short-head), and describes it as 
short and round, the occiput flattened, and the parietal protuberances 
quite prominent. 178 

A cast of a Norwegian skull in the Mortonian Collection (No. 
1260), is remarkable for its great size. It belongs to the dolicho- 
cephalic variety of Retzius. The fronto-parietal convexity is regular 
from side to side. The occipital region as a whole is quite promi- 
nent; but the basal portion of the occiput is fiat and parallel with 
the horizon when the head rests squarely upon the lower jaw. The 
glabella, superciliary ridges, and external angular processes of the 
os frontis are very rough and prominent, overhanging the orbits and 
inter-orbital space in such a manner as to give a very harsh and for- 
bidding expression to the face. The semi-circular ridges passing 
back from the external angular process, are quite elevated and sharp. 
The nasal bones are high and rather sharp at the line of junction ; 
orbits capacious ; malar bones of moderate size, and flattened antero- 
laterally ; superior maxilla rather small in comparison with the infe- 
rior, which is quite large, and much flared out at the angles. The 
facial angle is good, and the whole head strongly marked. 

According to Prof. Retzius, the Swedish cranium, as seen from 
above, presents an oval figure. Its greatest breadth is to its greatest 

and water in the South Pacific Ocean, may have so circumscribed the geographical limits 
of the Dinornis and Palapteryx, as to produce conditions that tended to diminish their 
numbers preparatory to their final annihilation." 

1,7 Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, for 1847, p. 31. 

178 See Muller's Archives, for 1849 p. 575. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 291 

length as 1000 : 773. The external occipital protuberance is remark- 
ably prominent, so that the external auditory meatus appears to occupy 
a more advanced position than is really the case. A plane passing 
through the two meati, perpendicular to the long diameter of the 
cranium, cuts this diameter nearly in the middle. The face is long, 
but not very prominent, the inferior jaw well pronounced and massive, 
while the inter-orbital space is large, as is generally the case with the 
Northern races of men. From the skulls found in ancient tombs, 
we may infer that this form has not varied for at least 1000 years." 9 

The Swedish form of skull, judging from the specimens in Mor- 
ton's Collection, bears a family resemblance to the Norwegian, and 
in several respects is not unlike the Anglo-Saxon head figured in 
the first decade of Crania Britannica. In the Anglo-Saxon, how- 
ever, the chin is more acuminated, and the maxillary rami longer. 
The chief points of resemblance about the calvaria, are the slightly 
elevated forehead, the rather flattened vertex, and the inclination of 
the parietalia downwards and backwards towards the occiput. This 
latter feature is also possessed by the Norwegian cast referred to 
above. 

In the skull of a Swedish woman of the thirteenth century (No. 
1249 of the Mortonian Collection), the singularly protuberant occi- 
put projects far behind the foramen magnum. The skulls of an 
ancient Ostrogoth (No. 1255), and two ancient Cimbi'ic Swedes (Nos. 
1550 and 1532), evidently belong to the same peculiar type. These 
four heads resemble each other as strongly as they differ from the 
remaining Swedes, Finns, Germans, and Kelts in the Collection. 
They call to mind the kumbe-kephalse, or boat-shaped skulls of 
Wilson. No. 1362, a cast of an ancient Cimbrian skull, from the 
Danish Island of Moen, presents the same elongated form. It differs 
from the four preceding skulls in being larger, more massive, and 
broader in the forehead. 

Nos. 117, 1258, and 1488 possess the true Swedish form as described 
above. 

Two Swedo-Finland skulls (Nos. 1545 and 1546) — marked in my 
manuscript catalogue as appertaining to " descendants of colonists 
who settled in Finland in the most remote times" — are broader, 
more angular, and less oval than the true Swedish form. The hori- 
zontal portion of the occiput is quite flat, and the occipital protube- 
rance prominent. 

Three Sudermanland Swedes have the same general form. Three 
Swedish Finns (mixed race) have a more squarely globular, and less 

1,9 Ueber die Schadelformen der Nordbewohner in Miiller's Archiv., 1845. 



292 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

oval cranium than the true Swedes. In the skull of a Turannic 
Swede (No. 121) the posterior region of the calvaria is broader, and 
does not slope away so much. In general configuration this cranium 
approaches the brachy-cephalic class of Rbtzius. 

A Danish skull figured by Nilsson, 180 after Eschricht, of Copen- 
hagen, resembles the Lapponic much more than the Norwegian or 
Swedish forms described above. 

The cranial types of Great Britain — the "islands set in the sea" 
— next claim our attention. 

The ethnology of the British Isles appears to be very closely con- 
nected with that of Scandinavia. According to Prof. Nilsson, the 
ancient inhabitants of Britain are identical with those of Norway 
and Sweden. 181 Reference to the views put forth by different ethno- 
graphers and archeologues reveals to us a remarkable degree of 
uncertainty respecting the cranial forms and general physical charac- 
ters of the primitive Britons. 

"It seems strange," says Dr. Prichard, "that such a subject as the physical character 
of the Celtic race should have been made a theme of controversy. Yet this has happened, 
and the dispute has turned, not only on the question, what characteristic traits belonged to 
the ancient Celtas, but, what are those of their descendants, the Welsh and the Scottish 
Gael?" 182 Again, he says — "The skulls found in old burial-places in Britain, which I have 
been enabled to examine, differ materially from the Grecian model. The amplitude of the 
anterior parts of the cranium is very much less, giving a comparatively small space for the 
anterior lobes of the brain. In this particular, the ancient inhabitants of Britain appear 
to have differed very considerably from the present. The latter, either as the result of many 
ages of greater intellectual cultivation, or from some other cause, have, as I am persuaded, 
much more capacious brain-cases than their forefathers." 183 In another place, he asks — 
" Was there anything peculiar in the conformation of the head in the British and Gaulish 
races ? I do not remember that any peculiarity of features has been observed by Roman 
writers in either Gauls or Britons. There are probably in existence sufficient means for 
deciding this inquiry, in the skulls found in old British cairns, or places of sepulture. I 
have seen about half-a-dozen skulls, found in different parts of England, in situations which 
rendered it highly probable that they belonged to ancient Britons. All these partook of one 
striking characteristic, viz., a remarkable narrowness of the forehead, compared with the 
occiput, giving a very small space for the anterior lobes of the brain, and allowing room for 
a large development of the posterior lobes. There are some modern English and Welsh 
heads to be seen of a similar form, but they are not numerous. It is to be hoped that such 
specimens of the craniology of our ancestors will not be suffered to fall into decay." 184 

The hope here expressed, I may say, en passant, has at length met 
with an able response, in the Crania Britannica of Messrs. Davis 

180 Skandinaviska Nordens Urinvfinare, ett forsb'k i comparativa Ethnographien af S. Nils- 
son, Phil. Dr., &c. Christianstad, 1838. I. H'aftel, Plate D, Fig. 10. 

181 See his Letter to Dr. Davis, quoted in Crania Britannica, p. 17. 

182 Researches into the Physical History of Mankind, 3d edition, vol. III. London, 1841, 
p. 189. 

las Ibid, 3d edit., vol. I., p. 305. 18 * Ibid, III., 199. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 293 

and Thurnam, who have spiritedly undertaken to "rescue and perpe- 
tuate the faithful lineaments of a sufficient number of the skulls of 
the ancient races of Britain to preserve authentic data for the 
future." 

Mr. Wilde, a distinguished antiquary, calls the primitive Irish — those who, in the remo- 
test times, built the pyramidal sepulchres with stone passages — "globular-headed." The 
skulls found in the "Cromlechs," or sepulchral mounds of a later date, he assures us are 
" chiefly characterized by their extreme length from before backwards, or what is technically 
termed their antero-posterior diameter, and the flatness of their sides; and in this, and in 
most other respects, they correspond with the second form of head discovered in the Danish 
sepulchres." They also "present the same marked characters in their facial aspect, and 
the projecting occiput and prominent frontal sinuses, as the Danish" skulls. " The nose, 
in common with all the truly Irish heads I have examined, presents the most marked pecu- 
liarities, and evidently must have been very prominent, or what is usually termed aquiline. 
With this we have evidence of the teeth slightly projecting, and the chin square, well marked, 
and also prominent ; so that, on the whole, this race must have possessed peculiarly well- 
marked features, and an intelligent physiognomy. The forehead is low, but not retreating. 
The molar teeth are remarkably ground down upon their crowns, and the attachments of 

the temporal muscles are exceedingly well marked Now, we find similar conditions 

of head still existing among the modern inhabitants of this country, particularly beyond the 
Shannon, towards the west, where the dark or Fir-Bolg race may still be traced, as distinct 
from the more globular-headed, light-eyed, fair-haired Celtic people, who lie to the north- 
east of that river." In the " Kistaeven," a still later form of the ancient funereal recep- 
tacles, " the skull is much better proportioned, higher, more globular, and, in every respect, 
approaching more to the highest forms of the Indo-European variety of the Caucasian 
race." 185 

From these interesting researches of Mr. Wilde, it appears quite 
evident that Ireland has, at different and distant periods, been peopled 
by at least two, if not three, distinct races, of which the first was 
characterized by a short, and the second by an elongated form of 
skull ; thus corresponding remarkably, in physical character and 
order of succession, to the early inhabitants of Scandinavia. 

Prof. Daniel Wilson, the learned general editor of the Canadian 
Journal, has recently demonstrated the existence in Scotland of two 
distinct primitive races, prior to the appearance of the true Celtse. 
He thus refers to the crania of these ancient people : 

" Fortunately, a few skulls from Scottish tumuli and cists are preserved in the Museums 
of the Scottish Antiquaries and of the Edinburgh Phrenological Society. A comparison 
of these with the specimens of crania drawn by Dr. Thurnam from examples found in an 
ancient tumular cemetery at Lamel Hill, near York, believed to be of the Anglo-Saxon 
period, abundantly proves an essential difference of races. 186 The latter, though belonging 
to the superior or dolicho-kephalic type, are small, very poorly developed, low and narrow 
in the forehead, and pyramidal in form. A striking feature of one type of crania from the 
Scottish barrows is a square compact form 

185 Lecture on the Ethnology of the Ancient Irish. By W. R. Wilde, 1844. 
™ Natural History of Man, p. 193. 



294 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 



"No. 7 [Figs. 22 and 23] was obtained from a cist discovered under a large cairn at 
Nether Urquhart, Fifeshire, in 1835. An account of the opening of several cairns and 



Fig. 22. 



Fig. 23. 




'No. 7. Nethek TTrqtjhart Cairn.' 



tumuli in the same district is given by Lieutenant-Colonel Miller, in his ' Inquiry respecting 
the Site of the Battle of Mons Grampius.' 187 Some of them contained urns and burnt bones, 
ornaments of jet and shale, and the like early relics, while in others were found implements 
or weapons of iron. It is selected here as another example of the same class of crania. . . . 
The whole of these, more or less, nearly agree with the lengthened oval form described by 
Prof. Nilsson as the second race of the Scandinavian tumuli. They have mostly a singu- 
larly narrow and elongated occiput ; and with their comparatively low and narrow fore- 
head, might not inaptly be described by the familiar term boat-shaped. It is probable that 
further investigation will establish this as the type of a primitive, if not of the primeval 
native race. Though they approach in form to a superior type, falling under the first or 
dolicho-kephalic class of Prof. Retzius's arrangement, their capacity is generally small, 
and their development, for the most part, poor; so that there is nothing in their cranial 
characteristics inconsistent with such evidence as seems to assign to them the rude arts 

and extremely limited knowledge of the British Stone Period 

"The skull, of which the measurements are given in No. 10 [Figs. 24 and 25], is the 
same here referred to, presented to the Phrenological Museum by the Rev. Mr. Liddell. It 



Fig. 24, 



Fig. 25. 





"No. 10. Old Steeple, Montrose." 

is a very striking example of the British brachy-kephalic type ; square and compact in 
form, broad and short, but well balanced, and with a good frontal development. It no 
doubt pertained to some primitive chief, or arch-priest, sage, it may be, in council, and 
brave in war. The site of his place of sepulture has obviously been chosen for the same 
reasons which led to its selection at a later period for the erection of the belfry and beacon- 



187 Archseol., Vol. IV., pp. 43, 44. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 295 

tower of the old burgh. It is the most elevated spot in the neighborhood, and here his cist 
had been laid, and the memorial mound piled over it, -which doubtless remained untouched 
so long as his memory was cherished in the traditions of his people 

" Few as these examples are, they will probably be found, on further investigation, to 
belong to a race entirely distinct from those previously described. They correspond very 
nearly to the brachy-kephalic crania of the supposed primeval race of Scandinavia, described 
by Prof. Nilsson as short, with prominent parietal tubers, and broad and flattened occiput. 
In frontal development, however, they are decidedly superior to the previous class of crania, 
and such evidence as we possess seems to point to a very different succession of races to 
that which Scandinavian ethnologists now recognize in the primitive history of the north 
of Europe 

" So far as appears from the table of measurements, the following laws would seem to 
be indicated : ■ — In the primitive or elongated dolicho-kephalic type, for which the distinc- 
tive title of kumbe-kephalic is here suggested — the parietal diameter is remarkably small, 
being frequently exceeded by the vertical diameter ; in the second or brachy-kephalic class, 
the parietal diameter is the greater of the two ; in the Celtic crania they are nearly equal ; 
and in the medieval or true dolicho-kephalic heads, the parietal diameter is again found 
decidedly in excess ; while the preponderance or deficiency of the longitudinal in its rela- 
tive proportion to the other diameters, furnishes the most characteristic features referred 
to in the classification of the kumbe-kephalic, brachy-kephalic, Celtic, and dolicho-kephalic 
types. Not the least interesting indications which these results afford, both to the ethno- 
logist and the archaeologist, are the evidences of native primitive races in Scotland prior to 
the intrusion of the Celtse ; and also the probability of these races having succeeded each 
other in a different order from the primitive colonists of Scandinavia. Of the former fact, 
viz., the existence of primitive races prior to the Celta3, I think no doubt can be now enter- 
tained. Of the order of their succession, and their exact share in the changes and progressive 
development of the native arts which the archaeologist detects, we still stand in need of fur- 
ther proof. 

" The peculiar characteristic of the primeval Scottish type appears rather to be a narrow 
prolongation of the occiput in the region of the cerebellum, suggesting the term already- 
applied to them of boat-shaped, and for which the name of kumbe-kephalce may perhaps be 
conveniently employed to distinguish them from the higher type with which they are other- 
wise apt to be confounded 

" The peculiarity in the teeth of certain classes of ancient crania above referred to is of 
very general application, and has been observed as common even among British sailors. 
The cause is obvious, resulting from the similarity of food in both cases. The old Briton 
of the Anglo-Eoman period, and the Saxon both of England and the Scottish Lothians, had 
lived to a great extent on barley-bread, oaten cakes, parched peas, or the like fare, pro- 
ducing the same results on his teeth as the hard sea-biscuit does on those of the British 
sailor. Such, however, is not generally the case, and in no instance, indeed, to the same 
extent in the skulls found in the earlier British tumuli. In the Scottish examples described 
above, the teeth are mostly very perfect, and their crowns not at all worn down 

" The inferences to be drawn from such a comparison are of considerable value in the 
indications they afford of the domestic habits and social life of a race, the last survivor of 
which has mouldered underneath his green tumulus, perchance for centuries before the 
era of our earliest authentic chronicles. As a means of comparison this characteristic 
appearance of the teeth manifestly furnishes one means of discriminating between an early 
and a still earlier, if not primeval period, and though not in itself conclusive, it may be 
found of considerable value when taken in connection with the other and still more obvious 
peculiarities of the crania of the earliest barrows. We perceive from it, at least, that a 
very decided change took place in the common food of the country, from the period when 
the native Briton of the primeval period pursued the chase with the flint lance and arrow, 
and the spear of deer's horn, to that comparatively recent period when the Saxon marauders 



296 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

began to effect settlements and build houses on the scenes where they had ravaged the vil- 
lages of the older British natives. The first class, we may infer, attempted little cultivation 

of the soil 

" Viewing Archaeology as one of the most essential means for the elucidation of primitive 
history, it has been employed here chiefly in an attempt to trace out the annals of our 
country prior to that comparatively recent medieval period at which the boldest of our his- 
torians have heretofore ventured to begin. The researches of the ethnologist carry us back 
somewhat beyond that epoch, and confirm many of those conclusions, especially in relation 
to the close affinity between the native arts and Celtic races of Scotland and Ireland, at 
which we have arrived by means of archasological evidence. . . . But we have found from 
many independent sources of evidence, that the primeval history of Britain must be sought 
for in the annals of older races than the Celtoe, and in the remains of a people of whom we 
have as yet no reason to believe that any philological traces are discoverable, though they 
probably do exist mingled with later dialects, and especially in the topographical nomen- 
clature, adopted and modified, but in all likelihood not entirely superseded by later colonists. 
With the earliest intelligible indices of that primeval colonization of the British Isles our 
archfeological records begin, mingling their dim historic annals with the last giant traces 
of elder worlds ; and, as an essentially independent element of historical research, they 
terminate at the point where the isolation of Scotland ceases by its being embraced into 
the unity of medieval Christendom." 188 

Mr. Bateman, who has carefully examined the ancient barrows 
of North Derbyshire, describes the skulls found in the oldest of 
these — known as the Chambered Barrows — as being elongated 
and boat-shaped (kumbe-kephalic form of "Wilson). The crania 
of the succeeding two varieties of barrows are of the brachy- 
cephalic type, round and short, with prominent parietalia. In the 
barrows of the "iron age" — the most recent — he found the pre- 
vailing form to approximate the oval heads of the modern inhabi- 
tants of Derbyshire. 189 

From the foregoing statements, a remarkable fact becomes evident. 
"While Retzius, ISTilsson, Eschricht, and Wilde are remarkably har- 
monious in ascribing the brachy-cephalic type to the earliest or Stone 
Period in Scandinavia, Denmark, and Ireland, we find Wilson and 
Bateman equally accordant in considering the kumbe-kephalse as the 
first men who trod the virgin soil of Caledonia and England. In the 
present state of antiquarian research, then, we are forced to conclude 
that the primitive inhabitants of Britain are identical with those of 
Sweden and Denmark, but that in different parts of these countries 
the order of their sequence has varied. 

Fig. 26 (see next page), reduced from a magnificent life-size litho- 
graph in Crania Britannica, represents a strongly-marked aboriginal 
British skull of the earliest period. " It was disinterred from the 
lowermost cist of a howl-shaped Barrow on Ballidon Moor." It 

!8S The Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland ; Edinb. 1851 ; pp. 163-187, 695-6. 
189 Journal of the British Archaeological Society, vol. VII. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



297 




belongs to the brachy-cephalre of Ret- 
zius, and is regarded by Dr. Davis, 

who gives us the following description 
of it, as a typical example of the ancient 
British form. 

" This cranium possesses a rugged face, the 
hones of which are rough, angular, especially the 
lower jaw, and deeply impressed by strong mus- 
cular action. The space enclosed by the zygo- 
matic arch is rather large. It is the skull of a 
man of probably about forty-five years of age. 
The teeth, which are not remarkably large, must 

have been complete at the period of interment, Ancient Bkiton. 

except the two last molars of the upper jaw on the 

left side, which had previously perished by caries, their alveoli being wholly absorbed. 
Some of the molars still retain a thick coating of tartar; and the teeth altogether indicate 
the severe service to which they were subjected during life, for the crowns of almost all are 
worn down to a level surface, by the mastication of hard substances. The nasal bones, 
which had been fractured obliquely across the centre during the life of this primitive hun- 
ter, possibly in some encounter of the chase, and had united perfectly, with a slight bend 
to the right, are very prominent. The opening of the nostrils, moderate in size, is just an 
inch in diameter. The frontal sinuses are large, and project considerably over the nose. 
The frontal bone is not particularly remarkable either for its arched or receding form, but 
inclines to the latter. The parietal bones are regular, and do not present much lateral 
prominency. The occipital is somewhat full above the protuberance, which itself is 
strongly marked. The point of the chin is hollowed out, or depressed, in the middle, a 
not uncommon feature of the British skull, which may perhaps be taken as an indication 
of a dimple, a mark of beauty in the other sex. The profile of the calvarium presents a 
pretty uniform curvature, interrupted by a slight rising in the middle of the parietal bones, 
and the occipital protuberance. The outline of the vertical aspect is a tolerably regular 
oval. The entire cranium is of moderate density. ... Its most striking peculiarities are 
the rude character of the face, greatly heightened by the prominent frontal sinuses, and 
its moderate dimensions. It seems to have belonged to one whose struggle for life was 
severe, to conquer the denizens of the forest his chief skill, and whose food consisted of 
crude and coarse articles. Still there remain irrefragable evidences, even at this distant 
day, that his strife was a successful one, and that he became the lord of the wilderness ',' 

An ancient British skull (Fig. 27), 
from a chambered tumulus at Uley, 
Gloucestershire, figured and de- 
scribed in Crania Britannica, af- 
fords a good idea of the dolicho-ce- 
phalic or long-headed form above 
referred to. 



It "is the skull of a man of probably not less 
than sixty-five. The sutures are more or less 
grown together, and, in many places, completely 
obliterated. The cranium is of great thickness, 
especially in the upper part of the calvarium ; 
the parietal bones, in the situation of the tubers, 




Ancient British (from Uley). 



298 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

being about four-tenths of an inch in thickness, and the frontal bone, around the eminences, 
not less than half an inch. The skull is of large capacity, and is remarkable for its length in 
proportion to its breadth, belonging decidedly to the dolicho-cephalic class of Retzius. The 
form is slightly deficient in symmetry. The forehead is narrow, contracted, and rather 
receding, but not low ; a sort of central ridge is to be traced along the summit of the cra- 
nium, which is most marked in front of the coronal suture, and falls away to a decidedly 
flat surface above each temporal ridge. The very pyramidal aspect thus given to the front 
view of the skull, is well shown in our figure. The' parietal tubers are moderately promi- 
nent. The occiput is full, prominent and rounded, and presents a strongly-marked trans- 
verse ridge. The squamous and mastoid portions of the temporal bones are rather small ; 
the external auditory openings are situated farther than usual within the posterior half of 
the skull. The frontal sinuses are very marked, and the glabella moderately prominent ; 
the nasal bones, of moderate size, project rather abruptly. The insertions of the muscles 
of mastication are strongly marked, but neither the upper nor lower jaw is so large, rugged, 
or angular as is often the case in skulls from ancient British tumuli. The malar bones are 
rather small, and the zygomata, though long, are not particularly prominent. The ascending 
branch of the lower jaw forms a somewhat obtuse angle with the body of that bone ; the 
chin is poorly developed ; the alveolar processes are short and small. In both jaws, most 
of the incisor and canine teeth are wanting, but have evidently fallen out since death. The 
molars and several of the bicuspids remain in their sockets. All the teeth are remarkably 
worn down, and the molars, especially those of the lower jaw, have almost entirely lost their 
crowns ; indeed, as respects the lower first molars, nothing but the fangs remain, round 
which abscesses had formed, leading to absorption and the formation of cavities in the 
alveolar process. The worn surfaces of the teeth are not flat and horizontal, but slope away 
obliquely, from without inwards, there being some tendency to concavity in the surfaces of 
the lower, and to convexity in those of the upper teeth. The former are more worn on the 
outer, the latter on the inner edge. Altogether, the condition is such as we must attribute 
to a rude people, subsisting in great measure on the products of the chase and other animal 
food — ill-provided with implements for its division, and bestowing little care on its prepara- 
tion — rather than to an agricultural tribe, living chiefly on corn and fruits. Such, we have 
reason to believe, was the condition of the early British tribes. 190 The state of these, at 
least, contrasts decidedly with that observed in Anglo-Saxon crania, in which, though the 
crowns of the teeth are often much reduced by attrition, the worn surfaces are, for the most 
part, remarkably horizontal." 

In the same work, the reader will find a well-executed lithograph of 
an Anglo-Saxon skull, which Dr. Thuknam is inclined to consider as 
belonging to the " lower rather than the upper rank of "West Saxon 
settlers." 

" The general form of the skull, viewed vertically," says Dr. T., " is an irregular length- 
ened oval, so that it belongs to the dolicho-cephalic class, but is not a well-marked example 
of that form. The general outline is smooth and gently undulating ; the forehead is poorly- 
developed, being narrow, and but moderately elevated. The parietal eminences are tolerably 
full and prominent. The temporal bones, and especially the mastoid processes, are small. 
The occipital bone is full and rounded, and has a considerable projection posteriorly. The 
frontal sinuses are slightly marked ; the nasal bones small, narrow, and but little recurved. 
The bones of the face are small, the malar bones slightly prominent. The alveolar processes 

190 Caesar's words are, " Interiores plerique frumenta non serunt, sed lacte et came vivunt, 
pellibusque sunt vestiti." Lib. V., c. 14. Two or three centuries later, according to Dion 
Cassius, the condition of the northern Britons was similar; the Caledonians and Meatae had 
still no ploughed lands, but lived by pasturage and the chase. Xiphilon, lib. xxv., c. 12. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 299 

of the superior maxillary bones (premaxiltaries) are prominent, and deviate so considerably 
from the upright form, as to place the skull rather in the prognathic than the orthognathic 
class. The ramus of the lower jaw forms an obtuse angle with the body of this bone. The 
chin is moderately full ." 

The so-called Anglo-Saxon race — a term which, for several reasons, 
ought to be discarded from ethnological nomenclature — is represented 
in the Mortonian collection by four skulls. No. 80 — the skull of an 
English convict, named Gwillym, — belongs to the dolicho-cephalic 
form, but is not strictly oval, being flattened posteriorly. In general 
configuration, it resembles the Northern or Gothic style of head. 
The face bears the Finnic stamp. No. 539 — the skull of James 
Moran, an Englishman, executed at Philadelphia for piracy and 
murder — is long, fiat on the top, and broad between the parietal 
bones. The posterior portion of the occiput is prominent, the basal 
surface is flat. The face resembles that of Nos. 1063 and 1064 — 
Germans of Tubingen — while the calvaria approaches, in its general 
outline, the kumbe-kephalic form above alluded to. No. 991 — an 
English soldier — belongs decidedly to the Cimbric type, briefly re- 
ferred to on p. 291. No. 59 — the skull of Pierce, a convict and can- 
nibal — is long and strictly oval. It resembles the Cimbric type. 

The Anglo-American Pace — another very objectionable term, 
which, as applied to our heterogeneous population, means everything 
and nothing — has but eight representatives in Morton's collection. 
Nos. 7 and 98 possess the angularly-round Germanic form. No. 24 
— a woman, setat. 26 years — is intermediate in form between the 
German and Swedish types. No. 552 — a man, setat. 30 years — 
resembles the Norwegian described on page 290. No. 889 — a man, 
setat. 40 years — resembles 552 in the shape of the calvaria, but has a 
smaller face and less massive lower jaw. No. 1108 — a male skull — 
bears the Northern or Gothic form ; the face resembles that of the 
Tubingen Germans. 191 

The Anglo-Saxon race, according to Morton, differs from the 
Teutonic in having a less spheroidal and more decidedly oval cranium. 

"I have not hitherto exerted myself to obtain crania of the Anglo-Saxon race, except in 
the instance of individuals who have been signalized by their crimes ; and this number is 
too small to be of much importance in a generalization like the present. Yet, since these 
skulls have been procured without any reference to their size, it is remarkable that five give 
an average of 96 cubic inches for the bulk of the brain; the smallest head measuring 91, 
and the largest 105 cubic inches. It is necessary, however, to observe, that these are all 
male crania; but, on the other hand, they pertained to the lowest class of society; and 
three of them died on the gallows for the crime of murder." 

191 In arranging the Mortonian collection, I have excluded from the Anglo-Saxons the 
skull of a lunatic Englishman (No. 62) ; and from the Anglo-Americans, several skulls of 
lunatics, idiots, children, hydrocephalic cases, &c. This rule has been adopted throughout 
the whole collection. 



300 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 



" The Anglo-Americans — the lineal descendants of the Anglo-Saxons — conform in all their 
characteristics to the parent stock. They possess, in common with their English ancestors, 
and in consequence of their amalgamation, a more elongated head 192 than the unmixed 
Germans. The few crania in my possession have, without exception, been derived from the 
lowest and least cultivated portion of the community — malefactors, paupers, and lunatics. 
The largest brain has been 97 cubic inches ; the smallest 82 ; and the mean of 90 (nearly) 
accords with that of the collective Teutonic race. The sexes of these seven skulls are four 
male and three female." — (Morton). 



Fig. 28. 



Craniographers have not yet agreed upon the essential characters 
of the typical Keltic skull. According to Prichard, " Some remains 
found in Britain give reason to suspect that the Celtic inhabitants 
of this county (Britain) had in early times something of the Mongo- 
lian or Turanian form of the head." 193 Dr. Morton informs us that 
the Kelts of Brittany, Scotland, and Ireland — the descendants of the 
primitive Gael — "have the head rather elongated, and the forehead 
narrow and but slightly arched : the brow is low, straight, and bushy; 
the eyes and hair are light, the nose and mouth large, and the cheek- 
bones high. The general contour of the face 
is angular, and the expression harsh." 194 In 
a letter to Mr. Gliddon, he alludes to the 
Tokkari, a people frequently represented on 
the Egyptian monuments (Fig. 28), in the 
following terms: They "have strong Celtic 
features; as seen in the sharp face, the large 
and irregularly-formed nose, wide mouth, 
and a certain harshness of expression, which 
is characteristic of the same people in all 
their varied localities. Those who are fami- 
liar with the southern Highlanders (of Scot- 
land), may recognise a speaking resem- 
blance." 195 Prof. Ketzitjs places the Keltic cranium in his dolicho- 
cephalic class, and describes it as long, narrow, laterally compressed, 
and low in the forehead. Dr. Gustaf Kombst speaks of the Keltic 
skull as " elongated from front to back, moderate in breadth and 
length." 1% In a letter-to. Dr. Thurnam, one of the authors of Crania 
Britanniea, Prof. ISTilsson declares that nothing is more uncertain and 
vague than the so-called form of the Keltic cranium, for hardly two 
authors have the same opinion of it. 197 

i92 <i This peculiarity must continue to develop itself still more obviously in the United States, 
in consequence of the immense influx of a pure Celtic population from the south and west 
of Ireland ; for this population, by intermarriage with families of English and German 
descent, while it rapidly loses its own national physiognomy, will leave its traces in a part, 
at least, of the Anglo-Saxon race by whom it is everywhere surrounded." 

193 Researches, &c, vol. III., p. XX. 194 Crania Americana, p. 16. 

IK Letter dated Philada., Nov. 23, 1842. ™ Keith Johnston's Physical Atlas. 

191 Crania Britanniea, p. 1 7. 




Tokkari. 




OF THE RACES OF MEN. 301 

Serres' G-alerie Anthropohgique, Fi g- 29 - 

at Paris, contains a skull (Fig. 29) 
marked " Type Celte, — decouvert 
dans l'aneien pare de Madame de 
Pompadour a Bellevue, pres Paris." 

The discrepancy of opinion indi- 
cated in the preceding paragraph, 
results from the fact already stated, 
that Ireland has at different periods 
been the home of different and dis- 
tinct races of men, whose history is 

recorded only on their moulderinsr 

Type Celte. 
osseous remains, and the rude im- 
plements with which these remains are generally found associated. 
These different races have transmitted, in varying degrees of purity, 
their respective and peculiar types of skull to the Irish population 
of the present day. To each and all of these types, the term " Keltic" 
has been applied ; hence, the term has at length become synonymous 
with "Irish," and, therefore, lost all definite and certain meaning, 
just as the very comprehensive word "American," as applied to 
the heterogeneous population of the United States, means Dutch, 
English, Irish, French, Red Indians, &c, &c. 

The Keltic race is represented in the Mortonian Collection by 
eight Irish heads, four skulls from the Parisian catacombs, and one 
from the field of Waterloo. No. 18 — a female Irish skull from the 
Abbey of Buttevant, County of Cork — has a form intermediate 
between the Cimbric and Swedish types, already described on page 
291. In No. 21 — a soldier killed at the battle of Chippeway — the 
Gothic or Teutonic calvarial form is associated with a heavy, massive . 
face. No. 42 — the skull of an Irishman, setat. 21, imprisoned for lar- 
ceny, and in all respects a vicious and refractory character — approaches 
the square Germanic form. No. 52 — from the Abbey of Buttevant — 
has the same form. No. 985 — skull of an Irishman, setat. 60 years — 
being rather broad between the parietal tubers, also approximates 
the Gothic type. The face resembles that of some of the Finns, but 
is smaller and less massive. No. 1186 — an Irish cranium from Mayo 
County — belongs to the peculiar boat-shaped Cimbric type. No. 
1356 — a cast of the skull of one of the ancient Celtic race of Ire- 
land 198 — appears to me to be the most typical in the Irish group 
thus briefly enumerated. This head, the largest in the group, is 

198 This cast tears the following memorandum: "Descendant of an ancient Irish King, 
Alexander O'Connor. — Original in Dublin." 



302 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

very long, clumsy and massive in its general appearance. The fore- 
head is low, broad, and ponderous; the occiput heavy and very 
protuberant ; the basis cranii long, broad, and flat ; the orbits 
capacious ; and the distance from the root of the nose to the 
Upper alveolus quite short. In its general form, it very much 
resembles the Cimbric skull, Kb. 1362. The Cimbric type, how- 
ever, is somewhat narrower in the frontal region, and widens 
more posteriorly towards the parietal protuberances. In his 
work, cited above, Prof. Nilsson figures a massive, oblong head 
to which the Irish skull under consideration bears a considerable 
resemblance. A very heavy skull from the field of Waterloo (So. 
1564) is strictly and beautifully oval. Of the four heads from the 
catacombs at Paris, three are decidedly brachy-cephalic, and one 
of the Germanic form. 

Leaving "Western Europe — the home of the Celtee — and turning 
our steps towards the region of the old Plercynian Forest, and the 
sources of the Saale River, we meet with a type of skull which has 
figured pre-eminently in the momentous and stirring historical events 
of which Europe has been the arena. The Germanic, Gothic, or 
Teutonic skull which Tacitus regarded as indigenous to the heart 
of Europe, is briefly described by Morton, as " large and spheroidal, 
the forehead broad and arched, the face round. . . ." 199 Prichard, 
after stating that we derive no information from the classical writers 
concerning the form of the head in the ancient Germans, says: "The 
modern Germans are well known to have large heads, with the ante- 
rior part of the cranium elevated and fully developed. They have 
this peculiarity of form in a greater degree than either the French 
or English." 200 Vesalius observes, "that the Germans had gene- 
. rally a flattened occiput and broad head." 201 According to Kombst, 
the Teutonic skull is larger and rounder than the Keltic. The head 
and face form a semi-circle, to which the small end of the oval is 
added, formed by the inter-maxillary region. The brow is broad, 
high, and massive. 202 Wear the close of the Decades, Bltjmenbach 
figures a cranium found in an ancient tumulus near Romsted, in 
the district of Weimar, and which the poet-philosopher Goethe sup- 
posed to be that of an ancient German. He unfortunately gives 
no description of it, but merely alludes to its symmetry and "fron- 
tem globosam et limbi alveolaris angustiorem arcum." Vimont, in 
his chapter on Tetes nationales, speaks of the " capacite considerable," 

199 Crania Americana, p. 13. 

200 Researches into the Nat. Hist, of Man, iii. 393. *>i D e Corp. Fab. Human. 
202 A. Keith Johnston's Physical Atlas of Natural Phenomena, 2d edit., p. 106. 




OF THE RACES OF MEN. 303 

the thickness of the bones, and the great development of the upper 

and anterior parts of the German skull. 203 The reader will obtain a 

general idea of the Germanic cal- 

& . Fig. 30. 

varial type from the accompanying 

engraving (Fig. 30), representing 
the skull of the illustrious German 
poet, Frederick Schiller. It is 
reduced from Plate I. of Dr. Carus' 
"Atlas der Cranioscopie." 201 The 
authenticity of the drawing, the 
evident beauty of form and har- 
mony of proportion, the brilliant 
literary souvenirs inseparably at- 
tached to the memory of the au- 

SCHILLER. 

thor of the Robbers, and mend of 

Goethe, and especially the somewhat Sclavonic cast of the facial 
region, have induced me to adopt this skull, in preference to any 
of the heads contained in Morton's Collection, as the standard or 
typical representative, not so much of Teutonic as of Central and 
Eastern Europe, in general. Dr. Carus thus comments upon this 
Profit du Crane de Frederic de Schiller d'apres un pldtre rnoule : 

" Dans V ensemble, la proportionnalitS est, on ne peut plus heureuse et en parfaite har- 
monie avec les qualitfa d'un esprit Eminent, lesquelles durent sous tous les rapports, placer 
Schiller a, cote de Goethe. Chacune de trois vertebres du crane se trouve dans l'6tat du 
developpenient le plus beau et !e plus complet ; la vertfebrc m^diane est particuliferement 
grande, gracieusemente vout^e, finement modeled. Le front est essentiellement plus d&- 
veloppe' enlargeurque celui de Goethe,chez qui cependantil 6tait plus saillantau milieu. . . . 
L' occiput est egalement expressif, sans bosse ni protuberance; c'est surtout par une cer- 
taine formation i51e"gamment arrondie de toute la tete que l'ceil de l'observateur se sent 
agr^ablement captiveV' 

Of all the European crania in Morton's Collection, that of a Dutch- 
man approximates most closely what I conceive to be the true Ger- 
manic or Teutonic form. This skull is remarkable for possessing 
the large internal capacity of 114 cubic inches — the largest in the 
entire collection. The calvaria is very large ; the face rather small, 
delicate, well-formed, and tapering towards the chin. The frontal 
diameter or breadth between the temples, is 4J inches ; the greatest 
breadth between the parietal protuberances is 6-| inches ; the antero- 
posterior or longitudinal diameter is 7f inches ; the height, mea- 

203 Traits de Phrenologie, Humaine et Compared. Par J. "Vimont. Paris, 1835, ii. 478. 

204 Atlas der Cranioscopie, oder Abbildungen der Schajdel- und Antlitzformen Beruehmter 
oder sonst merkwuerdiger Personen, von Dr. C. G. Carus. Heft. I. Leipzig, 1843. The 
plates are accompanied with German and French text. 



304 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

sured from the anterior edge of the foramen magnum, in a direct 
line to the sagittal suture, is 5jg inches. A certain angularity or 
squareness of the frontal and posterior bi-parietal regions, gives to 
this head the Teutonic form. The posterior or occipital region is 
flat and broad, and presents to the eye a somewhat pentagonal out- 
line. The temporal regions are full, the mastoid processes large, 
and the basis cranii nearly round. The outline of the coronal 
region resembles a triangle, truncated at the apex. This latter 
feature is also seen in one of the Finnic skulls (No. 1538). 

Sixteen skulls represent the Suevic or Germanic race in Morton's 
Collection. The form of No. 37 — the skull of a German woman — 
is round. No. 1063 — a German of Tubingen — exhibits the square 
form very decidedly. The occiput is flattened ; the face large and 
long. No. 1064 — also of Tubingen — has the Swedish or Northern, 
angular oval, a type distinct from the oval of Southern Europe, with 
which hasty observers are apt to confound it. It is a well-formed 
head, and in some respects resembles the Anglo-Saxon skull figured 
in Crania Britanniea. No. 1188 — also of Tubingen — resembles the 
preceding skull. No. 1189 (Tubingen) bears the Swedo-Finnic type. 
Nos. 1191— German of Frankfort — 1192 and 1193 — Prussians of 
Berlin — approximate the square form. Nos. 1187 (Frankfort), and 
1065 (Prussian), present the Swedish type. No. 1066 (Prussian), is 
square, or angularly round. 

It will thus be seen, from the foregoing observations on the crania 
of the races of Northern, Central, and Western Europe, that we must 
distinguish for these regions several distinct cranial types — a Lap- 
ponic, a Finnic, a Norwegian, a Swedish, a Cimbric, a Germanic, 
an Anglo-Saxon, a Keltic, &c. ; that the modern Finn represents, in 
all probability, the ancient Tchudic or Scythic tribes ; that the Nor- 
wegian and Swedish are varieties of the same type ; that the Ger- 
manic form is intermediate between the Finn and Swede ; that the 
Anglo-Saxon skull is allied to the Swedish, its facial portion bearing, 
to some extent, the Finnic stamp ; that the Cimbric type is very 
ancient (more ancient, perhaps, than any of the forms just enume- 
rated, except the Lapponic), resembles the kumbe-kephalic, and 
represents a primitive humanitarian epoch ; that the Keltic type, 
if indeed any such exists, should be regarded as a variety of the 
Cimbric — ■ a low and early form ; and lastly, that the various types 
of skull to a certain extent approach, represent, and blend with each 
other in obedience to the great and, as yet, not properly understood 
law of gradation which seems to pervade and harmonize all natural 
forms, and in consequence, also, of the amalgamations which, within 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



305 



certain limits, must have accompanied the successive occupancy of 
this region by the races of men under consideration. 

In the following Table, the reader will find these races compared 
together in relation to their cranial capacities. 



TABLE III. 
European Crania. 





Finns. 


Swedes. 


Germans. 


Anglo- 
Saxons. 


Anglo-Ameri- 
cans. 


Kelts. 


ClMDRI. 


No. in 




No. in 




No. in 




No. in 




No. in 




No. in 




No. in 






Cata- 


i.e. 


Cata- 


I. a 


Cata- 


i.e. 


Cata- 


i.e. 


Cata- 


i.e. 


Cata- 


i.e. 


Cata- 


I. C. 


1 


logue. 




logue. 




logue. 




logue. 




logue. 




logue. 




logue. 




1534 


04.5 


1486 


00 


706 


94. 


80 


91 


552 


97 


21 


93 


1255 


80 


1535 


07.5 


1545 


107.5 


1063 


86. 


539 


92 


890 


01 


42 


97 


1532 


SO 


a 


1536 


112.5 


1546 


03.75 


1188 


85. 


991 


105 


1108 


05 


52 


82 


1550 


94 


< 


1537 


84.25 


1547 


102. 


11S0 


78. 


59 


99 






985 


93 








1538 


105. 


1548 


94. 


1191 


95. 










1186 


77 








1530 


81.5 


1540 


108.25 


1187 


104. 










1664 


87.5 








1540 


88.5 






434 


114. 




















1541 


00. 






1065 


92. 





























1066 


80. 


















Mean.. 


05.34 




100.75 




92. 




96.75 




94.33 




8S..25 




84.66 






1247 


85. 


1064 


91. 






7 


83. 


IS 


78. 


1249 


S3 


3 






1487 


65. 


1062 


93. 






24 


82. 










M 










1192 


S2. 


















3 

a 
1 s» 
1 










1193 


so. 




















04.31 




00.3 








89.6 




86.78 




84.25 



In the above Table, the reader will observe the high cranial 
capacities of the Swedes, Finns, and Germans ; he will also per- 
ceive that the Anglo-Saxons. and Anglo-Americans possess the same 
large average ; while the mean for the Kelts and Cimbri is several 
inches less. It is a curious fact, that in the column marked "Kelts," 
J*Tos. 21, 42, 52, and 985 exhibit the Gothic type, as before men- 
tioned (page 301), and have in general the high internal capacity 
of the Northern races ; while Nbs. 18, 1186, and 1564, which are 
of the Cimbric type, possess a lower internal capacity. The Table 
is not extensive enough to base upon this interesting fact any posi- 
tive conclusion ; but as far as this fact goes, it appears to me to 
confirm the suggestion already advanced, that the Cimbric and 
Keltic types of skull are closely allied, if not, indeed, identical. 

As the observant traveller, coming from the west, approaches the 
banks of the Vistula, he becomes aware of some modifications of the 
cranial type just described, — modifications which call to his mind 
20 



306 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

dim recollections of the Turk, the Tartar, and the Finn. In this 
region — the debatable ground upon which, from very remote periods, 
the Sclavonian and the German have overlapped and blended, — he 
encounters here and there certain transitionary forms, which prepare 
him for a change of type. Once beyond the Vistula and the Carpa- 
thians, in the country of the "Wend, the Slovaek, and the Magyar, he 
is called upon to study a form of head, whose geographical area — 
Sarmatia of the classical writers — extends from the region just indi- 
cated into central Asia, having the Great TJwalli for its northern, and 
the Euxine Sea and tribes of the Caucasus for its southern boundary. 
The dawn of history reveals this extensive tract occupied, as at the 
present day, by the Sclavonians, a great family, whom an able writer 
in the North British Review, for August, 1849, considers to be as 
much an aboriginal race of Eastern, as the Germans are of Central 
Europe. 

According to Prichard, this great people, who appear to be an 
aboriginal European branch of the ancient Scythse, " have the com- 
mon type of the Indo-Atlantic nations in general, and of the Indo- 
European family to which it belongs." m M. Edwards thus minutely 
describes the Sclavonic type : 

"The oontour of the head, viewed in front, approaches nearly to a square; the height 
surpasses a little the breadth ; the summit is sensibly flattened ; and the direction of the 
jaw is horizontal. The length of the nose is less than the distance from its base to the 
chin ; it is almost straight from the depression at its root, that is to say, without decided 
curvation ; but, if appreciable, it is slightly concave, so that the end has a tendency to turn 
up ; the inferior part is rather large, and the extremity rounded. The eyes, rather deep 
set, are perfectly on the same line ; and when they have any particular character, they are 
smaller than the proportion of the head would seem to indicate. The eyebrows are thin, 
and very near the eyes, particularly at the internal angle ; and from this point are often 
directed obliquely outwards. The mouth, which is not salient, has thin lips, and is much 
nearer to the nose than to the top of the chin. Another singular characteristic may be 
added, and which is very general; viz., their small beard, except on the upper lip. Such 
is the common type among the Poles, Silesians, Moravians, Bohemians, Sclavonic Hunga- 
rians, and it is very common among the Russians." 206 

According to Prof. Retzius, the Sclavonic cranium is of an oval 
form, truncated posteriorly. Its greatest length is to its greatest 
breadth as 1000 : 888. The external auditory meati are posterior to 
the plane passing through the middle of the longitudinal diameter. 
The face is exactly like that of the Swedes. 

The Sclavonic Race is but poorly represented in the cranial collec- 
tion of the Academy. Besides the cast of a Sclavonian head from 
Morlack, in Dalmatia, it contains only the head of a woman from 
Olmutz in Moravia. "I record this deficiency in my collection," 
wrote Dr. Morton, a short time before his death, " in the hope that 

205 Researches into the Physical History of Mankind, iii., 442. 

206 Des Caracteres Physiologiques des Races Humaines. Par W. F. Edwards, 1829. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



507 




SCLAVONIAN (1251). 



some person, interested in pursuits of this nature, may be induced to 
provide me with materials for making the requisite comparisons. 
My impression is, that the Sclavonian brain will prove much less 
voluminous than that of the Teutonic race." 

The Olmutzian head above alluded to (Fig. 31) very well repre- 
sents the skull-type of Eastern 
Europe. It presents the fol- 
lowing characters : — General 
form of the head globular, 
though wanting in symmetry, 
in consequence of the posterior 
portion of the right parietal 
bone being more fully devel- 
oped than the corresponding 
portion of the left; the calva- 
ria quite large in proportion to 
the face, and broadest poste- 
riorly between the parietal pro- 
tuberances; the forehead is 
high, and moderately broad ; the vertex presents a somewhat flat- 
tened appearance, in consequence of sloping downwards and back- 
wards towards the occiput ; the occipital region is also flat, and the 
breadth between the mastoid processes very great. The face is small 
and delicate, the nasal bones prominent, the orbits of moderate size, 
the malar bones flat and delicately rounded, and the zygomatic pro- 
cesses small and slender. The lower jaw is rather small, rounded at 
the angles, and quite acuminated at the symphysis. If classified 
according to its form, this head would find its place near to, if not 
between, the Kalmuck and Turkish types. 

Interlopers in the lands of the Slovack for 1000 years, and speaking 
a dialect of the Finnish language, the Magyars, or Hungarians, pre- 
sent us with ethnic peculiarities which, for several reasons, are worthy 
our close attention. Like the Yakuts of the Lena, they are a dislo- 
cated people. The displacements of the two races, however, have 
been in opposite directions. The physical characters, language, and 
traditions of the Yakuts indicate a more southern origin ; the cranial 
type and language of the Magyar point to the North. Edwards thus 
briefly describes what may be called the Hungarian type, in contra- 
distinction to the Slovack : 

" Head nearly round, forehead little developed, low, and bending ; the eyes placed obliquely, 
so that the external angle is elevated ; the nose short and flat ; mouth prominent and lips 
thick : neck very strong ; so that the back of the head appears flat, forming almost a straight, 
line with the nape ; beard weak and scattering ; stature small." 20 ' 

*>' Op. cit. 



308 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

It is to be regretted that the Mortonian Collection contains not a 
single Hungarian skull. "Well-drawn descriptions of the crania of 
this nation would, in all probability, settle at once and forever the 
long-disputed question of their origin. I may say, in passing, how- 
ever, that the above description of Edwards rather tends to the sup- 
position that the Hungarians are cognate with the Finns. 

Upon the southern border of the lands of the Magyar we encounter 
the Wallachs, the probable descendants of the ancient Getre or Da- 
cians, and the only living representatives of the ancient Thracian 
race, whose area extended from the shores of the Mediterranean, 
northward beyond the Danube, and eastward into Asia Minor. 
Here the human type again varies, to such an extent, indeed, that 
Prichaed speaks of the "Wallachs as a people peculiar and distinct 
from all the other inhabitants of the countries on the Lower Danube. 

"The common Wallach," he continues, "as we are informed by a late traveller, differs 
in a decided manner from the Magyar or Hungarian, as well as from the Slaves and 
Germans who inhabit the borders of Hungary. They are generally below the middle 
height, thin, and slightly built. Their features are often finely shaped, their noses 
arched, their eyes dark, their hair long, black, and wavy; their countenances are often 
expressive of cunning and timidity. They seldom display the dull heavy look of the 
Slovak, and still more rarely the proud carriage of the Magyar. 

" Mr. Paget was struck by the resemblance which the present Wallachs bear to the 
sculptured figures of ancient Dacians to be seen on Trajan's Pillar, which are remarkable 
for long and flowing beards." 208 

In the Bulgarians of the southern banks of the Danube, and the 
Albanians of the Venetian Gulf, we discover still other types, differ- 
ing alike from each other, and from the "Wallachian. Like the 
Basques of the Pyrenees, the Bretons of France, and the Gaels of 
Britain, the Albanians or Skippetars differ in language and physical 
characters from the races by which they are surrounded, and appear 
to be the remnant of a people who, if not identical with the myste- 
rious and much-debated Pelasgi, were, in all probability, their eotem- 
poraries. They differ decidedly from their Greek neighbors, being 
generally nearly six feet high, and strong and muscular in propor- 
tion. " They have oval faces, large mustachios, a ruddy color in 
their cheeks, a brisk, animated eye, a well-proportioned mouth, and 
line teeth. Their neck is long and thin, their chest broad; their 
legs are slender, with very little calf." 209 

Neither time nor space permits me, nor does the Mortonian Col- 
lection contain the cranial material necessary, to illustrate the 



208 Researches, &c, iii. p. 504. See, also, Paget's Travels in Hungary and Transylvania, 
vol. ii. p. 189, et seq. London, 1839. See ante, Pulszky's Chap., fig. 70, "Daoian." 

209 Poqueville cited by Prichard. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 309 

numerous and diversified types of skull which are now, as in the 
most ancient times, found scattered through the Grecian, Italian, 
and Iberian peninsulas of Europe — in fact, all along the shores 
of the Mediterranean. Tribe after tribe, race after race, nation after 
nation, appear successively to have occupied the soil of Europe, 
playing out their allotted part in the great Life-drama, and then 
sinking quietly into the oblivion of the dim, mysterious, and eternal 
Past, whose only records are vague traditions, and strange linguistic 
forms — whose sole monuments are rude mounds, and mouldering 
humatile bones. Here and there, we are called upon to contem- 
plate fragmentary and isolated communities, whose origin is lost 
in the night of time, and who for long ages have clung to a moun- 
tain range, to a valley, or a water-course, differing from the more 
modern but still ancient people about them, and slowly awaiting 
that annihilation which they instinctively feel is sure to come at last. 
As the Universe maintains its life and pristine vigor by an unending 
destruction, which is simply an incessant transmutation of its parts ; 
and as the health of individual man is preserved by the ceaseless 
molecular death and metamoi'phosis of the tissues, so the Human 
Family — the huge body humanitarian — is kept alive and strong 
upon the globe by the decay and death, from time to time, of its 
ethnic members. If these passive, stagnating parts were allowed to 
accumulate, the death of the whole would be inevitable. Thus 
hoary Nature, establishing in death the hidden springs of other 
forms and modes of life, maintains herself ever young and vigorous, 
and through apparent evil incessantly engenders good. 

It would be unpardonable, in this attempted survey of the cranial 
characteristics of the races of men, though ever so hurriedly made, 
if we omitted to notice the Greeks and Romans — respectively, the 
intellectual and physical masters of the world. In the Greek skull, 
we behold the emblem of exalted reason ; in the Roman, that of 
unparalleled military prowess. Not alone in the matchless forms 
which the inspired chisel of a Phidias and a Praxiteles has left us, 
may we study the Grecian type. Among the Speziotes of the Archi- 
pelago, and in various localities through the Morea — the area of the 
ancient Hellenes — these marble figures still find their living repre- 
sentatives ; thus attesting, at once the truthfulness of the artist, and 
the pertinacity with which nature ever clings to her typical forms. 
Nor need we resort to the Ducal Gallery at Florence, to obtain a 
correct idea of the Roman type, as embodied in the busts of the 
early Emperors of the Seven-hilled City. Travellers inform us, that 
this type, unchanged by the vicissitudes of time and circumstance, 



310 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 



still lives and moves in the "Trasteverini," or mob population of the 
Tiber. 

Dr. Morton thus describes the Greek physiognomy: 

" The forehead is high, expanded, and but little arched, so that it forms, with the 
straight and pointed nose, a nearly rectilinear outline. This conformation sometimes 
_, imparts an appearance of disproportion to the 

upper part of the face, which, however, is in a 
great measure counteracted by the largeness of the 
eye. The Greek face is a fine oval, and small in 
comparison to the voluminous head. The statues 
of the Olympian Jupiter, and the Apollo Belvidere 
(Fig. 32), convey an exact idea of the perfect 
Grecian countenance." 210 

"In the Greek," says Martin, "the counte- 
nance has a more animated expression ; the eyes 
are large ; and the forehead advancing, produces 
a marked but elegant super-orbital margin, on 
which the eyebrows are delicately pencilled ; the 
nose, falling straight from the forehead, sometimes 
inclines to an aquiline form, and is often of rather 
more than moderate length ; the upper lip is short, 
and the mouth delicately moulded ; the lower jaw 
is not so large as to disturb the oval contour of the 
face, and the chin is prominent ; the general ex- 
pression, with less of sternness than in the Roman, 
has equal daring, and betokens intellectual exalta- 
Apollo Belvideke. tion." 211 

Blumenbach describes a Greek skull — with one exception, the 
most beautiful head in his collection — in the following terms: "The 
Kg. 33. form of the calvaria sub-globular ; the fore- 

head most nobly arched ; the superior max- 
illary bones, just beneath the nasal aperture, 
joined in a plane almost perpendicular ; the 
malar bones even, and sloping moderately 
downwards." 2l2 Fig. 33, borrowed from the 
first volume of Prichard's Researches, repre- 
sents the skull of a Greek, named Constan- 
tine Demetriades, a native of Corfu, and for 
a long time a teacher of the Modern Greek 
lano-uas-e at Oxford. 213 The Mortonian Col- 
lection is indebted to Prof. Retzius for the cast of the skull of a young 
Greek, which in its general form and character very much resembles 
the above figure from Prichard. I find the calvaria well developed ; 
the frontal region expansive and prominent ; the facial line departs 





Gkeee 



»» Cran. Amer., p. 12. 
a 2 Becas Sexta, p. 6. 



211 Man and Monkeys, p. 223. 
213 Op. cit., p. xvii. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 311 

but slightly from the perpendicular, and the facial angle consequently 
approaches a right angle. A small and regularly-formed face, devoid 
of asperities, harmonizes well with the general intellectual character 
of the head proper. The malar bones are small, flat, and smooth, 
with just enough lateral prominence to give to the face an oval out- 
line ; the alveolar margins of the maxillse are regularly arched, and 
the teeth perpendicular. 

Crossing the Gulf of Venice, we next encounter the Roman form 
of head — " a striking type," to use the language of Dr. Wiseman, 
" essentially the same, from the wreathed image of Seipio's tomb, 
to Trajan or Vespasian, consisting in a large and fiat head; a low 
and wide forehead ; a face, in childhood, heavy and round — later, 
broad and square ; a short and thick neck, and a stout and broad 
figure. ISTor need we go far to find their descendants ; they are to 
be found every day in the streets, principally among the burgesses, 
or middle class, the most invariable portion of any population." 214 
Blumenbach presents us with the figure of the skull of a Roman 
praetorian soldier, and accompanies it with the following description : 

" General form very fine and symmetrical ; calvaria sub-globose, terminating anteriorly 
in a forehead elegantly smoothed ; glabella and superciliary arches moderately prominent ; 
nasal bones of a medium form, neither depressed nor aquiline ; cheek-bones descending 
gently from the lower and outer margin of the orbits, not protuberant as in Negroes, nor 
broadly expanded as in Mongols; jaws with, the alveolar arches and rows of teeth well- 
rounded ; external occipital protuberance very broad and prominent." 215 

Sandifort figures a Roman skull, and speaks of the broad, smooth, 
and perpendicular foi'ehead ; the even vertex, rising at the posterior 
part ; the lateral globosity, and general oblong form. 216 According 
to Morton, " the Roman head differs from the Greek in having the 
forehead low and more arched, and the nose strongly aquiline, 
together with a marked depression of the nasal bones between the 
eyes." 217 Martin speaks of the Roman skull as well-formed, "the 
forehead remarkable rather for breadth than elevation ; eyes mode- 
rately large ; a raised and usually aquiline nose ; full and firmly 
moulded lips; a large lower jaw, and a prominent chin, distinguish 
the Roman ; and an expression in which pride, sternness, and daring 
are blended, complete the picture of 'broad-fronted Caesar.' " 218 Dr. 
Edwards, after critically examining the busts of the early Emperors, 
thus describes the Roman type of head : 

" The vertical diameter is short, and the face, consequently, broad. The flattened sum- 
mit of the cranium, and the almost horizontal lower margin of the jaw, cause the contour 

214 Lectures on the Connection between Science and Revealed Religion, p. 152. 

215 Decades, 4to, p. 7. HG Tabulse Craniorum diversarum Nationum, P. I. 
a ' Crania Americana, p. 13. 218 Man and Monkeys, p. 223. 



312 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 



of the head, as viewed in front, to approximate decidedly to a square. The lateral parts 
above the ears are protuberant; the forehead low; the nose truly aquiline. — the curvature 
beginning near the top and ending before reaching the point, the base being horizontal ; 
the chin is round, and the stature short." 219 

Prof. Eetzius describes, in the following terms, a " Schadel ernes 
romischen Kriegers," taken from an ancient cemetery at York: 

" This skull is very large, in length as well as in breadth, though of the dolicho-cephalic 
(Iranian) form. It is broader above towards the vertex, than below towards the base. 
The arch of its upper or coronal surface and the vertex are somewhat flat; the circum- 
ference, seen from above, is a long, wedge-like oval, terminating posteriorly in a short, 
obtuse angle. Forehead broad, well arched, but rather low ; superciliary ridges small ; 
malar processes of the frontal bone small, not prominent ; no frontal protuberances ; temples 
rounded and projecting ; parietal protuberances large, forming lateral angles in a posterior 
view, and standing far apart; the semi-circular temporal ridge elevated towards the vertex ; 
occiput broad, rounded, the protuberance rather prominent ; the sagittal suture slightly 
depressed, especially in the posterior part; receptaculum cerebelli large, &c." 220 

Dr. Thurnam figures and minutely describes, in Crania Britannica, 
the skull of Theodorianus, found in a Roman sarcophagus at York 

(the ancient Eburaeum), erected 
probably during the third cen- 
tury of our sera. He informs 
us that this skull (Fig. 34) is 
a very fine example of the an- 
cient Roman cranium ; that it 
is unusually capacious, its di- 
mensions being much above the 
average in almost every direc- 
tion; that the forehead, though 
low, is remarkable for breadth ; 
that the coronal surface presents 
an oval outline, and is notable 
for its great transverse diameter; 
that the parietal region is full 
and rounded ; the temporal fossse large ; the mastoid processes 
unusually large, broad, and prominent ; the occipital bone full and 
prominent, especially in its upper half; the frontal sinuses and the 
glabella full and large ; the nasal bones very large and broad, with 
a finely aquiline profile; the lachrymal bones and canals large; the 
face square and broad ; the superior maxillae somewhat unduly promi- 
nent along the alveolar margin, and thus giving a slightly prognathic 
character to the face ; the bony palate wide and deep, &c. 22! 

219 Op. cit. 

220 Kraniologisches von A. Retzius, in Mailer's Archiv fur Anat., Phys., &c. Jahr., 
1849. p. 576. 

221 Op. cit., p. (3). See, also, a paper "On the Crania of the Ancient Romans," read by 
Mr. J. B. Davis, before the British Association. Sept., 1855. 




Ancient Roman. 



OF THE RAGES OF MEN. 



313 



One of the long-vexed, but still unsolved problems of the histo- 
rian and the ethnologist, is the origin and affiliations of the ancient 
Etruscans. Whether they were emigrants from a foreigu land, as, 
with very few exceptions, the traditions of the ancients imply, or 
whether, as most modern writers contend, they are really indigence, 
is still an open question. Possessing a civilization stretching back to, 
perhaps, about 1000 years b. c, a cultivated literature and great phy- 
sical science, an elaborate religious system, whose machinery rivalled 
in complexity the colossal Theisms of Hindostan and Egypt, and an 
artistic development of a high, and in some respects peculiar order, 
they excelled all the early nations of Europe,, except the Greeks, when 
in their palmiest days. Their language was cognate with older forms 
of the Hellenic and Latin tongues ; but, judging from the figures 
represented upon the coverings of sarcophagi, in painted tombs, and 
on ceramic productions, their physical characters distinguished them 
effectually from the surrounding nations. According to Prof. K. 0. 
Miiller, the proportions observed in these figures indicate a race of 
small stature, with great heads ; short, thick arms, and a clumsy and 
inactive conformation of body, the " obesos et pingues Etruseos." 
They appear to have possessed large, round faces ; a thick and rather 
short nose, large eyes, a well-marked and prominent chin. 232 Ed- 
wards, however, speaks of observing among, the peasantry of Tus- 
cany (ancient Etruria), in the statues and busts of the Medici family, 
and in the bas-reliefs and effigies of the great men of the Florentine 
Republic, a type of head characterized by its length and narrowness, 
by a considerable frontal development, by a long, sharp-pointed, and 
arched nose. 

The Galerie Anthropolo- Fi S- 35 - 

ffique, at Paris, contains a 
" Crane etrusque donne par le 
Prince Charles Bonaparte," 
from a photograph of which 
the accompanying figure was 
reduced. The reader will ob- 
serve the peculiar conforma- 
tion of this skull; the rude 
massiveness of structure, the 
elevation of the frontal region, 
the flatness of the crown, and 
the downward inclination of 
the parietal bones towards the full and rounded occiput. 




Crane etru.sque. 



The 



222 O. Miiller, Abhandlung der Berlin, Aknd. 1818 und 1819, cited by Prichard, in " Re- 
searches," &c, iii. 256: — but, see, on these philological and archaeological questions, 
M. Maury's Chap. I., and M. Pulszky's Chap. II., in this volume, ante. 



314 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 




description of Miiller coincides very well with the appearance of 

this skull. 

Fi s- 36 - In Fig. 36 the reader has 

before him another peculiar 
type — and a unique speci- 
men — of skull, that of the 
Ancient Phcenicians, the sea- 
wanderers (a name their habits 
suggest and justify), the bold 
navigators and commercial 
traders of antiquity, who, as 
early as the sixth century, 
b. c, had dared the waters of 
Phoenician, the Atlantic, and, perhaps, 

doubled the Cape of Good 

Hope in their fearless explorations ; and whose language, after being 

lost for nearly two thousand years, has lately been deciphered, and its 

long-hidden secrets revealed to the world. 223 

"I received this highly interesting relic," says Dr. Morton, "from M. F. Fresnel, the 
distinguished French archaeologist and traveller [since deceased, February, 1856, at 
Bagdad, in the midst of Ninevite explorations], with the following memorandum, a. d. 
1847: — 'Crane provenant des caves sepulchrales de Ben-Djemma, dans Vile de Malte. 
Ce crane parait avoir appartenu a un individu de la race qui, dans les temps les plus 
anciens, occupait la cote septentrionale de VAfrique, et les lies adjaeentes.' " 224 

This cranium is the one alluded to in the interesting anecdote 
narrated by the late Dr. Patterson, in his graceful Memoir, as 
illustrating the wonderful power of discrimination, the taotus visus, 
acquired by Dr. Morton in his long and critical study of cranio- 
graphy. 225 From this circumstance, and from the many singular 
and interesting associations inseparably connected with its antiquity, 
its introduction here cannot fail to be received with a lively sense 
of interest by those engaged in these studies. It is in many respects 
a peculiar skull. In a profile view, the eye quickly notices the 
remarkable length of the occipito-mental diameter. This feature 
gives to the whole head an elongated appearance, which is much 
heightened by the general narrowness of the calvaria, the backward 
slope of the occipital region, and the strong prognathous tendency 
of the maxillas. The contour of the coronal region is a long oval, 
which recalls to the mind the kumbe-kephalic form of Wilson. 
The moderately well-developed forehead is notable for its regularity. 
In its form and general characters the face is sui generis. It may 



22 3 See Pulszky's Chap. I., p. 129-137, ante. 

224 See Morton's Catalogue of Skulls of Man and the Inferior Animals. 
No. 1352. 

225 See Types of Mankind, p. xl. 



Philada., 1849. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 315 

not inaptly be compared to a double wedge, for tbe facial bones are 
not only inclined downwards and remarkably forward, thus tapering 
towards tbe chin, bnt also in consequence of tbe flatness of tbe 
malar bones and tbe inferior maxillary rami they appear laterally 
compressed, sloping gently, on both sides, from behind forwards, 
towards the median line. The lower jaw is large, and much thrown 
forwards. The slope of the superior maxilla forms an angle with 
tbe horizon of about 45°. Notwithstanding this inclination of the 
maxilla, the incisor teeth are so curved as to be nearly vertical. 
Hence the prognathism of the jaws is quite peculiar, differing, as it 
does, from that of the Eskimo cranium already alluded to, and from 
the true African skulls presently to be noticed. 

In the consideration of European types, we pass next to the sup- 
posed primeval home of the human family. In the mountainous 
but fertile region of tbe Caucasus, extending from the Euxine to the 
Caspian Seas, dwell numerous tribes, speaking mutually unintelli- 
gible languages, and differing in physical characters. From this 
region were the harems of the Turk and Persian supplied with those 
beautiful Georgian and Circassian females, who have, to no small 
extent, imparted their physical excellence to the former people. 
Some idea of the multiplicity of languages spoken in this small area 
may be obtained from a fact mentioned by Pliny, that at Dioscurias, 
a small sea-port town, the ancient commerce with the Greeks and 
Romans was carried on through the intervention of one hundred and 
thirty interpreters. 

This Caucasian group of races, comprising the Circassian or Kabar- 
dian race, the Absne or Abassians, tbe Oseti or Iron, the Mizjeji, the 
Lesgians, and the Georgians, is classed by Latham, singularly enough, 
with the Mongoliclse. In alluding to their physical conformation, he 
speaks of them as "modified Mongols," although he confesses his 
inability to answer the patent physiological objections to such an 
arrangement — objections based upon the symmetry of shape and 
delicacy of complexion on the part of the Georgians and Circassians. 

"The really scientific portion of these anatomical reasons" (for connecting the above 
group with the European nations), says he, "consists in a single fact, which was as follows: 
— Blumenbach had a solitary Georgian skull, and that solitary Georgian skull was the finest 
in his collection, that of a Greek being the next. Hence, it was taken as the type of the 
skull of the more organized divisions of our species. More than this, it gave its name to 
the type, and introduced the term Caucasian. Never has a single head done more harm to 
science than was done in the way of posthumous mischief, by the head of this well-shaped 
female from Georgia. I do not say that it was not a fair sample of all Georgian skulls. It 
might or might not be. I only lay before critics the amount of induction that they have 
gone upon." 226 

226 The Varieties of Man, pp. 105, 111, 108. The attention of the reader is directed to 
the following paragraph, descriptive of the Georgian cranium referred to above. "The 
form of this head is of such distinguished elegance, that it attracts the attention of all who 



316 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 




Circassian (764). 



Fig- 37. Now Morton's Collection con- 

tains four well-marked Circas- 
sian heads, — two male and two 
female, — which, although they 
do not strictly coincide in struc- 
ture and configuration with the 
Georgian skull, nevertheless ap- 
proximate more decidedly the 
Japhetic or European form than 
the Mongolian, as will be seen 
by the annexed cut and descrip- 
tion of one of these crania, that 
of a man, setat. 40 years, and 
exhibiting an internal capacity of 90 cubic inches. The calvaria is 
well developed and regularly arched, and in size considerably exceeds 
the face. The proportions between the vertical, transverse, and lon- 
gitudinal diameters are such as to convey to the eye an impression 
of harmony and regularity of structure. The high and broad fore- 
head forms with the parietal region a continuous and symmetrical 
convexity. The occiput is full and prominent. The face is strongly 
marked ; the orbits moderate in size ; the nasal bones prominent ; 
the malar bones small and rounded ; the teeth vertical ; the maxillae 
of medium size, and the chin prominent. The fulness of the face, 
its oval contour, and general want of angularity, decidedly separate 
this head from the Mongolian type, as represented by the Kalmuck 
skull already figured and described. Did space permit, other differ- 
ences could readily be pointed out. 

These characters accord very well with the descriptions of these 
people, given us by different travellers. The Circassians who call 
themselves Attighe or Adige (Zychi of the Greeks and Latins, Tcher- 
kess of the Russians) have always been celebrated for their personal 
charms. Mr. Spencer says that, among the ISTottahaizi tribe, every 
individual he saw was decidedly handsome. 227 " The men," says 

visit the collection in which it is contained. The vertical and frontal regions form a large 
and smooth convexity, which is a little flattened at the temples ; the forehead is high and 
broad, and carried forwards perpendicularly over the face. The cheek-bones are small, 
descending from the outer side of the orbit, and gently turned back. The superciliary 
ridges run together at the root of the nose, and are smoothly continued into the bridge of 
that organ, which forms an elegant and finely-turned arch. The alveolar processes are 
softly rounded, and the chin is full and prominent. In the whole structure, there is nothing 
rough or harsh, nothing disagreeably projecting. Hence, it occupies a middle place between 
the two opposite extremes, of the Mongolian variety, in which the face is flattened, and 
expanded laterally ; and the Ethiopian, in which the forehead is contracted, and the jaws 
also are narrow and elongated anteriorly." — Lawrence, op. cit., p. 228. 
221 Travels in Circassia, ii., 245. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 317 

Pallas, " especially among the higher classes, are mostly of a tall 
stature, thin form, but Herculean structure. They are very slender 
about the loins, have small feet, and uncommon strength in their 
arms. They possess, in general, a truly Roman and martial appear- 
ance. The women are not uniformly Circassian beauties, but are, 
for the most part, well formed, have a white skin, dark-brown or 

black hair, and regular features I have met with a greater 

number of beauties among them than in any other unpolished 
nation." 228 Says Klaproth, — " They have brown hair and eyes, long 
faces, thin, straight noses, and elegant forms." ^ "Their profile 
approaches nearest the Grecian model," writes Morton, " and falls 
little short of the beau-ideal of classic sculpture." 230 The Abassians, 
probably autochthones of the north-west Caucasus, — " are distin- 
guished from all the neighbouring nations by their narrow faces, by 
the figure of their heads, which are compressed on both sides, by the 
shortness of the lower part of the face, by their prominent noses and 
dark-brown hair." 231 From all accounts, the Georgians, "a people 
of European features and form," are but little, if at all, inferior to 
the Circassians in physical endowments. According to Reineggs, 
the Georgian women are even more beautiful than the Circassians. 232 
"Le sang de Georgie," says Chardin, "est le plus beau de l'Orient, 
et je puis dire, du monde. Je n'ai pas remarque un visage laid en 
ce pays-M, parmi l'un et 1' autre sexe, mais j'y en ai vu d'ange- 
liques." 233 

The extreme south-eastern section of the European ethnic area, 
occupying mainly the table-land of Iran, is represented in the Mor- 
tonian Collection by six Armenian, two Persian, and one Aflghan 
skull. A general family resemblance pervades all these crania. 
They are all, with one exception, remarkable for the smallness of the 
face, and shortness of head. In the Armenian skull, the forehead is 
narrow but well formed, the convexity expanding upwards and back- 
wards towards the parietal protuberances, and laterally towards the 
temporal bones. The greatest transverse diameter is between the 
parietal bosses. This feature, combined with the flatness of the oc- 
ciput, gives to the coronal region an outline somewhat resembling a 
triangle with all three angles truncated, and the base of the triangle 
looking posteriorly. In fact, the whole form of the calvaria is such 
as to impress the mind of the observer with a sense of squareness 

228 Travels in Southern Provinces of the Russian Empire, I. 398. 

229 Travels in Caucasian Countries. 

230 Crania Americana, p. 8. m Klaproth, Caucasus, p. 257. 

232 Allgemeine historische-topographische Beschreibung des Knukasus. 

233 Voyages en Perse, I., 171. 



318 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

and angularity. The dimensions of the orbits are moderate ; the 
malar bones small, flat, and retreating; the zygomatic processes 
slender, and the general expression of the face resembling that of the 
Circassians, from which latter it differs in being shorter. The Per- 
sian head is less angular, the frontal region broader, the occiput 
fuller, and the malar bones larger. The lower jaw is small and 
rather round. The Affghan skull — that of a boy, aged about six- 
teen years — resembles, in several respects, the Hindoo type already 
described. 

The Syro-Arabian or Semitic race, comprising the Arabians, As- 
syrians, Chaldseans, Hebrews, and cognate tribes, also falls within 
the European area. 

" The physical conformation of the Arabs proper," says Morton, 
" is not very unlike that of their neighbors, the Circassians, although, 
especially in the women, it possesses much less of the beautiful. . . . 
The Arab face is a somewhat elongated oval, with a delicately-pointed 
chin, and a high forehead. Their eyes are large, dark, and full of 
vivacity ; their eye-brows are finely arched ; the nose is narrow and 
gently aquiline, the lips thin, and the mouth small and expressive." 234 
In another place, he says : " The head (of the southern or peninsular 
Arabs) is, moreover, comparatively small, and the forehead rather 
narrow and sensibly receding ; to which may often be added a meagre 
and angular figure, 235 long, slender limbs, and large knees." 236 Mr. 
Frazer thus describes the physiognomy of the genuine Arabs. " The 
countenance was generally long and thin ; the forehead moderately 
high, with a rounded protuberance near its top ; the nose aquiline ; 
the mouth and chin receding, giving to the line of the profile a cir- 
cular rather than a straight character; the eye deep set under the 
brow, dark, and bright." 237 According to De Pages, the Arabs of 
the desert between Bassora and Damascus have a large, ardent, black 
eye, a long face, features high and regular, and, as the result of the 
whole, a physiognomy peculiarly stern and severe." 238 

The famous Baron Larret asserts that the skulls of the Arabians 
display " a most perfect development of all the internal organs, as 

well as of those which belong to the senses Independently 

of the elevation of the vault of the cranium, and its almost spherical 
form, the surface of the jaws is of great extent, and lies in a straight 
or perpendicular line ; the orbits, likewise, are wider than they are 

234 Cran. Americana, p. 18. 

235 "Tontes leurs formes sont anguleuses," says Denon; "leur barbe courte et & meches 
pointues." Voyage en Egypte, I., p. 92. 

236 Cran. JEgyptiaca, p. 47. 237 Narrative of a Journey in Khorasan. 
238 Travels round the World. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



319 



usually seen in the crania of Europeans, and they are somewhat less 
inclined backwards ; the alveolar arches are of moderate size, and 
they are well supplied with very white and regular teeth ; the canines, 
especially, project but little. The Arabs eat little, and seldom of 
animal food. We are also convinced that the bones of the cranium 
are thinner in the Arab than in other races, and more dense in 
proportion to their size, which is proved by their greater transpa- 
rency." 239 

The reader will obtain some idea of the Arabian cranial type from 
the subjoined figure, representing several Bedawees of the Isthmus 
of Suez (Nos. 766-770, of the Mortonian Collection.) 

Fig. 38. 




Akabs (B^dawes of Isthmus). 

Figs. 39 and 40 represent the profile and facial views of an ancient 
Assyrian skull, obtained, by Dr. Layakd, from an ancient mound, 



Fig. 39. 



Fig. 40. 





Ancient Assteian. 



and now deposited in the British Museum. The representations 
here given are reductions from natural-size drawings sent to Dr. 
ISTott by Mr. J. B. Davis, of Shelton, Staffordshire, who, in an 



2S 9 Comptes Rendus, t. 6, p. 774. 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 



accompanying letter, vouches for their general accuracy and faith- 
fulness to nature. 

" This skull," says Dr. Nott, "isTery interesting, in several points of view. Its immense 
size confirms history by showing that none but a high ' Caucasian' race could have achieved 
so much greatness. The measurements taken from the drawing are — 
Longitudinal diameter, 7J inches. 
Transverse " 5f " 

Vertical " 5£ " 

" It is probable that the parietal diameter is larger than the measurement here given ; 
because, possessor of only front and profile views, I think these may not express fairly 
the posterior parts of the head. There are but two heads in Morton's whole Egyptian 
series of equal size, and these are 'Pelasgic;' nor more than two equally large throughout 
his American series. Daniel Webster's head measured — longitudinal diameter, 7-J inches; 
transverse, 5| ; vertical, 5 J : and comparison will show that the Assyrian head is but a 
fraction the smaller of the two. 240 

" This Assyrian head, moreover, is remarkable for its close resemblance to several of 
Morton's Egyptian series, classed under the ' Pelasgic form.' It thus adds another 
powerful confirmation to the fact this volume ('Types of Mankind') establishes, viz., 
that the Egyptians, at all monumental times, were a mixed people, and in all historical 
ages were much amalgamated with Chaldaic races. Any one, familiar with crania, who 
will compare this Assyrian head with the beautiful Egyptian series lithographed in the 
Crania JEgypliaca, cannot fail to be struck with its resemblance to many of the latter, even 
more forcibly than anatomists will, through our small, if accurate, wood-cuts." 

Kg. 41. The familiar Hebraic type is very 

well shown in Fig. 41 (No. 842 of the 
Mortonian Collection), representing a 
mummied cranium, taken from an 
Egyptian sepulchre. " This head," 
writes Morton, "possesses great in- 
terest, on account of its decided He- 
brew features, of which many ex- 
amples are extant on the monu- 
ments" (of Egypt). The fragmentary 
colossal head from Kouyunjik (Fig. 42, on next page), affords an excel- 
lent idea of the higher and more ancient Chaldaeic type. 

I hasten to complete the consideration of Caucasian types by refer- 
ring briefly to the peculiarities presented by Egyptian crania. Dr. 

210 But even the head of Webster is surpassed by the skull of a German baker, in the 
Museum of the University of Louisville, which Prof. T. G. Richardson, with the assistance 
of Prof. B. Silliman, Jr., found to possess the extraordinary internal capacity of 125.77 
cubic inches, and to present the following external measurements : 

Occipitofrontal, or longitudinal diameter 8J- inches. 

Bi-parietal, or transverse diameter 6J 

Vertical diameter , 6i 

Circumference 23 J 

Over the vertex, between the centres of the auditory meatuses... 14f 
See Elements of Human Anatomy. By T. G. Richardson, M. D. Philada., 1854, p. 167. 




OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



321 



Morton's severely learned and ac- Fi s- 42. 

curate labors in this field are too 
well known to the scientific world 
to render necessary in this place any 
lengthened craniographic description 
of the exceedingly ancient and highly 
civilized occupants of the classic Nilo- 
tic a Tellus. Premising that the popu- 
lation of Egypt, even in very remote 
times, was exceedingly mixed, that 
the ancient sepulchres of the Nile 
contain Negroid as well as Caucasian 
crania, and that, among the latter, 
Morton distinguished three distinct 
forms or varieties — the Egyptian pro- 
per, the Pelasgic, and Semitic, — I 
proceed to give the reader some idea of the first two of these varieties, 
by means of the following concise exfracts and expressive illustrations, 
taken at random from Crania ^Egyptiaca. 

" The Egyptian form differs from the Pelasgic in having a narrow 
and more receding forehead, while, the face being more prominent, 
the facial angle is consequently less. The nose is straight or aqui- 
line, the face angular, the features often sharp, and the hair uniformly 
long, soft, and curling The subjoined wood-cut (Eig. 43) 




Fie. 43. 




Fi« 




fifii 

flitfli 



"-■:■, 



Fig. 45. 



Fig. 46. 





21 



322 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 



illustrates a remarkable head, which may serve as a type of the genu- 
ine Egyptian conformation. The long oval cranium, the receding 
forehead, gently aquiline nose, and retracted chin, together with the 
marked distance between the nose and mouth, and the long, smooth 
hair, are all characteristic of the monumental Egyptian," and well 
shown in Eigs. 44, 45, 46 (retro). " To this we may add, that the most 
deficient part of the Egyptian skull is the coronal region, which is 
extremely low, while the posterior chamber is remarkably full and 
prominent." 

The Pelasgic form is represented in Eig. 47 — "A beautifully- 
formed head, with a forehead high, full, 
and nearly vertical, a good coronal region, 
and largely developed occiput. The nasal 
bones are long and straight, and the whole 
facial structure delicately proportioned. 
Age between 30 and 35 years. Internal 
capacity 88 cubic inches; facial angle 81°. 
Pelasgic form," — and in Eig. 48, — "Head 



Fig. 47. 




Fig. 48. 



Fig. 49. 





of a woman of thirty, of a fault- 
less Caucasian mould. The hair, 
which is in profusion, is of a dark 
brown tint, and delicately curled. 

Pelasgic form." Eig. 49, originally delineated in Napoleon's Description 
de VEgypte, admirably illustrates the Egyptian type or configuration. 
Of the Eellahs of Lower Egypt, the lineal descendants of the ancient 
rural Egyptians, an excellent idea may be obtained from, the engrav- 
ing on next page (Fig. 50), representing five skulls of this people. 
" The skull of the Fellah is strikingly like that of the ancient Egyp- 
tian. It is long, narrow, somewhat flattened on the sides, and very 
prominent in the occiput. The coronal region is low, the forehead 
moderately receding, the nasal bones long and nearly straight, the 
cheek-bones small, the maxillary region slightly prognathous, and 
the whole cranial structure thin and delicate. But, notwithstanding 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 
Fig. 50. 



323 




these resemblances between the Fellah and Egyptian skulls, the latter 
possess what may be called an osteological expression peculiar to 
themselves, and not seen in the Fellah." 

According to Pruner, the skull of the Fellah is broader and 
thicker than that of the Arab. 241 

Fig. 51 represents a Coptic cranium, which Morton describes as 
"elongated, narrow, but Y 51 

otherwise mediately de- 
veloped in front, with 
great breadth and fulness 
in the whole posterior re- 
gion. The nasal bones, 
though prominent, are 
broad, short, and concave, 
and the upper jaw is 
everted. There is also a 
remarkable distance be- 
tween the eyes." 242 

Turn we now to the consideration of the human skull-types cha- 
racterizing the so-called African Realm — a region cut off, as it were, 
from the rest of the world by the vast Saharan Desert, once the bed 
of an ancient ocean, but now constituting a natural line of demarca- 
tion between the organic worlds of Europe and Africa. 

A glance at a large chart or map of the African continent, as at 
present known to us, reveals the various races or nations of this 
part of the world, distributed in a somewhat triangular manner. 
The apex of this triangle, composed of the Hottentot family, coin- 
cides with the southern extremity of the continent ; the two sides 
are represented by the tribes of the western and eastern coasts ; 
while the base, skirting the sands of Sahara, and stretching from 




241 Die Ueberbleibsel der altagyptischen Menschenra9e. Von Dr. Franz Pruner, Miinchen, 
1846, p. 13. 

242 Crania iEgyptiaca, p. 57. 



324 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea, north of the Mountains of the 
Moon, is composed of numerous and diversified tribes, who, under 
the influences of Arabian, Berber, and other foreign immigrations, 
have assumed, in general, a higher character than those of the South 
African family. This triangular area of African types incloses a 
terra incognita, towards which the ethnologist already looks for 
remarkable revelations. 243 It would require many pages to describe 
the cranial characters of the numerous indigenous and exotic tribes 
— some exceedingly ancient, and some quite modern — which the 
traveller beholds in journeying from Cape Verde to Abyssinia, thence 
to the Cape of Good Hope, and so to the point of departure on the 
western coast. A very brief representation, therefore, of some of 
the principal cranial types must here suffice. 

Bltjmenbach has already commented upon the number and diversity 
of African skull-forms. He figures six African heads in the Decades, 
all differing from each other in frontal development, prominence 
of the maxilla?, configuration of chin, &c. This diversity of form 
is still better shown by the African heads contained in the Mortonian 
Collection ; from which series I select, as the peculiar type of Africa, 
not the highest, but a specimen of the lowest form — that of the 
woolly-haired, prognathous man, the true Negro (Eig. 52, on next 
page). In doing so, I but follow the example of Lawrence, and the 
advice of Muller, Zeune, and others. That the head here figured 

243 At a meeting of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, held October 16th, 
1855, " Mr. Cassin announced, that M. Duchaillu was about to return to Western Africa, for 
the purpose, exclusively, of geographical exploration, and the collection of objects of Natural 
History. Arrangements have been made to secure, for the cabinet of this Society, the 
collections of Birds especially, and also of some other objects. Mr. Cassin explained the 
general design of the Expedition, -which was to pass from Cape Lopez, 1° S. latitude, 
towards the supposed source of the Congo River, with the intention of attempting to reach 
its source. Mr. Duchaillu has already penetrated farther into the interior of this part 
of Africa than any other white man. The coast is unknown farther inland than from 
twenty to twenty-five miles, except to slavers, there having been no exploration of that 
part of Africa. M. Duchaillu had been on the Rivers Moonda and Mouni, had traced the 
latter to its source, and had ascertained the existence of high mountains, probably a con- 
tinuation or spur of the Atlas range, and much further south than is to be found in any 
published maps. Another fact ascertained by him, is the existence of a very populous 
nation, of marked Negro character, known as the Powein Nation, which he estimates at 
from five to seven millions. Their country extends across from the sources of the Moonda, 
probably to the sources of the Nile, and the nation is probably that mentioned by Bruce, as 
occasionally descending the Nile. It is a warlike and cannibal nation, engaged in agri- 
culture, not wandering, resembling in this respect the Ashantees and Dahomeys. It dis- 
plays the highest degree of civilization yet observed among the true Negroes, presenting 
an analogy to the Feejees, among the Oceanic nations. M. Duchaillu possesses peculiar 
advantages as an explorer. He has lived long in the country, is entirely acclimated, speaks 
well two of the languages, and understands thoroughly the Negro character. He proposes 
to proceed merely with convoys of natives from each tribe successively to the next." 




OF THE KACES OF MEN. 325 

(No. 983 of the Collection) is Fig. 52. 

neither an unusual nor exagge- 
rated form, is rendered evident 
by comparing it with the Creole 
Negro given in the first volume of 
Prichard's laborious Researches 
into the Physical History of Man- 
kind, with the drawings of Sandi- 
fort, 244 and Camper, 245 or with the 
skull represented on Plate VIII. Negko. 

of Lawrence' 's Lectures. Indeed, 

this latter drawing presents a more degraded form than the accom- 
panying figure. The general typical resemblance, however, is so 
great, that I transcribe, without hesitation and for self-evident rea- 
sons, the following description by Lawrence : 

" The front of the head, including the forehead and face, is compressed laterally, and 
considerably elongated towards the front; hence the length of the whole skull, from the 
teeth to the occiput, is considerable. It forms, in this respect, the strongest contrast to 
that globular shape which some of the Caucasian races present, and which is very remark- 
able in the Turk. — The capacity of the cranium is reduced, particularly in its front 
part. . . . The face, on the contrary, is enlarged. The frontal bone is shorter, and, as 
well as the parietal, less excavated and less capacious than in the European ; the temporal 
ridge mounts higher, and the space which it includes is much more considerable. The 
front of the skull seems compressed into a narrow keel-like form between the two powerful 
temporal muscles, which rise nearly to the highest part of the head ; and has a compressed 
figure, which is not equally marked in the entire head, on account of the thickness of the 
muscles. Instead of the ample swell of the forehead and vertex, which rises between and 
completely surmounts the comparatively weak temporal muscles of the European, we often 
see only a small space left between the two temporal ridges in the Ethiopian. — The fora- 
men magnum is larger, and lies farther back in the head ; the other openings for the 
passage of the nerves are larger. — The bony substance is denser and harder ; the sides 
of the skull thicker, and the whole weight consequently more considerable. — The bony 
apparatus employed in mastication, and in forming receptacles for the organs of sense, is 
larger, stronger, and more advantageously constructed for powerful effect, than in the 
races where more extensive use of experience and reason, and greater civilization, supply 
the place of animal strength. — If the bones of the face in the Negro were taken as a basis, 
and a cranium were added to them of the same relative magnitude which it possesses in the 
European, a receptacle for the brain would be required much larger than in the latter case. 
However, we find it considerably smaller. Thus the intellectual part is lessened, the ani- 
mal organs are enlarged: proportions are produced just opposite to those which are found 
in the Grecian ideal model. . . . The narrow, low, and slanting forehead, and the elonga- 
tion of the jaws into a kind of muzzle, give to this head an animal character, which cannot 
escape the most cursory examination. ... It is sufficiently obvious, that on a vertical 

«* Museum Acad. Lugd. Batav., t. 1, tab. 3. 

245 Dissertat sur les Varietfe Naturelles, &c, tab. I., fig. 3. — Since writing the above, a 
number of human crania and casts, formerly belonging to Dr. Harlan's Collection, have 
been presented to the Academy, by Mr. Harlan. Among these, is the cast of a Mozambique 
skull, closely resembling the heads above alluded to. 



326 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

antero-posterior section of the head, the area of the face will be more considerable in pro- 
portion to that of the cranium, in such a skull, than in the fine European forms. — The 
larger and stronger jaws require more powerful muscles. The temporal fossa is much 
larger ; the ridge which bounds it rises higher on the skull, and is more strongly marked, 
than in the European. The thickness of the muscular mass may be estimated from the 
bony arch, within which it descends to the lower jaw. The zygoma is larger, stronger, 
and more capacious in the Negro ; the cheek-bones project remarkably, and are very 
strong, broad, and thick: hence they afford space for the attachment of powerful mas- 
seters. — The orbits, and particularly their external apertures, are capacious. — Both 
entrances to the nose are more ample, the cavity itself considerably more capacious, the 
plates and windings of the ethmoid bone more complicated, the cribriform lamella more 
extensive, than in the European. The ossa nasi are flat and short, instead of forming the 
bridge-like convexity which we see in the European. They run together above into an 
acute angle, which makes them considerably resemble the single triangular nasal bone 
of the monkey. . . . The superior maxillary bone is remarkably prolonged in front ; its alveo- 
lar portion and the included incisor teeth are oblique, instead of being perpendicular, as in 
the European. The nasal spine at the entrance of the nose is either inconsiderable, or 
entirely deficient. The palatine arch is longer and more elliptical. The alveolar edge 
of the lower jaw stands forward, like that of the upper ; and this part in both is narrow, 
elongated, and elliptical. The chin, instead of projecting equally with the teeth, as it 
does in the European, recedes considerably like that of the monkey. — The characters 
of the Ethiopian variety, as observed in the genuine Negro tribes, may be thus summed 
up : 1. Narrow and depressed forehead ; the entire cranium contracted anteriorly : the 
cavity less, both in its circumference and transverse measurements. 2. Occipital foramen 
and condyles placed farther back. 3. Large space for the temporal muscles. 4. Great 
development of the face. 5. Prominence of the jaws altogether, and particularly of their 
alveolar margins and teeth ; consequent obliquity of the facial line. 6. Superior incisors 
slanting. 7. Chin receding. 8. Very large and strong zygomatic arch projecting towards 
the front. 9. Large nasal cavity. 10. Small and flattened ossa nasi, sometimes consoli- 
dated, and running into a point above. — In all the particulars just enumerated, the Negro 
structure approximates unequivocally to that of the Monkey. It not only differs from the 
Caucasian model, but is distinguished from it in two respects ; the intellectual characters 
are reduced, the animal features enlarged, and exaggerated. In such a skull as that repre- 
sented in the eighth plate, wkick, indeed, has been particularly selected, because it is strongly 
characterized, no person, however little conversant with natural history or physiology, could 
fail to recognize a decided approach to the animal form. This inferiority of organization 
is attended with corresponding inferiority of faculties ; which may be proved, not so much 
by the unfortunate beings who are degraded by slavery, as by every fact in the past history 
and present condition of Africa." 246 

Thus much for the cranial physique of the genuine tropical Negro. 
The tribes oi "Western Africa present us with higher forms of the 
skull, and less degraded physical and intellectual traits. These 
tribes, divided by a recent writer and zealous missionary, the Rev. 
J. L. Wilson, into the Senegambians, and the Northern and Southern 
Guineans, 247 for the most part dwell in small isolated communities, 
each composed of a few villages, and having an aggregate population 
varying from two to thirty thousand. Even the kingdoms of Ashantee 

"« Op. cit., pp. 242, 3, 4-6. 

2 J ? Ethnographic View of Western Africa. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 827 

and Dahomey, the largest political organizations of Western Africa, 
are not superior in population and extent of territory to some of the 
smaller European kingdoms. According to Wilson, the inhabitants 
of this region have fixed habitations, cultivate the soil, have herds 
of domestic animals, and have made very considerable progress in 
most of the mechanic arts. That the various tribes differ remarkably 
from each other in physiognomical characters, will be seen from the 
following condensed notice of some of the principal families. 

The Mandingoes, a commercial people occupying the country in 
which the Niger takes its rise, extending through the kingdoms of 
Bambouk, Bambara, and Wuli, and, in smaller or larger groups, cover- 
ing all the country from Jalakonda to the sea-coast, are described by 
Wilson as "men of tall stature, slender, but well-proportioned, black 
complexion, and woolly hair, but with much more regular features 
than belong to the true Negro." According to Goldberry, they 
resemble more the blacks of India, than those of Africa. 248 " The 
appearance of the Mandingoes," says Major Laing, "is engaging; 
their features are regular and open ; their persons well-formed and 
comely, averaging a height rather above the common." 

The Fulahs inhabit Fuladu, north-west of Manding, the region 
between the sources of the Senegal and Niger, and the three large 
Senegambian provinces, Futa-Torro, Futa-Bondu, and Futa-Jallon, 
extending also towards the heart of Soudan. The origin and purity 
of this peculiar people have been much discussed. Linguistically 
and physically, they are distinct from the surrounding tribes over 
whom they rule. They deny their Negro origin, and consider them- 
selves a mixed race. However, " their physical type of character is 
too permanent, and of too long standing, to admit of the idea of an 
intermixture. In all mixed races, there is a strong and constant 
tendency to one or the other of the parent types, and it is difficult to 
point out a mixed breed that has held an intermediate character for 
any considerable time, especially when it has been entirely cut off 
from the sources whence it derived its being. But the Fulahs are 
now, in all their physical characteristics, just what they have been 
for many centuries. And it would seem, therefore, that their com- 
plexion, and other physical traits, entitle them to as distinct and 
independent a national character as either the Arab or Negro, from 
the union of which it is supposed that they have received their 
origin." 219 Goldberry informs us that the color of their skin is a 
kind of reddish black; their countenances are regular, and their 
hair is longer, and not so woolly, as that of the common Negroes ; 

243 Travels in Africa, Vol. I. p. 74. •» Wilson, op. cit, p. 7. 



328 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

their language is altogether different from that of the nations hy 
whom they are surrounded — it is more elegant and sonorous." 250 
Mollien, relying upon traditions extant about the Senegal, thinks 
that the Fulahs migrated along with the Jalofs from North Africa, 
whence they were expelled by the Moors." 251 D'Eichthal assigns 
them a Malayan origin; 252 but the inquiries of Hodgson negative 
this opinion. 253 The Jalofs, a compact and limited people, occupying 
all the maritime districts of Senegambia, as well as a large part of 
the interior, number one million souls, who are distributed into four 
sections, — those of Cayor, Sin, Salem, and Brenk. They are the 
most northern, as well as the most comely, of all the west-coast 
Negroes, and, according to Goldberry, are robust and well-made ; 
their features are regular ; their color a deep and transparent black ; 
hair crisped and woolly ; nose rather round ; lips thick. 254 The Vai 
family, comprising the Timanis, Bulloms, Deys, Condoes, Golahs, 
and Mendas, is one of the principal families of North Guinea. They 
" are very black, of slender frames, but with large and well-formed 
heads, and of a decidedly intellectual cast of countenance." The 
Manou, or Kroo family, comprises the Bassas, Fish, Kroo proper, 
Sestos, Grebo, Drewin, and St. Andrew's people, tribes occupying 
the Liberian coast, between the Bassa and St. Andrew's rivers. 
" The person of the Kruman is large, square-built, and remarkably 
erect. He has an open and manly countenance, and his gait is 
impressively dignified and independent. His head, however, is 
small and peaked, and is not indicative of high intellectual capa- 
city." The Quaquas, with dark complexions, and very large, round 
heads; the Asbantees, of the Inta or Amina family, presenting 
more decided Negro characteristics than the other tribes of this 
region ; the Dahomey family ; and finally, the Benin tribes, a very 
black race of savages, inhabiting the country between Lagos and 
the Kamerun Mountains, complete our rapid glance at the people 
of Northern Guinea. 

The above-mentioned families are represented in the Mortonian 
Collection, by skulls of the Mina, Dey, Grebo, Bassa, Golah, Pessah, 
Kroo, and Eboe tribes. 

The Golah skull (No. 1093), is remarkable for its massiveness and 
density. The calvaria is well-formed, expanding from the frontal 

*o Op. cit, Vol. I. p. 72. ffil Voyages en Afrique, t. I. et II. 

262 Histoire et Origine des Foulahs on Fellans. Par Gustave d'Eichthal — in Memoires 
de la SoeiSte' Ethnologique, t. I. 

253 Notes on Northern Africa, the Sahara and Soudan. By Wm, B. Hodgson. New 
York, 1844. 

»* Op. cit., pp. 74-75. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 329 

region back towards the occiput, which is flat and shelving. The 
two halves of the os frontis form a double inclined plane, whose 
summit coincides with the sagittal suture. The basis cranii is full 
and round, and the mastoid processes large ; nasal bones flat, and 
falling in below the glabella; orbits large, and widely separated; 
malar bones laterally prominent. This latter feature, in conjunction 
with the double inclination of the os frontis, gives to the head a 
pyramidal form. The superior maxilla is distinctly everted at the 
alveolar margin. Another head of the same tribe is longer and 
narrower, and, in consequence of the flatness of the malar bones, has 
less of the pyramidal form. — The calvaria of a Pessah skull (No. 
1095) is oblong in figure ; the forehead flat, and receding ; super- 
ciliary ridges ponderous; malar bones large and flat; upper jaw 
everted ; lower jaw retracted, occiput protuberant. In a Kroo head 
(jSTo. 1098), I find the forehead broad and high ; the calvaria regu- 
larly arched, and having its greatest diameter between the anterior 
and inferior parts of the parietalia ; the occipital region flat and 
shelving downwards and forwards to a small foramen magnum; 
mastoid processes large ; face very broad ; malar bones shelving 
slightly like those of the Eskimo ; inter-orbital space very large ; 
upper jaw slightly everted ; teeth rather small, and vertical ; zygo- 
matic fossse deep. In another Kroo skull, the vertex is flat, the 
forehead recedent, and the jaws more prognathous. The calvaria 
of a Dey skull is narrow in front and broad posteriorly, with a flat 
vertex ; face small, regular, and compact, and, were it not for the 
projection of the superior alveolus, might be considered as almost 
European. The skull of an Eboe (E"o. 1102), presents characters 
similar to those just detailed. It does not coincide with the physical 
descriptions of these people recorded by Oldfield in the London 
Medical and Surgical Journal (October, 1835), and by Edwards in his 
History of the West Indies, but is chiefly remarkable for the great 
obliquity of the orbital opening, and the unusual smallness of the 
mastoid processes. 

Between JSTorth and South Guinea, the Kamerun Mountains 
appear to form a natural ethnographic line of division, rising as 
they do some fourteen thousand feet above the sea-level, and pre- 
senting upon their northern aspect the Old Kabardian language, 
and upon their southern, the Duali — two dialects which, according 
to Mr. "Wilson, are as different from each other, with the exception 
of a few words that they have borrowed by frequent inter-communi- 
cation, as any two dialects that might be selected from the remotest 
parts of the country. All along the coast, from the Kamerun to the 
Cape of Good Hope, an extraordinary diversity of physical type pre- 



330 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

vails among the inhabitants. Thus, in the Gabun alone, Wilsok 
distinguishes at least five very marked types. "1. There is the 
Jewish type, where the profile is strikingly Jewish, the complexion 
either a pale or reddish brown, the head well-formed, figure slender, 
but well-formed, and the hair nearly as woolly as that of the pure 
Neoro. 2. There is another, tbat may be regarded as the Fulah 
type, where the stature is of middle size, complexion a dark brown, 
the face oval, and features regular, the hair in some cases crisp or 
woolly, and in others soft and even silky. 3. The Kaffir type, where 
the frame is large and strong, the complexion a reddish-brown, the 
lips thick, but not turned out, the nose somewhat dilated, but not 
flat like the Negro, the hands and feet well-formed, but the hair is 
crisp or woolly. 4. A type corresponding to the description given 
of the Kamerun and Corisco men, and in some cases showing a 
decided approximation to the features of the Somaulis, represented 
in Prichard's work on the physical history of Man. 5. What may 
be regarded as an approximation to the true Negro type, the most 
striking instance of which we have ever seen, is that of a man by 
the name of Toko, whose likeness is to be found in the Day-Star, 
for 1847. But even this shows a much better formed head, and a 
more intelligent countenance, than belongs to the pure Negro." 255 

In a Benguella skull in the Collection (No. 421), the forehead is 
broad and capacious, the calvarial arch full and regular, the posterior 
region appeal's elongated in consequence of the angle formed by the 
junction of a large Wormian piece and the occiput proper; face regu- 
lar, superior maxillse prognathous. A Mozambique skull (No. 423), 
resembles in form that of the Benguella and Kroos. In another 
Mozambique head (No. 1245), however, the forehead is narrower 
and higher. A cast of a Mozambique skull, recently added to the 
Collection, presents an exceedingly low and degraded form. Three 
Hottentot heads are long, compressed anteriorly ; foreheads low ; the 
whole face small and prognathous, the slope, from the glabella to 
the upper alveolus, being continuous ; the occipital region protube- 
rant. Only one. of these heads approximates the pyramidal form. 
Two Kaffir skulls are characterized by high, peaked foreheads ; the 
sagittal suture marked by a prominent ridge, and the calvaria pyra- 
midal in form. Two Hova skulls have the base long and narrow, 
the vertex flat, the orbits narrow and high, and the superior maxillaj 
prominent. 

The reader will obtain some idea of the different cranial forms of 
Africa, by glancing at the annexed cuts (Figs. 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58), 

255 Op. oit, p. 19. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



331 



taken from the works of Morton, Prichard, and Martin, and 
representing a few of both the higher and lower conformations 
of the skull. 



Fig. 53. 




Fig. 54. 




Kaffir. 



Ashantee. 



Fig. 55. 



Fig. 56. 




Bushman. 



Fig. 57. 





Creole Negro. 



Mummied Negress. 



Passing from Africa to America by the way of the Canary Isles, 
we encounter a peculiar type or form of skull — that of the ancient 
Guanches, who inhabited these Isles before they fell into the posses- 
sion of the Spaniards. The annexed cut (Fig. 59, on next page,) 
shows that this type is neither African nor American, but appertains 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 




GUANCHE. 



rather to the "Caucasian" family, as sug- 
gested by Cuvier, in his observations upon 
the Venus Eottentotte. 256 This opinion is con- 
firmed by a Guanche skull in the Mortonian 
Collection. 

Through Crania Americana, it has long 
been known to the scientific world that a 
remarkable sameness of osteological cha- 
racter pervades all the American tribes 
from Hudson's Bay to Terra del Fuego. It 
is equally well known, that the researches of Humboldt and Gallatin 
have demonstrated a conformity not less remarkable in the language 
and artistic tendencies of these numerous and widely-scattered abo- 
rigines. Dr. Morton divides the American race into two great 
families — the Toltecan, possessing a very ancient demi-civilization, 
and the Barbarous tribes. The latter, he sub-divides into the Appa- 
lachian, Brazilian, Patagonian, and Fuegian branches. The Appa- 
lachians are characterized by a rounded head ; large, salient, and 
aquiline nose ; dark-brown and very slightly oblique eyes ; large 
and straight mouth, with nearly vertical teeth; the whole face 
triangular. The physical traits of the . Brazilian group differ but 
little from those of the Appalachian. A larger and more expanded 
nose, and larger mouths and lips, seem to constitute the only dif- 
ference. Tall statures, fine forms, and indomitable courage distin- 
guish the Patagonian group. The Fuegians bave large heads, broad 
faces, small eyes, clumsy bodies, large chests, and ill-shaped legs. 

As the cranial type or standard representative of these American 
JBarbaroi, I have selected the head of a Cotonay, or Black-foot chief, 

named the "Bloody Hand" (Fig. 60). 
It is from the upper Missouri, and 
was presented by J. J. Audubon, 
Esq. (jSTo. 1227 of the Collection). 
The following extract from the Crania 
Americana will serve to give the rea- 
der a general idea of the cranial pecu- 
liarities of the American type, while 
a comparison with the subjoined fig- 
ures will show how extensively this 
type has been distributed over our 
continent. 

" After examining a great number of skulls, I find that the nations 
east of the Alleghany Mountains, together with the cognate tribes, 



Fig. 60. 




COTONAY. 



266 Memoires du Museum d'Histoire naturelle, t. iii. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 333 

have the head more elongated than any other Americans. This 
remark applies especially to the great Lenape stock, the Iroquois, 
and the Cherokees. To the west of the Mississippi, we again meet 
with the elongated head in the Mandans, Ricaras, Assinaboins, and 
some other tribes. Yet even in these instances, the characteristic 
truncation of the occiput is more or less obvious, while many nations 
east of the Eocky Mountains have the rounded head so characteristic 
of the race, as the Osages, Ottoes, Missouris, Dacotas, and numerous 
others. The same conformation is common in Florida ; but some 
of these nations are evidently of the Toltecan family, as both their 
characters and traditions testify. The head of the Charibs, as well 
of the Antilles as of Terra Firma, are also naturally rounded ; and 
we trace this character, so far as we have had opportunity for exami- 
nation, through the nations east of the Andes, the Patagonians and 
the tribes of Chili. In fact, the flatness of the occipital portion of the 
cranium will probably be found to characterize a greater or less 
number of individuals in every existing tribe, from Terra del Fuego 
to the Canadas. 257 If these skulls be viewed from behind, we observe 
the occipital outline to be moderately curved outwards, wide at the 

257 It is pleasing to observe the unabated energy and zeal which the Professor of History 
and English Literature in University College, Toronto (already, as we have seen, celebrated 
for his archaeological and ethnological researches in Scotland), still bestows upon his 
favorite study, in his new Canadian home. In a recent No. of the Canadian Journal of 
Industry, Science, and Art (November, 1856), of which he is the editorial head, the reader 
will find, from his pen, an interesting account of the Discovery of Indian Remains in Canada 
West. From this article I select the following paragraph, from its bearing upon the sub- 
ject-matter presented in the text above: "No indications," says Prof. W., "have yet been 
noticed of a race in Canada corresponding to the Braehy-cephalic or square-headed mound- 
builders of the Mississippi, although such an approximation to that type undoubtedly 
prevails throughout this continent as, to a considerable extent, to bear out the conclusions 
of Dr. Morton, that a conformity of organization is obvious in the osteological structure 
of the whole American population, extending from the southern Fuegians, to the Indians 
shirting the Arctic Esquimaux. But such an approximation — and it is unquestionably no 
more — still leaves open many important questions relative to the area and race of the 
ancient mound-builders. On our northern shores of the great chain of lakes, crania of the 
more recent braehy-cephalic type have unquestionably been repeatedly found in compara- 
tively modern native graves. Such, however, are the exception, and not the rule. The 
prevailing type, so far as my present experience extends, presents a very marked predomi- 
nance of the longitudinal over the parietal and vertical diameter; while, even in the 
exceptional cases, the braehy-cephalic characteristics fall far short of those so markedly 
distinguishing the ancient crania, the distinctive features of which some observers have 
affirmed them to exhibit. In point of archaeological evidence of ancient occupation, more- 
over, our northern sepulchral disclosures have hitherto revealed little that is calculated to 
add to our definite knowledge of the past, although the traces of ancient metallurgic arts 
suggest the probability of such evidence being found. The discovery of distinct proofs 
of the ancient extension of the race of the mound-builders into these northern and eastern 
regions, would furnish an addition of no slight importance to our materials for the primeval 
history of the Great Lake districts embracing Canada West." 



334 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

occipital protuberances, and full from those points to the opening 
of the ear. From the parietal protuberances there is a slightly 
curved slope to the vertex, producing a conical, or rather a wedge- 
shaped outline. Humboldt has remarked, that ' there is no race on 
the globe in which the frontal bone is so much pressed backwards, 
and in which the forehead is so small.' ^ It must be observed, how- 
ever, that the lowness of the forehead is in some measure compen- 
sated by its breadth, which is generally considerable. The flat 
forehead was esteemed beautiful among a vast number of tribes ; 
and this fancy has been the principal incentive to the moulding 
of the head by art. Although the orbital cavities are large, the 
eyes themselves are smaller than in Europeans ; and Fresier asserts 
that the Puelche women he saw in Chili were absolutely hideous from 
the smallness of their eyes. The latter are also deeply set or sunk 
in the head ; an appearance which is much increased by the low and 

prominent frontal ridges "What has been said of the bony 

orbits obtains with surprising uniformity ; thus the superior margin 
is but slightly curved, while the inferior may be compared to an 
inverted arch. The lateral margins form curves rather mediate 
between the other two. This fact is the more interesting on account 
of the contrast it presents to the oblong orbit and parallel margins 
observable in the Malay. The latter conformation, however, is 
sometimes seen in the American, but chiefly in those skulls which 
have been altered by pressure to the frontal bone. — The nose con- 
stitutes one of the strongest and most uniform features of the Indian 
countenance ; it mostly presents the decidedly arched form, without 
being strictly aquiline, and still more rarely flat. -»- The nasal cavities 
correspond to the size of the nose itself; and 
the remarkable acuteness of smell possessed by 
the American Indian has been attributed to the 
great expansion of the olfactory membrane. 
But the perfection of this sense, like that of 
hearing among the same people, is perhaps 
chiefly to be attributed to its constant and as- 
siduous cultivation. The cheek-bones are large 
and prominent, and incline rapidly towards the 
lower jaw, giving the face an angular conforma- 
tion. The upper jaw is often elongated, and 

Head of the famous Sao much inclined outwards, but the teeth are for 

chief, "Black Hawk." , . __. n . , , 

the most part vertical. The lower jaw is broad 

and ponderous, and truncated in front. The teeth are also very 

large, and seldom decayed ; for among the many that remain in the 

skulls in my possession, very few present any marks of disease, 

2M Monuments, t. I., p. 158. 




OF THE RACES OF MEN". 335 

although they are often much worn down by attrition in the masti- 
cation of hard substances." 

The Peruvian skull " is remarkable for its small size, and also, 
as just observed, for its quadrangular form. The occiput is greatly 
compressed, sometimes absolutely vertical ; the sides are swelled 
out, and the forehead is somewhat elevated, but very retreating. 
The capacity of the cavity of the cranium, derived from the measure- 
ment of many specimens of the pure Inca race, shows a singularly 
small cerebral mass for an intelligent and civilized people. These 
heads are remarkable not only for their smallness, but also for their 
irregularity ; for in the whole series in my possession, there is but 
one that can be called symmetrical. This irregularity chiefly con- 
sists in the greater projection of the occiput to one side than the 
other, showing in some instances a surprising degree of deformity. 
As this condition is as often observed on one side as the other, it is 
not to be attributed to the intentional application of mechanical 
force ; on the contrary, it is to a certain degree common to the whole 
American race, and is sometimes no doubt increased by the manner 
in which the child is placed in the cradle." 

From the preceding paragraph, it will be seen that Dr. Morton 
considered the asymmetry of the Peruvian head to be congenital. 
In a subsequent essay he concluded that this deformity was the 
result of pressure artificially applied. 259 According to Rivero and 
Tschudi, this deformity can be demonstrated upon the mummied 
foetus. It must, therefore, be regarded as the natural form of a 
primeval race. This opinion is confirmed by the following extract 
from a letter of Dr. Lund, of Copenhagen, addressed to the His- 
torical and Geographical Society of Brazil, concerning some organic 
remains discovered in the calcareous rocks in the Province of Minas 
Geraes, Brazil. 

"We know," says he, "that the human figures found sculptured in the ancient monu- 
ments of Mexico represent, for the greater part, a singular conformation of head, — being 
entirely without forehead — the cranium retreating backwards immediately above the super- 
ciliary arch. This anomaly, which is generally attributed to an artificial disfiguration of the 
head, or the taste of the artist, now admits a more natural explanation ; it being now proved, 
by these authentic documents, that there really existed on this continent a race exhibiting 
this anomalous conformation." 260 

Many curious facts might be mentioned in this connection, show- 
ing that not a few of the artificial deformations of the head witnessed 
in certain races of men, are in reality imitations of once natural types. 

"We know," says Amedee Thieert, "that the Huns used artificial means for giving 
Mongolian physiognomy to their children; they flattened the nose with firmly-strained 

259 Ethnography and Archaeology of the American Aborigines. Silliman's Journal, 
November, 1846. 

260 This letter was translated by Lieut. Strain, U. S. N, and a synopsis of it published in 
the Proceedings of the Philada. Acad. Nat. Sciences, February, 1844. 



oob THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

linen ribbons, and pressed the head to make the cheek-bones projecting. What could be 
the reasonable cause of this barbarous custom, if not the effort to approach a form, -which, 
among the Huns, was held in greater regard — in a word, the aristocratic race? The pur- 
pose quoted by the Roman authors, to get the helmet better fixed on the head, is scarcely 
credible. It seems more probable, that when the Mongols were masters of the Huns, the 
Mongolian physiognomy was the prize attached to aristocratic distinctions; they conse- 
quently tried to approach this form, and considered it an honor thus to deform themselves, 
in order to resemble the reigning nation. This is most likely the cause of those unnatural 
deformations which historical writers so particularly describe." 261 

This opinion is also entertained by Profs. Hetzitjs 262 and Esch- 
richt. 263 Zeune thus expresses his views upon this interesting 
subject: 

"Though some naturalists presume that the flatness of the Huanca skull and the height 
of the Natchez skull are produced by artificial pressure when young, yet Camper contends 
against this idea, on page 37 of his 'Natural Difference in Faces,' translated by Sommerino, 
as does also Catlin in his 'North American Indians,' and I am of the opinion that if there 
did not already exist a disposition to these forms in nature, the different nations could 
never have conceived the idea of carrying it to extremes." 

The following extract from a letter addressed to Dr. J. H. B. McClel- 
lan, by Mr. George Gibbs, Indian Agent, dated Fort Vancouver, Ore- 
gon, December 17, 1855, will be read with interest in this connection : 

" Let me point out to you one thing to be noted as regards skulls from this part of the 
country, which was brought to my notice by an article in Schoolcraft's book. I forget by 
whom. Among ten figures given, are Chinook skulls unflattened. Skulls from the region 
where that practice prevails, which are in the natural state, are those of slaves, and though 
possibly born among the Chinooks, or other adjacent tribes, are of alien races. The cha- 
racteristics must not be assumed therefore from these. The practice prevails, generally, 
from the mouth of the Columbia to the Dalles, about 180 miles, and from the Straits of 
Fuca on the north to Coos Bay, between the 42d and 43d parallel south. Northward of the 
Straits it diminishes gradually to a mere slight compression, finally confined to women, and 
abandoned entirely north of Milbank Sound. So east of the Cascade Mountains, it dies out 
in like manner. Slaves are usually brought from the south — I should rather say were, for 
the foreign slave trade has ceased, though not the domestic (I am not talking of home poli- 
tics) — and the Klamath and Shaste tribes of California probably furnished many for this 
country, while captives from here were taken still north, and from Puget's Sound as far as 
the Russian possessions. The children of slaves were not allowed to flatten the skull, and 
therefore these round heads indicate, not the liberty-loving Puritan of the west, but the 
serf. I mention this, because in minute comparisons it is proper to take all precautions to 
insure genuineness. Skulls taken from large cemeteries, or from sepulchres of whatever 
form erected with care, may be deemed authentic, saving always the chance of intermar- 
riage with distinct tribes, which is usual, because the bodies of slaves are left neglected in 
the woods ; the Chinooks, for instance, preferring to buy wives from the Chihalis or Cowlitz, 
tribes of Sehlish origin. If I get time to finish my general report this winter, you will find 

261 Quoted by Prof. Retzius from Burckhardt's German translation of Thierry's work, 
"Attila Schilderungen aus der Geschichte des fiinften Jahrhunderts, Leipzig, 1852." See a 
paper "On artificially formed Skulls from the Ancient World," by Prof. Retzius, in Pro- 
ceedings of Philada. Acad. Nat. Sciences, for September, 1855. 

262 Phrenologien bedomd fran en Anatomisk standpunkt. Af Prof. A Retzius. 

263 Angaaende Betydningen af Hjerneskallens og hele Hovedets Formforskjellighed. 
(Skand. Naturf. S'allsk. Fordhandl.) 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



33/ 



further details, supposing always you are not tired of these. I have never been able to get 
an authenticated skull of a -white half-breed. These also are never flattened, the pride 
of intercourse in the mother preserving to the child the attributes of the superior race." 2Si 

Figs. 62, 63, 64, and 65, following, represent, respectively, the 
head of a Creek chief, in the possession of Dr. ISTott, of Mobile ; the 
skull of a Sioux or Dacota warrior (No. 605) ; the skull of a Seminole 



Fig. 62. 



Fig. 63. 




Seminole Waekiok. 
Fig. 66. 





Dacota Warrior. 



Fig. 65. 




Ancient Mound-builder. 
Fig. 67. 




Peruvians. 



S6 * See Proceedings of Philada. Acad. Nat. Sciences, March, 1856. 

22 



338 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

warrior, slain at the battle of St. Josephs, in June, 1836 (No. 604) ; 
and the cranium of an ancient mound-builder (ISTo. 1512), " found by 
Dr. Davis and Mr. Squier, in a mound in the Scioto Valley, Ohio, 
and described and figured by them in their Ancient Monuments of the 
Mississippi Valley, PI. XL VII. and XL VIII. 

The general form of the Peruvian skull is shown in Figs. 66 
and 67 (retro). 

The cranial types of Oceanica still remain to be discussed. With 
my limits already overswelled, I can but allude in the briefest man- 
ner to a few of the more important and striking skull-forms of this 
vast region, which has been anthropologically divided by Jacqui- 
jf OT 26o j n ^ three great sections, viz. : 1. Australia, comprehending 
New Holland and Tasmania, or Van Diemen's Land ; 2. Polynesia, 
embracing Micronesia and Melanesia, or, in other words, the islands 
of the Pacific Ocean, from the west coast of America to the Philip- 
pines and the Moluccas ; and 3. Malaysia, comprising the Sunda, 
Philippine, and Molucca islands — the East Indies, or Indian Archi- 
pelago of the geographer. 

According to Prichard, the numerous types of this immense 
region differ decidedly from each other, and also from those of the 
old and new world. Jacquinot, however, affirms that the Polyne- 
sians do not differ sensibly from the American tribes. 2116 Blanchard 
also speaks of" une grand analogie entre les peuples de la Polynesie 
et ceux de l'Amerique." 267 The correctness of this opinion Dr. Nott 
positively denies, resting his negation upon a comparison of the skulls 
of the two races. 268 Blumenbach, Desmoulins, and Pickering assure 
us that the Polynesians belong to the Malay stock. Such an affilia- 
tion Crawfurd clearly disproves. 

Jacquinot thus characterizes the Polynesian race : " Skin tawny, 
of a yellow color washed with bistre, more or less deep ; very light 
in some, almost brown in others. Hair black, bushy, smooth, and 
sometimes frizzled. Eyes black, more split than open, not at all 
oblique. Nose long, straight, sometimes aquiline or straight; nos- 
trils large and open, which makes it sometimes look flat, especially 
in women and children ; in them, also, the lips, which in general 
are long and curved, are slightly prominent. Teeth fine, incisors 

283 Voyage au Pole Sud, Zoologie, t. 2. Observations sur les Races Huinaines de PAinenque 
Meridionale et de l'Oc^anie. 

a* Op. cit. 

w Voyage au Pole Sud, Anthropologic ; Texte, p. 68. In the same paragraph, however, 
he says, "Nous pensons qu'il existe entre eux des caracteres distinctifs, des caracteres 
appr^ciables dans la forme du crane." 

268 Types of Mankind, p. 438. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



339 



Fig. 68. 



large. Cheek-bones large, not salient ; enlarging tlie face, which, 
nevertheless, is longer than wide." 

This description is confirmed by most of the travellers who have 
visited the region tinder consideration. " All voyagers, however," 
says Morton, " have noticed the great disparity that exists between 
the plebeians and the aristocratic class, as respects stature, features, 
and complexion. The privileged order is much fairer and much 
taller than the other ; their heads are better developed, and their 
profile shows more regular features, including the arched and aquiline 
nose." 269 

A slight examination of the skulls in the Mortonian Collection 
representing this race, is sufficient to show, that while a general 
resemblance of cranial forms prevails throughout this region, yet 
considerable variations in type can be readily pointed out. A 
glance at the beautiful plates of Dumoutier's " Atlas" serves to 
confirm this conclusion. 

The head of a Kanaka, of the Sandwich Islands, — a race of people 
" the most docile and imitative, and 
perhaps also the most easy of in- 
struction, of all the Polynesians" — 
appears to me to afford a good idea 
of the general cranial type of Poly- 
nesia. The head (Fig. 68) is elon- 
gated; the forehead recedent; the 
face long and oval; the breadth 
between the orbits considerable; 
the alveolar margin of the supe- 
rior maxillary slightly prominent; 
the lower jaw large and regularly 
rounded. The breadth and shortness of the base and the peculiar 
flatness of the sub-occipital region give to the whole head an elon- 
gated or drawn-out appearance. 

This peculiarity of the basi-occipital portion of the head is still 
better shown in Figs. 69 and 70, on next page, which represent the 
cranium of a Sandwich Islander, who died in the Marine Hospital at 
Mobile, while under the care of Drs. Levert and Mastin. " This 
skull," says Dr. Nott, "was presented to Agassiz and myself for 
examination, without being apprised of its history. Notwithstand- 
ing there was something in its form which appeared unnatural, yet 
it resembled, more than any other race, the Polynesian; and as such 
we did not hesitate to class it. It turned out afterwards that we 
were right ; and that our embarrassment had been produced by an 




Sandwich Islander. 



208 Crania Americana, p. 59. 



340 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

Fig. 69. Fig. 70. 





Sandwich Islander. 



Vertical View of Same. 



artificial flattening of the occiput; which process the Islander, 
while at the hospital, had told Drs. Levert and Mastin, was 
habitual in his family. The profile view betrays less protube- 
rance of brain behind, and the vertical view more compression 
of occiput, than belongs generally to his race ; but still there 
remains enough of cranial characteristics to mark his Polynesian 
origin ; even were not the man's history preserved, to attest the 
gross depravity of his animal propensities." 

Fj 71 Fig. 71, reduced from Plate 32 of Du- 

moutier's Atlas, represents the head of a 
native of Mawi, one of the small islands 
of the Sandwich group. This head appears 
to me to possess a somewhat higher de- 
velopment than is seen in the two pre- 
ceding figures. 

The skull of a cannibal, in the Mortonian 
Collection (No. 1531), from Christina Island 
— one of the Marquesas — exhibits a nar- 
row, dolicho-cephalic form; the frontal re- 
gion flat and narrow ; tbe posterior region broad and ponderous ; 
the face massive and roughly marked ; the superior maxilla more 
everted than in the Sandwich Islander ; altogether a low and brutal 

form, though the internal capacity is as 
high as 90.5 cubic inches. This head re- 
sembles in several respects the skull of a 
man of the Tais tribe (ISTukahiva), figured 
by Dumoutier on his 29th Plate. It differs 
from the latter in having a somewhat re- 
tracted lower jaw ; a feature which approxi- 
mates it to the Malay head figured below. 
Fig. 72 repi'esents one of a collection o'f 
Nukahivan. crania brought by Dumoutier from the 




Sandwich Islander. 



Fig. 72. 




OF THE EACES OF MEN. 341 

ancient ossuaries in the Island of ISTukahiva. Blanchakd has care- 
fully studied this collection, and also a series of Marquesau crania 
in the " Galerie Anthropologique du Museum d'Histoire JSaturelle." 
He informs us that — 

" Comparativement aux cranes des Europeens, ceux des naturels des lies Marquises se 
montrent beaucoup plus retrecis et plus arrondis vers le sommet. Le frontal fait non- 
seulement en arriere, mais aussi sur les cote's. Cet os est ainsi arrondi et n'offre en aucune 
facon ce m^plat general qu'on observe ordinairement dans les tetes des Europeens, avec des 
nuances a, la verite tres-notables. 

"En mesurant la hauteur du crane des Noukahiviens du bord inferieur du maxillaire 
supe"rieur a Tangle de la derniere molaire ou depuis l'apophyse mastoi'dienne jusqu'au bord 
median du coronal a son insertion avec les parietaux. et comparant cette mesure avec celle 
de l'epaisseur du crane prise de la partie la plus avancee du frontal a l'origine de l'occi- 
pital, nous avons trouve chez plusieurs sujets que cette hauteur etait a peine inferieure 
a l'epaisseur. Chez un pins grand nombre cependant, nous avons trouve la largeur du 
crane, consider par le cote, d'environ un huitieme superieure a la hauteur, et m§me un 
peu plus, chez deux ou trois individus. De ce cote" il y a done des differences individuelle's 
assez prononc^es. 

" Le coronal dans sa plus grande largeur, prise d'une suture a l'autre, s'est montre d'une 
etendue sensiblement moindre avec de trfes-iegeres variations, que la hauteur prise de l'ori- 
gine des os nasaux a, la suture mediane des parietaux. Un crane de femme seul nous a 
fourni ces deux mesures £gales. 

" La distance de l'apophyse mastoi'dienne ^ l'extre'mite' de la machoire superieure s'est 
trouve"e, chez tous les cranes de Kanaques, egale a l'espace compris entre le bord externa 
des deux os jugaux pris a leur insertion avec l'os frontal. 

" Dans ce type enfin on constate encore une preeminence bien prononcfe des apophyses 
zygomatiques une forte saillie des os maxillaires et une forme ovalaire dans la base du 
crane, l'occipital etant sensiblement att^nue en arriere. 

" Les tetes de femmes pr&entent les memes caracteres que les tetes d'hommes, les 
memes rapports entre les proportions de la boite cranienne, de l'os frontal, etc., avec les os 
de la face un peu moins saillants." 

In Fig. 73 (skull of a Taitian woman), Fig. 73. 

the reader has before him the cranial type 
of the Society Islands. 

"Nous remarquons," says' Blanchakd, "la menie 
forme ge'ne'rale de la tete que chez les naturels des 
iles Marquises ; e'est e"galement une forme pyramidale, 
plus prononce'e encore que nous ne l'avons vu partout 
ailleurs dans la t6te d'homme qui porte sur la planche 
les nuine"ros 1 et 2 ; mais ici l'allongement general de 
cette tete nous fait croire a, une particularity tout a fait 
individuelle. Memes rapports entre la hauteur et la Taitian. 

longueur du crane que chez les Kanaques, et cependant, 

vue par le profil, la tete nous parait plus arrondie chez les Tai'tiens, les parie'taux nous 
semblent moins de'prime's en arriere. Sous le rapport des proportions de l'os frontal, 
comme chez les precedents, nous avons constate un peu moins de largeur que de hauteur. 
La saillie des os maxillaires nous parait aussi plus prononcee chez le Taitien que chez le 
Noukahivien. Ceci est tres-marque dans la tete de femme portant sur la planche XXX les 
numeros 3 et 4. Si l'on mesure la longueur comprise enti'e l'apophyse mastoi'dienne et 
l'extremite du maxillaire supfirieur, on verra, en portant cette mesure sur l'espace compris 




THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 



Fig. 74. 




Tonga Islander. 



entre les os jugaux & leur insertion, qu'elle est manifestement superieure a celle que nous 
avoDS reconnue sur de nombreux cranes de naturels des lies Marquises. Cette difference 
est aussi tres-sensible dans le crane d'enfant qui, sur la memo planche, porte les numeros 
5 et 6." 

Dumoutier figures, in his beautiful Atlas, several crania from 
Tongataboo and Vavao, of which I select one (Fig. 74), that of 
a Tonga Islander, to represent the skull- 
type of the Friendly Islands. According 
to Blanchard, these crania resemble, in 
their general form or type, those of the 
Mangareviens, Taitians, and other Polyne- 
sians. He assures us that the proportions 
of the calvaria, the prominence of the zygo- 
matic arches, and the maxillary bones, ap- 
pear to be the same in all. Viewed in front, 
the head of the Tongans partakes of the 
pyramidal form more decidedly than the 
skulls of the other Polynesians. The coro- 
nal region is also a little longer. 

"Si le caractere," says Rlanchard, "observe' ici sur quelques individus appartient a la 
plus grande masse des habitants de l'archipel des Amis, il deviendra Evident qu'il existe 
un caractere anthropologique pour distinguer les Tongans de leurs Toisins de Test, et que 
ce caractere traduit une superiority relative d'intelligence." 

A higher form of the skull than the Tongan, is seen in Fig. 75, 

which represents the head of a Feejee 
Islander, in the Collection of the Royal 
College of Surgeons, London. It is 
thus described by Martin : 

" The forehead is small, and laterally compressed, 
the space occupied by the temporal muscle being 
quite flat ; but the centre of each parietal bone is 
boldly and abruptly convex ; the top of the head, 
or coronal arch, is ridge-like, with a slope down- 
ward on each side ; the cheek-bones are large and 
deep ; the upper margin of the orbits is smooth ; 
and the frontal sinuses are but slightly indicated ; 
the orbits are large, and rather circular ; the nasal 
bones are short and depressed, and the nasal ori- 
fice is of remarkable width and extent, as is that 
of the posterior nares also; the alveolar ridge of the superior maxillary bone projects 
moderately ; the lower jaw is very thick and deep ; the posterior angle is rounded, and the 
base of the ramus arched, so that the posterior angle and the chin do not touch a plane ; 
the basilar process of the occipital bone is less inclined upward than in five or six European 
skulls examined at the same time : the coronal suture only impinges on the sphenoid bone 
by a quarter of an inch. From the middle of the occipital condyle to the alveolar ridge 
between the two middle incisors, the measurement is four inches and three-eighths ; the 
posterior development of the cranium, beyond the middle of the condyle, three inches and 
three-eighths." 



Fig. 75. 




Feejee Islander. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 



34J 




Malicolo. 



Fig. 76 represents the head of a native of Mali- Fi s- 76 - 

oolo, one of the ISTew Hebrides. 

As we journey westward toward Australia, we 
find the human cranial type changing again in 
the inhabitants of the Vitian Archipelago. A 
glance at the figures on plate 33 of Dumotjtier's 
Atlas, shows at once that the Vitian skulls differ 
to some extent from those of the other Polynesian 
races already noticed. The cranium of the former 
is more elongated posteriorly, and the maxillary 
bones are more salient ; the forehead is lower and 
more recedent, so that, viewed in front, the head has less of the pyra- 
midal form. Blanchard has pointed out considerable differences in 
the dimensions of the Vitian, as compared with the other Polynesian 
skulls. He also compares together African and Polynesian crania, 
and observes that if these two great groups resemble each other in 
certain characters, they differ not the less remarkably in others. 

It is obviously impossible for me, in this place, to give an elaborate 
description of the various skull-forms of the Polynesian realm. Such 
a description, in the hands of Blanchard, has already grown into an 
octavo volume of nearly three hundred pages. Let it suffice, there- 
fore, to say, that the traveller, as he visits in succession the numerous 
groups of islands composing the Polynesian realm, is constantly con- 
fronted with interesting and instructive modifications of the funda- 
mental type of this realm. 

The Malay conformation next claims our attention. From the 
heads of this race in the Mortonian 
Collection, I select ~No. 47, as the 
representative of this widely-diffused 
and peculiar type. 

"The skull of the Malay" (Fig. 77), says 
Mobton, "presents the following characters: 
the forehead is low, moderately prominent, and 
arched ; the occiput is much compressed, and 
often projecting at its upper and lateral parts; 
the orbits are oblique, oblong, and remarkably 
quadrangular, the upper and lower margins 
being almost straight and parallel ; the nasal 
bones are broad and flattened, or even concave ; 

the cheek-bones are high and expanded ; the jaws are greatly projected ; and the upper jaw, 
together with the teeth, is much inclined outwards, and often nearly horizontal. The teeth 
are by nature remarkably fine, but are almost uniformly filed away in front, to enable them 
to imbibe the color of the betel-nut, which renders them black and unsightly. — The facial 
angle is less than in the Mongol and Chinese ; for the average, derived from a measurement 
of thirteen perfect skulls in my possession, gives about seventy-three degrees." 2, ° 



Fig. 77. 




Malay. 



2,0 Crania Americana, p. 56. 



344 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 



The exceedingly low and degraded Australian type is shown in 
the following engravings. Fig. 78 (No. 1327 of the Collection) repre- 
sents the skull of a native of Port St. Philip, New South Wales. 
"This skull," says Moeton, "is the nearest approach to the orang 
type that I have seen." It is a truly animal head. The forehead is 
exceedingly flat and recedent, while the prognathism of the superior 
maxillary almost degenerates into a muzzle. The alveolar arch, 



Fig. 78. 



Fig. 79. 





Australian of Poet St. Philip. 



Australian. 



Fig. 80. 



Fig. 81. 





New Hollander. 



Native of Timor. 



instead of being round or oval in outline, is nearly square. The whole 
head is elongated and depressed along the coronal region, the basis 
cranii flat, and the mastoid processes very large and roughly formed. 
The immense orbits are overhung by ponderous superciliary ridges. 
This latter feature is still more evident in No. 1451 of the Collection, 
which, though varying somewhat in type, presents in general the same 
brutal appearance. Fig.79, from Pbichaed's "Researches," represents 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 345 

the skull of an Australian savage, which is in the museum of the Col- 
lege of Surgeons. It somewhat resemhles Fig. 54 in its general form. 
The longitudinal ridge running from the forehead to the occiput, which 
is frequently ohserved in Australian skulls, is conspicuous in this. 
The ridge formed by the frontal sinuses is likewise prominent, and 
there is a deep notch over the nasal processes of the frontal bone. 
These characters are very strongly marked in the skulls of the 
Oceanic nations, as in those of the New Zealanders and Taitians. 271 
Figs. 80 and 81 — from Dumoutier's "Atlas" — represent respectively 
a native of Bate Raffle, on the coast of New Holland, and a native of 
Amnoubang, in the Isle of Timor. 

According to Capt. Wilees, the " cast of the (Australian) face is 
between the African and the Malay ; the forehead unusually nar- 
row and high ; the eyes small, black, and deep-set ; the nose much 
depressed at the upper part, between the eyes, and widened at the 
base, which is done in infancy by the mother, the natural shape 
being of an aquiline form ; the cheek-bones are high, the mouth 
large, and furnished with strong, well-set teeth ; the chin frequently 
retreats ; the neck is thin and short." 

" The general characters of the Australian skull," writes Martin, 
"consist in their narrowness, or lateral compression, and in the 
ridge-like form of the coronal arch ; the sides of which, however, 
are less roof-like, or flattened, than those of the Tasmanian skull. . . . 
The superciliary ridge projects greatly, giving a scowling expression 
to the orbits, and reminding us of some of the larger Apes ; the nasal 
bones, which are exceedingly short and depressed, sink abruptly, 
forming a notch at their union with the frontal bone, which projects 
over them; the forehead is low and retreating; and the external 
orbitary process of the temporal bone is very bold and projecting, 
while the space occupied by the temporal muscle is strongly marked ; 
the orbits are irregularly quadrate ; the cheek-bones are prominent ; 
the face is flat, and seems as if crushed below the frontal bone ; the 
external nasal orifice, and that of the posterior nares, are very ample ; 
the coronal suture terminates as in the skull of the Feejee Islander; 
the lower jaw is more acute at its angle than in the skull just alluded 
to, but it is arched upward at the chin." 272 

In conclusion, I place before the reader six figures, representing 
Tasmanian, New-Guinean, and Alforian skulls. They are takeu 
from the works of Du Perry, Prichard, Martin, and Dumoutier, 
and are introduced here, not only to complete our survey of cranial 

2 » Op. cit., Vol. I., p. 299. » 2 Man and Monkeys, p. 312. 



346 



THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 



forms, but also to exhibit a few of those inferior types through which 
the human family, in obedience to a grand and deeply underlying 
law of organic unity, seeks to connect itself with the great animal 
series of which it is the undoubted head and front. 



Fig. 82. 



Fig. 83. 




Tasmanian, from Western Coast of 
Van Diemen's Land. (Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons, London.) 



Fig. 84. 





Tasmanian (Dumoutier's Atlas). 



Fig. 85. 




Tasmanian (Prichard's Researches). 



Tasmanian (Dumoutier's Atlas). 



Fig. 87. 



Fig. 86. 




New Guinean (Dumoutier's Atlas). 




Alfourou-Endamene (Martin's 
Man and Monkeys). 



OF THE RACES OF MEN". 347 

Here our rapid panoramic survey of the diversified cranial charac- 
teristics of the human family must terminate. In this survey, having 
no theory to establish or defend, I have carefully and impartially pre- 
sented the facts as I have found them, for the most part, indelibly 
traced upon the specimens in the vast Mortonian Collection. Nor 
have I depended upon this Collection alone, as will appear from the 
frequent references to and quotations from the more important of the 
numerous works which constitute the literature of my subject. This 
method has been adopted, as affording the best idea of the past his- 
tory, progress, and present condition of craniographic research, and 
its claims to be considered as one of the natural sciences. By such 
a procedure, moreover, the reader has gradually become acquainted, 
as it were, with the zealous and indefatigable workers in this field, 
whose names are intimately associated with many of the facts dis- 
cussed in this essay. Feelings of professional pride prompt me, 
in this place, to refer particularly to two of these laborers, who, with 
careful hands, have materially assisted in building an Ethnologic 
edifice, whose fair proportions will yet delight and astonish the 
world. The researches of Pkichaed and Mokton constitute right 
noble columns guarding the entrance into this edifice. Recog- 
nizing, at an early period of their professional career, the scientific 
claims of medicine — claims seldom perceived by the mass — their 
expansive minds led them steadily onward, beyond the crowded 
middle-walks of their calling. Both were physicians, in the primi- 
tive sense of the word — medical naturalists, whose broad and com- 
prehensive views shed a lustre over the healing art. There is a 
singular propriety in thus coupling the labors and lives of these 
two philosophers. Their patient, unresting industry and strong 
determinative will enabled them to prove conclusively to the world, 
as indeed Hunter and others had already done, that, to a consider- 
able extent, scientific investigation is not only compatible with the 
active daily duties of the physician, but in reality, by inculcating 
close and accurate habits of observation, very often becomes a 
guarantee of success in the performance of those duties. As con- 
firmatory of this, hear what their respective biographers have said 
of them: "Dr. Prichard applied himself," says Dr. Hodgkin, "with 
as much zeal to the practice, as he had done to the study of his 
profession. He established a dispensary. He became physician 
to some of the principal medical institutions of Bristol. Me had not 
only a large practice in his oivn neighborhood, hut was often called to 
distant consultations. Notwithstanding the engrossing nature of 
these occupations, he found time to prepare and deliver lectures 



348 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

on Physiology and Medicine, and wrote an essay on Fever, and one 
on Epilepsy, and subsequently a larger work on Nervous Diseases." 273 
All this, it will be recollected, in addition to his laborious Researches 
into the Physical History of Mankind, upon which is based his fame 
as an Ethnologist. Of Dr. Morton, Prof. Chas. D. Meigs thus writes: 
" His medical practice was increasing up to the time of his death. He 
had the good sense and prudence to maintain his active and visible 
connection with his profession, while striving in the race for fame as 
a philosopher. He had early begun to make his now celebrated 
collection of crania, with great labor and toil, and inconvenient cost. 
He investigated organic remains : he explained problems in zoologj* 
and ethnology ; he diligently attended the sick ; he published valuable 
treatises on consumption, on the science of anatomy, and on the 
practice of physic. He served the city gratuitously, as physician to 
the Almshouse Hospital, and delivered courses of lectures at the 
Pennsylvania Medical College, where he was Professor of Anatomy. 
All these things were done by a man whose family was large, and 
chargeable upon his funds, derivable in chief from his exertions as 
a physician." 27 * Such were the manifold and onerous duties amidst 
which Dr. Morton composed and published his two brilliant cranio- 
logical works, and numerous detached papers on ethnography, hy- 
bridity, and allied subjects. 

Though the lives of these two men present several interesting 
parallels, and though their labors were steadily directed towards 
the same great object, yet they sought that object through different 
channels of research. With laborious hands, Prichard gathered 
from the records of travel, and from numerous philological and 
archaeological works in various languages, an immense mass of 
material, which he carefully and learnedly digested. With equal 
industry and perseverance, Morton gathered from the receptacles 
of the dead, all over the world, those bony records which he studied 
with such untiring zeal and discrimination. Prichard, the erudite 
scholar, gave to the natural history of man a philosophico-literary cha- 
racter; Morton, the philosophical naturalist, stamped it with the seal 
of the natural sciences. To the ethnological student, the published la- 
bors of these savants will long continue a shining and a guiding light ; 
while the world at large cannot fail to find, in the history of theii 
lives, noble lessons of the power of ceaseless and indefatigable labor. 

Aware of the extreme caution necessary in arriving at conclusions 
in so grave a study as that which has just occupied our attention 
through so many pages, and knowing that every erroneous inference 
must either directly or indirectly retard the advancement of Ethno- 

2 » 3 Biographical Sketch, &c, Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, Vol. XLVII. p. 205. 
2 ' 4 Memoir, &c, read before Philada. Acad. Nat. Sciences, November 6, 1851. 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 349 

graphy, I have preferred, occasionally, to suggest what appeared to 
rae a legitimate induction, rather than to pronounce positively and 
authoritatively upon the facts presented. In the same cautious man- 
ner, the following propositions are placed before the reader, as more 
or less clearly derivable from the foregoing facts and arguments. 

1. That cranial characters constitute an enduring, natural, and 
therefore strictly reliable basis upon which to establish a true classi- 
fication of the races of men. 

2. That the value of such characters is determined by their con- 
stancy, rather than by their magnitude. 

3. That these characters constitute, in the aggregate, typical forms 
of crania. 

4. That historical and monumental records, and the remains found in 
ossuaries, mounds, &c, indicate a remarkable persistence of these forms. 

5. That this persistence through time, as viewed from a zoological 
stand-point, renders it difficult, if indeed possible, to assign to the 
leading cranial types any other than specific values. 

6. That, in the present state of our knowledge, however, we are 
by no means certain that such types were primitively distinct. 275 The 
historical period is too short to determine the question of original 
unity or diversity of cranial forms. Moreover, this question loses its 
importance in the presence of a still higher one — the original unity 
or diversity of all organic forms. 

7. That diversity of cranial types does not necessarily imply diversity 
of origin. Neither do strong resemblances between such types infal- 
libly indicate a common parentage. Such resemblances merely express 
similarity of position in the human series. 276 

27a " Those who have studied the natural history of man," says Prof. Draper, in his 
recent admirable work on the 'Conditions and Course of the Life of Man,' "have occupied 
themselves too completely with the idea of fixity in the aspect of human families, and have 
treated of them as though they were perfectly and definitely distinct, or in a condition 
of equilibrium. They have described them as they are found in the various countries of the 
globe, and since these descriptions remain correct during a long time, the general inference 
of an invariability has gathered strength, until some writers are to be found who suppose 
that there have been as many separate creations of man as there are races which can be 
distinguished from each other. We are perpetually mistaking the slow movements of 
Nature for absolute rest. We compound temporary equilibration with final equilibrium." 

This paragraph I find in Chapter VII., which is as singularly unhappy in its craniological 
conclusions, as the leading idea of the work, though not novel, is grand and philosophical. 
If the above language of Dr. D. is meant to be applied to geological periods of time, it is 
probably correct ; if it extends not beyond the historical epoch, it is without the support 
of facts. 

276 " S'il n'y a qu'une seule race muable," writes J. E. Cornat (de Kochefort), " c'est-a- 
dire pouvant avoir des vari6te"s, il n'y a eu a la genese primitive qu'un seul pere et qu'une 
seule mere (Tune meme espece. S'il y a plusieurs races immuiables. il y a eu a la genese 
primitive plusieurs especes de peres et rle mires. Toute la question est done renferme'e dans 
la mutabilile ou dans I'immutabilite des races, pour arriver a la connaissance du nombre des 



350 THE CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

8. That each well-marked cranial type admits of certain variations 
in its individual characters, which variations constitute divergent 
forms. 

9. That these divergent forms must not he confounded with hybrid 
types. Both, it is true, are produced by modifications in the mode 
of action of the developing principle ; in the former, however, these 
modifications depend upon climatic conditions, in the latter they 
result from race-amalgamation. 

10. That reasons exist for considering some, at least, of the so- 
called artificial deformations as strictly natural types, representing 
very early humanitarian epochs. 

11. That a regular system of gradation seems to underlie and har- 
monize the various cranial forms of the human family. 

12. That these forms appear to he pre-represented or anticipated 
in the various types of skull exhibited by different genera and species 
of monkeys. 

13. That if we regard artificial deformations as the forced imita- 
tions of once natural types, and upon this ground admit them in our 
systems of classification, as some writers have done, then the per- 
plexing gaps which seem to break the animal chain by disparting 
man and monkeys — the group which stands nearest to man — will 
to a certain extent be filled intelligibly. 

espeees primitives." [Elements de Morphologic Humaine, 2de partie, p. 116; Paris, 1850.) 
The general immobility of race-characters and specific forms is pretty well determined for 
the historic period. But in this period a remarkable equilibrium of physical conditions 
has been maintained. In the ante-historic epoch, the question of the mobility or immo- 
bility of cranial, in common with all organic forms, must be studied over a wider time- 
latitude, and nnder altered physical circumstances. If now we recall the great physio- 
logical fact, that under the influence of the vital principle, organic matter assumes a 
definite, though infinitely diversified form (the organic cell and its developmental modi- 
fications), and that this form constitutes the medium through which all the active pheno- 
mena of life are manifested, and if we, furthermore, reflect upon the mass of evidence 
which strongly tends to correlate, if not, indeed, to identify the vital with the physical 
forces, then it will appear that the study of specific forms, when carried through great 
geological cycles, is, in reality, a study, not so much of parentage, as of the functional or 
dynamical energy of physical conditions. The question of what constitutes species is by 
no means necessarily connected with that of parentage. Naturalists, measuring nature by 
limited periods of time, have too often fallen into the error of regarding specific sameness 
as a mark of common origin. Very philosophically observes Dr. Leidt : " Naturalists have 
not yet systematized that knowledge through which they practically estimate the value of 
characters determining a species. What maybe viewed as distinct snb-genera by one, will 
be considered as only distinct species by another, and a third may view both as varieties 
or races. In the use of these words, or rather in the attempt to define them, we go too far 
when we associate them with the nature of the origin of the beings in question. We know 
nothing whatever in relation to the origin of living beings, and even we cannot positively 
deny that life connected with some form was not co-eternal with time, space, and matter, 
and that all living beings have not successively and divergingly ascended from the lowest 
types." [Description of Remains of Extinct Mammalia. Journal Acad. Nat. Sciences, N. S., 
iii. 167.) 



OF THE RACES OF MEN. 351 

14. That typical forms of crania increase in number as we go 
from the poles to the equator. 

15. That the lower forms are found in the regions of excessive cold 
and excessive heat; the higher occupying the middle temperate region. 

16. That cranial forms are inseparably connected with the physics 
of the globe. 

The entire arctic zone is characterized by a remarkable uniformity 
or sameness of climatic condition and animal distribution. The 
stunted plants exhibit but few specific forms ; and where the cold 
is most intense and most prolonged, this uniformity is most evident. 
Here, also, the human cranial type is least varied. Bending his steps 
southward, and traversing the temperate Asio-European continent, 
the observant traveller becomes aware of a gradual increase in the 
light and heat of the sun ; and accompanying this increase, he 
beholds a peculiar and much more diversified flora and fauna. 
At every step, organic forms multiply around him, and monotony 
slowly gives place to variety ; a variety, moreover, in which a 
remarkable system of resemblance or representation is preserved. 
"The temperate zone," says Agassiz, "is not characterized, like 
the arctic, by one and the same fauna; it does not form, as the 
arctic does, one continuous zoological zone around the globe." 
And, again, he says : " The geographical distribution of animals 
in this zone, forms several closely connected, but distinct com- 
binations." Now, we have already seen that the globular, cranial 
type of this region is more varied than the pyramidal form of the 
extreme North. The Kalmuck or true Mongolian, the Tartar, 
Chinese, Japanese, and Turkish types of skull are all, to a certain 
extent, related, and yet are all readily distinguishable from each 
other. Each of these groups, again, presents several cranial va- 
rieties. So, among the barbarous aborigines of North America, 
notwithstanding the general osteologic assimilation of their crania, 
important tribal distinctions can be readily pointed out. It is inte- 
resting also to remark, that in the Turkish area, we are to look for 
the traces of transition from the Mongolian to the European forms 

— a fact singularly in keeping with the statement of Agassiz, that 
the Caspian fauna partakes partly of the Asiatic, and partly of the 
European zoological character. 

It is a general and very well-known fact — first noticed by Buffbn 

— that the fauna and flora of the old world are not specifically iden- 
tical with the fauna and flora of the new. Their relationship is 
manifested in an interesting system of representation, or as Schouw 
expresses it, of geographical repetition according to climate. To a 
certain extent, human cranial forms appear also to fall within the 
limits of this system. As far as my own opportunities for exami- 



352 CRANIAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

nation have gone, I have not been able to find a single aboriginal 
American type of skull which, in all its essential details, could be 
regarded as strictly identical with any in Europe, Asia, Africa, or 
Australia. The closest approximation between the two hemi- 
spheres, in this respect, is to be found in the Arctic region ; and 
it is precisely in this region that the organic species of the two 
worlds resemble each other most closely. The massive, heavy 
skulls of northern temperate Asia and Europe are represented in 
America by those of the Barbarous tribes — decidedly different, but 
allied forms. So the comparatively small-headed Peruvians repre- 
sent the equally small-headed Hindoos, while the American Indian 
type, according to Lieut. Habersham, again repeats itself in a most 
curious manner in the Island of Formosa. 

It would thus appear, that upon the same general principles, of 
which Humboldt availed himself in dividing the surface of the earth 
into isothermic zones, or that Latreille followed in laying clown his 
iusect-realms, or that guided Forbes in the construction of homoiozoic 
belts of marine life, the ethnographer may establish, with equal pro- 
priety, hcmoiokephalic zones or realms of meu, whose limits, though 
far from being sharply defined, are nevertheless sufficiently well- 
marked to show that nature's idea of localization and representation 
appertains to man, as to all the numerous and varied forms of life. 

"When, at length, our traveller reaches the tropics, he there, under 
the calorific and luminous influence of a powerful sun, beholds animal 
and vegetable life revelling in a multiplicity of forms. Human 
cranial types constitute no exception to this statement. In the 
African and Polynesian regions of the sun, the races or tribes of 
men, differing from each other in physical characters, are, as we 
have already seen, quite numerous. The same appears to be true 
also, though in a less marked degree, in northern South America. 
Finally, then, in view of all these leading facts, whose details would 
here be obviously misplaced, may we not conclude that cranial forms 
are definitely related to geographical locality, and its attendant climatic 
conditions : and may we not, furthermore, suspect that the unity of such 
forms should be sought neither in a uniformity of structural plan, nor 
in the successive development of higher from lower types, nor even 
in the organic cell, the primordial expression of the animal and the 
plant, but in that pervading physical principle whose plastic energy 
attains its maximum in the regions overlying the thermometric equa- 
tor, and under whose controlling influence all matter — both organic 
and inorganic — assumes a regular and definite form ? 

J. A. M. 

Philadelphia, No. 597 Lombard St. 



ACCLIMATION, ETC. 



CHAPTEE IV. 

ACCLIMATION ; OR, THE COMPARATIVE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE, ENDEMIC 
AND EPIDEMIC DISEASES, ON THE RACES OF MAN. 

BY J. C. NOIT, M.D. 



In the preceding chapters, man has been viewed from opposite 
stand-points ; and each new group of facts would seem to lead more 
and more directly to the conclusion, that certain distinct types 
of the human family are as ancient and as permanent as the Faunas 
and Floras which surround them. 

"We propose, in the present chapter, to investigate the subject of 
Acclimation; that is to say, of Races, in their relations to Climate, 
Endemic and Epidemic Diseases ; and if it should be made to appear 
that each type of mankind, like a species of animals or plants, has 
its appropriate climate or station, and that it cannot by any process, 
however gradual, or in any number of generations, become fully 
habituated to those of opposite character, another strong confirma- 
tion will be added to the conclusion above alluded to. 

The study of the physical history of man is beset by numerous 
difficulties, such as embarrass no other department of Zoology. Man 
has not only a physical, but a moral nature ; the latter forming an 
important element in the investigation, and exerting a powerful 
influence over his physical structure. Inasmuch as we are now 
seeking to ascertain all those agencies which can in any way modify 
the physical condition of individuals or races, we shall, for conve- 
nience, include, under the general term of Climate, 1 geographical 

1 This is a loose definition, but we have no word in our language sufficiently comprehen- 
sive to answer our purpose. The French employ the term milieu, which covers the ground 
fully. The milieu (middle) in which an animal or plant is placed, includes every modifying 
influence belonging to the locality. The reader will therefore excuse me for using an old 
word in a new and arbitrary sense. 

28 



354 acclimation; or, the influence op 

position, habits, social condition, moral influences; in short, every 
combination of circumstances that can change the constitution of 
man. 

The subject of Climate may be divided, and treated under two 
distinct heads, viz. — -Physical Climate and Medical Climate. The 
consideration of the former appertains more particularly to the 
naturalist, whose province it is to treat of botanical and zoological 
geography, or the geographical distribution of animals and plants. 
Followed out in all its bearings, this department has been made, by 
Prichard and others, to include the whole physical history of man, 
and to explain all the diversities of type seen in the human family. 
The latter, or Medical Climate, refers to climate in its effects on the 
body, whether in preventing, causing, or curing diseases ; and it is 
this branch of the subject which will mainly engage our attention at 
present, although we shall be obliged incidentally to trench upon 
the other. 

Our limits forbid the examination in detail, to any extent, of the 
effects of Physical Climate; but, fortunately, knowledge in this 
department has so greatly advanced of late years, as to permit us to 
pass over, as well settled among naturalists, certain points which 
formerly consumed a large share of time. It was long taught, for 
example, that types were constantly changing and new ones form- 
ing, under the influence of existing causes ; but we may now assume, 
without the fear of contradiction from a naturalist, that, within his- 
torical times, no example can be adduced of the transformation of 
one type of man into another, or of the origination of a new type. 
Writers still living have boldly attributed to climate almost illimi- 
table influence on man. Numerous citations have been given, from 
credulous travellers, showing examples of white men transformed 
by a tropical sun into negroes ; of negroes blanched into Caucasians ; 
of Jews changed into Hindoos, Africans, American Indians, and 
what not. In short, the whole human family has been derived (as 
well as all the animals of the earth) from Noah's ark, which landed 
on Mount Ararat some 4000 years ago. 

Such crude ideas obstinately maintained their ground, in spite of 
science, until it was proven beyond dispute, from the venerable 
monuments of Egypt, that the races of men, of all colors, now seen 
around the Mediterranean, inhabited the same countries, with their 
present physical characteristics, fully 5000 years ago ; that is, long 
before the birth of either Moses, Noah, or even Adam — were we to 
believe in the chronology of Archbishop Usher. Nor did these 
various races exist merely as scattered individuals in those early 
times, but as nations, warring with each other. Since these discove- 



CLIMATE A]STD DISEASES ON MAN. 35-5 

ries, we hear, among the well informed, no more abont the influence 
of existing climates in transforming races. 2 

No one who has studied the natural history of man will he dis- 
posed to deny the great modifying influence of both physical and 
moral causes ; but the questions arise as to the nature and extent of 
the changes produced. Has any one type been transformed into 
another ? or has a new one originated since the living types of the 
animal kingdom were called into existence ? 

That the modifying influence of climate is great, nay, quite as 
great, on man, as on many of the inferior animals, we possess the 
evidence around us every day in our cities. By way of illustration, 
the Jewish race might be cited, being the one most widely spread, 
the longest and most generally known. Whenever the word Jew is 
pronounced, a peculiar type is at once called up to the mind's eye ; 
and wherever, in the four quarters of the globe, surrounded by other 
races, the descendants of Abraham are encountered, this type at 
once stands out in bold relief. In each one of the synagogues of 
our large cities (in the United States), may be seen congregated, 
every Saturday, Israelites from various nationalities of the earth. 
Nevertheless, although they differ notably in stature, form, com- 
plexion, hair, shape and size of head, presenting in fact infinite 
varieties, yet, when of pure Hebrew blood, they all revolve around a 
common type, which identifies their race. 

It should be remarked, in passing, that the Jewish, though com- 
paratively a pure race, is notwithstanding much adulterated by 
inter-marriages with Gentiles during all ages, from the time of 
Abraham to the present. It is true that we often see individuals 
worshipping at their shrines who are wanting in the true lineaments 
of the race ; but this may be always explained by the admixture of 
foreign blood, or through conversions of other types to Judaism. 3 
It has been clearly shown that the Jewish type can be followed up 
through the stream of time backward from the present day to the 
IV. Dynasty of Egypt (a period of more than 5000 years), where it 
stands face to face with that of the Egyptian and other races. This 
type, too, is abundantly and beautifully delineated amid the ruins 
of Nineveh and Babylon, back to ages coetaneous with the Hebrew 
monarchy.* 



2 The unity party have been obliged, since these discoveries in Egypt, to abandon all 
scientific deductions, or reasoning from facts, and to fall back upon a miraculous transfor- 
mation of one race into many ; which metamorphosis is supposed to have occurred prior to 
the foundation of the Egyptian, Chinese, and Hindoo empires. 

3 See " Types of Mankind," Chap. IV., "Physical History of the Jews." 
* Ibid. Also, Layard's Nineveh. 



?>56 acclimation; or, the influence of 

All races of men, like animals, possess a certain degree of consti- 
tutional pliability, which enables them to bear great changes of 
temperature or latitude ; and those races that are indigenous to 
temperate climates, having a wide thermometrical range, support 
best the extremes of other latitudes, whether hot or cold. Hence 
such races might be regarded almost as cosmopolites. In accordance 
with this idea, the Jews, who were originally scattered between 30° 
and 40° north latitude (where they were subjected to considerable 
heat in summer and cold in winter), were already well prepared to 
become acclimated to far greater extremes of temperature in other 
latitudes. The inhabitants of the Arctic, also, as well as those of 
the Tropics, have a certain pliancy of constitution ; but, while the 
Jew and other inhabitants of the middle latitudes may migrate 30 
degrees south, or 30 degrees north, with comparative impunity, the 
Eskimau on the one extreme, or the Negro, Hindoo, and Malay 
on the other, have no power to withstand the vicissitudes of climate 
encountered in traversing the 70 degrees of latitude between Green- 
land and the equator. Each race has its prescribed salubrious limits. 
The fair races of Northern Europe, below the Arctic zone, of which 
the Anglo-Saxons are impure descendants, will serve as another 
illustration. These races are now -scattered over most parts of the 
habitable globe ; and, in many instances, they have undergone far 
greater physical changes than the Jews. The climates, for instance, 
of Jamaica, Louisiana, and India, are to them much more extreme 
than to the Jewish race. The Israelite may be recognized any- 
where ; but not so with the Scandinavian and his descendants in the 
tropics. The latter becomes tanned, emaciated, debilitated ; his 
countenance, energy, everything undergoes a change : and were we 
not familiar, from daily observation, with these effects of climate 
upon northern races, we should not suspect the original ancestry of 
many of the present inhabitants of hot climates. In these cases we 
behold, not simply a healthful modification of the physical and 
intellectual man, but a positively morbid degradation. The pure 
white man carried into the tropic deteriorates both in mind and 
body; the average duration of his life is lessened; and, without 
fresh importations, his race would in time become extinct. When, 
however, his descendants are taken back to their native climes, they 
revert to the healthful standard of their original types : the latter 
may have been distorted, but can never be lost, except in death. 

[This fact may be familiarly exemplified by the habits of English 
sojourners {colonists they cannot be termed) now scattered through- 
out Hindostan and the Indian Archipelago, on both sides of Africa 
a few hundred miles north of the Cape, along the southern shores 



CLIMATE AND DISEASES ON MAN. 357 

of the Mediterranean, in the West Indies, South America, and else- 
where. Such emigrants are, moreover, out of all proportion, athletic 
adults before quitting their birth-place; who set forth with the 
intention, and are ever cheered by the hope, of returning home the 
moment their ambition is realized. Few, notwithstanding, come 
back to their native land with constitutions unimpaired; but, in no 
cases do those English whose means are not absolutely insignificant, 
attempt to rear up their children in any of the above tropical 
regions. If they do so, parents mourn over the graves of lost 
offspring, or sigh on beholding the sickly appearance of the sur- 
viving: of the latter, an adult generation, especially amongst the 
females, suffering under hourly-increasing morbific influence, is 
destined to succumb far within the average limits of longevity that 
would have been accorded to them by a life-insurance actuary, had 
they grown up in Europe. On the contrary, every sacrifice is made, 
under the name of "education," to send them homeward, in order 
that they may become constitutionally retempered, before they are 
once more exposed to such deleterious intertropical influences. So 
true is this rule, that, on the authority of a friend of Mr. Gliddon's, 
Major General Bagnold, of the Hon. East India Company's Service 
— a veteran who now, with his family, in London, practically carries 
into effect half a century of Oriental experiences — we know that the 
oldest purely-English regiment in India, the "Bombay Tufts," not- 
withstanding that marriages with British females are encouraged, 
has never been able, from the time of Charles H. to the present 
hour, to rear, from births in the corps, boys enough to supply its 
drummers and fifers. 

The same rule holds good with the Dutch in Batavia and other 
Indian islands. Their children, when of pure blood, in health are 
weakly; when half-caste, worse. Where, however, as frequently 
happens in our Gulf States, such half-caste is produced by the union 
of South {dark) Europeans with negresses or squaws, a hardier 
animal appears to be the result. Hear Desjobbrt : 

"Le Francais s'acclimate-t-il? ses enfans s elevent-ils en Algerie? We speak of Frenchmen, 
and not of those Spanish, Italian, and Maltese populations which, coming from a country 
more analogous in climate [and heing in type dark races, also], bear better than our fellow- 
countrymen the influence of the African climate. 

" Algerian colonists have always confounded, under the same name of colony, every 
establishment of Europeans out of Europe. They have not reflected that, in climates 
different from those of Europe, he [the European] labors but little in body. He more 
frequently commands, administrates, or follows mercantile pursuits in the cities [not in the 
country]. 

" French and English races labor in Canada, in the northern parts of the United States, 
and in New Holland; but, in the Southern States of the Union, at the Antilles, Guayanas, 



358 acclimation; or, the influence of 

and the isles of Mauritius and Bourbon, it is the [exotic] blacks who work ; in India, it is 
the Hindoo. 

" Spaniards, it is true, do labor a little at Cuba and at Porto Eico. But they had inha- 
bited, in Europe, a hotter climate than the French and English. [For the same reason, 
joined to their dark race, our white fishermen, in the bayous from Charleston, S. C, to 
Galveston, Texas, are the only men who, with comparative security, ply their vocation the 
whole year round: and they are Spaniards, Portuguese, Maltese, or else mulattos.] They 
work also a little in America, especially when the altitude of the soil makes up for the 
latitude of the country, as in Mexico and Peru ; or when the climate is far more temperate, 
as in Buenos Ayres ; and even then, this labor cannot be compared to the work performed 
in France and in England [and north of " Mason and Dixon's line"]. At the Philippines, 
it is the native that labors. 

"The Dutchman works not out of Europe: at Java, it is the Malay; at Guyana, it is 
the black who labors. 

" The Portuguese never labors in India. In Brazil and at Guyana it is the black who 
works for him;" [in Central America, it is the Carib, the Toltecan Indian, or the half- 
caste.] 5 

In Egypt, no European nor Turk risks his own person as an 
agriculturist: the labor is performed there, as in Mesopotamia, by 
the indigenous Fellah. At Madagascar the Frenchman, as in Sierra 
Leone the Englishman, dies off if he attempts it. In Algeria, the 
French are beginning to find out that, unless the Arab or the Kabyle 
will plough the fields for them, colonization is hopeless. 6 And, lastly, 
were not this fact of the non-acclimation of white races, a few 
degrees north and south of the equinoctial line, now recognized by 
experience, why should Coolies from India and Malayana, as well as 
Chinese "apprentices," be eagerly contracted for at Bourbon, the 
Mauritius, the West Indies, and in Southern America ? 

The truth of these propositions will be investigated hereinafter.] 
The negro, too, obeys the law of climate. Unlike the white man, 

6 Desjobert, L'Algerie, Paris, 1847, pp. 6, 7, and 26, notes. 

"Nous ne comptons ici les hommes morts dans les hopitaux [i. e. 71 per 1000, in 1846 
alone!], et nons ne parlons pas de ceux qui, reTormgs, vont mourir dans lenrs families. 
Nous ne parlons pas non plus de ceux tu6s par le feu de l'ennemi : ils sont peu nombreux. 

Nous perdons par an, en Afrique, environ 200 hommes. 

" Nous avons perdu en 1846 116 " 

" A la prise de Constantine.., 100 " 

" A la bataille d'Isly 27 " 

" AlaSmalah 9 " 

" ' Tout homme faible qu'on envoie en Afrique est un homme perdu.' — Marechai 
Bugeaud, discours du 19 fevrier, 1838." 

6 See Discours prononce par M. Desjobert (Representative in the Assemblee Rationale), 
Paris, 1850; Idem, Documents Statistiques sur VAlgerie, 1851; Boudin, Hisioire Statistique 
de la Colonisation et de la Population en Algerie, Paris, 1853, passim. 

It is with much disappointment that I am compelled to go to press with these evidences 
of the non-acclimation of races, without having received a copy of the work which Dr. 
Boudin has in press (Traite de Geographie et de Siatistique Medicates, 2 vols. 8vo., at Bail- 
lifere's, Paris). Mr. Gliddon tells me that he perused some of its proof-sheets at the author's 
house, in Oct., 1855. 



CLIMATE AND DISEASES ON MAN. 359 

his complexion undergoes no change by climate. While the white 
man is darkened by the tropical sun, the negro is never blanched in 
the slightest degree by a residence in northern latitudes. Like the 
quadrumana of the tropics, he is inevitably killed by cold ; but it 
never changes his hair, complexion, skeleton, nor size and shape of 
brain. 7 We do not propose, however, to enter into this discussion 
here. Our object is simply to call attention to the independence of 
existing types, of all climatic causes now in operation. 

While naturalists have been accumulating so much useful infor- 
mation concerning the history, durability, &c, of species in the 
animal kingdom, they leave us still in utter darkness as to the time 
or manner of their origin. Our actual Flora and Fauna extend, it 
is now ascertained, many thousand years beyond the chronologies 
taught in our schools to children ; but whether man and his asso- 
ciates have existed ten or one hundred thousand years, we have no 
data for determining. Lepsius tells us that he regards even the 
records of the early (Hid and FVth) dynasties of Egypt, as a part 
of the modern history of man. 

That organized beings have existed on earth (in the language of 
the great geologist Lyell) "millions of ages," no naturalist of our 
day will doubt; and although our knowledge is not sufficiently 
complete to enable us to follow Nature's great chain, link by link, 
yet it appears probable that there has been an ascending series, 
commencing with the simplest forms and ending with man. Geolo- 
gists have arranged the materials which compose the crust of the 
earth into igneous and sedimentary. The first, as the name implies, 
are formed by the action of heat under superincumbent pressure, 
and are composed of an aggregate of crystalline particles, without 
any order or stratification. Sedimentary rocks are composed of the 
fragments of older rocks, worn down by the action of the elements, 
and deposited in the ocean, whence, by pressure, heat, and chemical 
agency, they are re-formed into new masses, assuming a stratified and 
more or less slaty structure. 

To say nothing of subdivisions, the whole series have been divided 
into igneous rocks, primary stratified formations, secondary forma- 
tions, tertiary formations, and diluvial formations. In the first two 
divisions we find no traces of life, animal or vegetable ; in the se- 
condary we find numerous plants, mollusks, reptiles, and fishes ; and, 



' The negro races are peculiarly liable to consumption out of the tropics, or even within 
them. They are never agriculturists, either in Egypt or in Barbary : nevertheless, in both 
countries, negroes are the shortest lived of the population. Monkeys suffer to a great 
extent with the same disease, in the Garden of Plants, at Paris. Nowhere in North Europe 
or in our Northern States, can the Orang-utan live. 



360 acclimation; or, the influence op 

when we reach the tertiary, we find the shell animals approaching 
nearer, in specific forms, to existing species, than those of previous 
formations ; and along with these are skeletons of birds and mam- 
malia, including quadrupeds and quadrumana. The geological 
epoch of man has yet to be determined : it is certain that the investi- 
gations of each succeeding year tend to throw it further back in 
time ; nor are there wanting good authorities who would not be 
surprised to find his remains in the tertiary, where the quadrumana 
have been recently, and for the first time, discovered. 

A discussion of such difficulty and magnitude as the theory of 
progressive development, would be out of place here ; but this idea 
seems to have taken possession of many of our leading authorities. 
Nor, at first sight, would it seem that the long-mooted question of 
the origin of species could properly find a place in an essay on 
Medical Qlimate; yet all these subjects have points of contact, which 
render it difficult to isolate them. Our object being to study the 
influence of climates and their diseases on races, we assuredly, d 
priori, should expect species and mere varieties to be influenced in 
different degrees. Natural history teaches us that the white and 
black races, for example, are distinct species. We should, therefore, 
regard their origin as independent of climate; and if we can show 
that these races are not affected in like manner by diseases, we fortify 
the conclusion to which natural history has led us. Well-ascertained 
varieties of a given species, however widely scattered, may exchange 
habitations with comparative impunity ; while, on the contrary, as a 
general rule, each species of a genus has its prescribed geographical 
range. The species, for example, of the reindeer and the white bear, 
in the. Arctic, can no more exchange places with the deer and bear 
of the Tropics, than can the Esquimau with the tropical Negro. 
Such facts as these, then, clearly show how deeply our subject 
implicates the investigation of species and varieties. 

A great diversity of opinion has existed with regard to the origin 
of species, but we shall allude only to two of the more prominent. 
Of the first school, Cuvier may be regarded as the most distinguished 
authority. He contends that the geological history of the earth 
should be divided into distinct periods, each of which is complete in 
itself; that there has been, since the dawn of life, a succession of 
distinct creations and destructions; and that the organized beings of 
one epoch have no direct connection, by way of descent, with those 
of the preceding. According to this theory, the species of animals 
and plants now scattered over the face of the earth are primordial 
forms, the result of a special creation ; which have endured without 



CLIMATE AND DISEASES ON MAN. 361 

material change to the present, and which ivill endure unchanged 
until their allotted term of existence has expired. 

The opposing school may he represented by Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 
the contemporary of Cuvier. It is contended by his followers that 
there has been but one creation, and no cessation of life, since the 
first organized beings were brought into existence ; that, by a law 
of progressive development or evolution, in accordance with new 
climatic influences, brought into action, from time to time, by 
changes in the physical condition of the globe, the living beings of 
one period have given origin to those which follow; and so on 
through the whole chain, from the earliest and simplest forms to the 
last and most complex. Moreover, that what we term species remains 
permanent as long as the physical conditions which produced them 
remain unchanged. Some of this school go so far as to assert that 
no such tiling as "species" exists; that Nature creates only indivi- 
duals, no two animals or plants being exactly alike, and the species 
of each genus running together so closely as to leave their bounda- 
ries difficult, and often impossible, to define. They further contend, 
that transformations of species are incessantly going on around us, 
though so slowly as not to be easily recognized, in the atom of time 
which has been consumed so far by the human family. 

Those who contend that all the races of men are of common 
origin, must, in spite of themselves, fall into these heterodox opinions 
of Lamarck, Oken, and St. Hilaire ; because the races of men differ 
quite as much, anatomically and physiologically, as do the species 
of other genera in the animal kingdom — the Equidte, the Ursines, 
Felines, &c. Professor Owen himself cannot point out greater 
differences between the lion, tiger, and panther, or the dog, fox, 
wolf, and jackal, than those between the White Man, Negro, and 
Mongol. 

According to the above doctrine, not only are the individuals of 
our present Fauna and Flora direct descendants of the fossil world, 
but they are probably destined to be the ancestry of others still 
more perfect. The climatic influences now at work, it is supposed, 
will be changed, and development take up its line of march and cany 
on the great plan of the Creator. Thus, man himself is to be the 
progenitor of beings far more perfect than himself; and it must be 
confessed that there is no small room for improvement. But there 
is no good reason why we should enter the lists with these dispu- 
tants, as the two schools unite at a point which meets all the requi- 
sitions of our present investigation. The term species is, at best, 
but a conventional one, without a fixed definition ; and is used by 
both parties to designate certain groups of forms closely resembling 



362 acclimation; or, the influence of 

each other, that have been permanent as far back as our means of 
investigation reach, and which will endure as long as the Faunas 
and Floras of which they form a part. 

Our declared object is to ascertain what influence the climates of 
our day exert over existing forms, and especially over those of the 
human family. It should be borne in mind that each species has its 
own physiological and pathological laws, which give it its specific 
character ; and each species must, therefore, be made a special study. 
Too much reliance has been placed upon analogies; since no one 
animal should be taken as an analogue for another. Not only are 
they variously affected by climate, food, &c, but also by morbific 
influences. These remarks apply with their greatest force to man, 
who is widely separated from the lower animals in many things, and 
more particularly his diseases. The " Societe Zoologique d' Acclima- 
tion" of Paris, is composed of some of the most scientific men of 
France, with I. Geoffroy St. Hilaire at its head ; and to them each 
new species is a new study : they look to time and observation alone 
for their knowledge. "When a new quadruped, bird, or plant, is 
brought to France, no one pretends to foretell the exact influence 
of the new climate upon it ; and it has been ascertained that two 
species, brought from the same habitat, may be very differently 
affected. One may become habituated to a wide geographical range, 
while another only to a very limited one. 

So it is with the species of man — each must be made a separate 
study, in connection with both Physical and Medical Climate. It does 
not at all advance our knowledge of man to tell us that pigs, poultry, 
horses, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, &c, may be carried all over the 
world, may become habituated to all climates, and everywhere 
change their forms or colors. A race of men does not anywhere, 
in a few generations, like pigs, become white, brown, black, gray, 
or spotted ; nor do the pigs, when they accompany man to the 
Tropics, become affected with dyspepsia, intermittent and yellow 
fever. It has been the fashion, for want of argument, to obscure 
the natural history of man, not by a few, but by volumes of these 
analogies. Let us ask, on the other hand, when and where have 
the people of the' north become habituated to the climate of the 
Tropics, or those of the Tropics been able to live in the north ? We 
have no records to show that a race of one extreme has ever been 
acclimated to the opposite; and as long as a race preserves its 
peculiar physiological structure and laws, it must to some extent be 
peculiarly affected by morbific influences. 8 

8 It is far from being proved that our dogs, horses, cattle, and other domestic animals, 
are of common origin. The reader is referred to "Types of Mankind" and the Appendix 



CLIMATE AND DISEASES ON MAN. 363 

In considering the climates of the Tropics and the adjacent warm 
climates, it is necessary to divide Medical Climate into non-malarial 
and malarial. By a non-malarial climate, we wish to designate 
one which is characterized by temperature, moisture or dryness, 
greater or less changeableness, &c. ; in short, all the characteristics 
of what is understood by the word "climate," independently of local 
morbific influences. By malarial climates, we mean those in which 
malarial emanations are superadded to the above conditions. The 
two climates are familiar to every one, and often exist withiu a mile 
of each other. In our Southern States, we have our high healthy 
"pine or sand-hills," bordering the rich alluvial lands of our rivers. 
On the low lands, in many places, the most deadly malarial fevers 
prevail in summer and autumn, while in the sandy lands there is an 
entire exemption from all diseases of this class ; and our cotton 
planters every summer seek these retreats for health. Not only in 
these more temperate regions of the United States is this proximity 
of the two climates observed, but also in Bengal and other parts of 
India, in the islands of the Indian Ocean, at Cape Colony, the West 
India islands, &c. Mobile and its vicinity afford as good an illus- 
tration of these climates as can be desired. This town is situated 
at the mouth of the Mobile river, in latitude 30° 40" north, on the 
margin of a plain, that extends five miles to the foot of the sand- 
hills, and which is interspersed with ravines and marshes. The 
sand-hills rise to the height of from one to three hundred feet, and 
extend many miles. Now the thermometer, barometer, and hygro- 
meter, indicate no appreciable difference in the climates of the hills 
and the plain, except that the latter is rather more damp ; and yet 
the two localities differ immensely in point of salubrity. Let us 
suppose that a thousand inhabitants of Great Britain or Germany 
should be landed at Mobile about the month of May, and one-third 
placed on the hills, one-third in the town, and the remainder in the 
fenny lands around the latter, and ask what would be the result at 
the end of six months. The first third would complain much of 
heat, would perspire enormously, become enervated ; but no one 
would perhaps be seriously sick, and probably none would die from 
the effects of the climate. The second third, or those in the city, 
if it happened to be a year of epidemic yellow fever, would, to say 
the least, be decimated, or even one-half might die, while the resi- 
dent acclimated population were enjoying perfect health. The re- 
maining portion, or those in the fenny district, would escape yellow 
fever, but would, most of them, be attacked with intermittent and 

of "Moral and Intellectual Diversity of Races" — in Hotz's translation of De Gobineau, 
(Philadelphia, 1855) — for a fnll examination of this point. 



364 acclimation; or, the influence of 

remittent fevers, bowel affections, and all forms of malarial or marsh 
diseases : fewer would die than of those in the city, hut a large 
proportion would come out with broken-down constitutions. Yellow 
fever sometimes extends for two or three miles around the city ; but 
if it does, it always commences in the latter. Here, then, we have 
three distinct medical climates actually within sight of each other. 
This is by no means a peculiarity of one locality, but thousands of 
similar examples may be cited in warm climates. Charleston, South 
Carolina, its suburbs, and Sullivan's Island, in the harbor near the 
city, give us another example quite as pertinent as that of Mobile. 
In our cotton-growing States, the malarial climate is by no means 
confined to the low and marshy districts ; on the contrary, in the 
high, undulating lands throughout this extensive region, wherever 
there is fertility of soil, the population is subjected more or less to 
malarial diseases. These remarks apply, as will be seen further on, 
more particularly to the white population, the negroes being com- 
paratively exempt from all the endemic diseases of the South. 9 The 
tropical climate of Africa, so far as known to us, differs widely from 
the same parallels in other parts of the globe : it has no won-malarial 
climate. Dr. Livingstone "has been struck down by African fever 
upwards of thirty times," in sixteen years. 10 

But let us go a little more into details, and examine a few of the 
races of man, in connection with non-malarial climates. The Anglo- 
Saxon is the most migrating and colonizing race of the present day, 
and may be selected for illustration. Place an Englishman in the 
most healthful part of Bengal or Jamaica, where malarial fevers are 
unknown, and although he may be subjected to no attack of acute 
disease, may, as we are told, become acclimated, and may live with a 
tolerable degree of health his threescore and ten years ; yet, he soon 
ceases to be the same individual, and his descendants degenerate. 
He complains bitterly of the heat, becomes tanned; his plump, 
plethoric frame is attenuated ; his blood loses fibrine and red globules ; 
both body and mind become sluggish ; gray hairs and other marks 
of premature age appear — a man of 40 looks fifty years old — the 
average duration of life is shortened (as shown by life-insurance 
tables); and the race in time would be exterminated, if cut off from 
fresh supplies of immigrants. The same facts hold in our Southern 



9 A medical friend (Dr. Gordon) who has had much experience in the diseases of the 
interior of Alabama, South Carolina, and Louisiana, has been so kind as to look over these 
sheets for me, and assures me that I have used language much too strong with regard to 
the exemption of negroes. He says they are quite as liable as the whites, according to his 
observations, to intermittents and dysentery. 

10 "London Chronicle," Dec. 15, 1856. 



CLIMATE AND DISEASES ON MAN. 365 

States, though in a less degree ; and the effect is in proportion to the 
high range of temperature. We here have short winters, which do 
not exist in the Tropics ; and the wear and tear of long summers 
are by them, to a great extent, counterbalanced. The English army 
surgeons tell us that Englishmen do not become acclimated in India: 
length of residence affords no immunity, but, on the contrary, the 
mortality among officers and troops is greatest among those who 
remain longest in the climate. 11 

Tbere is no reason to believe that the Anglo-Saxon can ever be 
transformed into a Hindoo. We have already given reasons why 
Jews become acclimated, in hot latitudes, with more facility than 
races further north; but even these cannot be changed from their 
original type by ages of residence in foreign climes. There is a 
little colony of Jews at Cranganor, in Malabar, near Cochin, who 
have resided there more than 1000 years, and who have preserved 
the Jewish type unchanged. There is in the same neighborhood a 
settlement of what are called black Jews, but who are of Hindoo 
blood. 12 Tbere are also in India the Parsees, who have been almost 
as long in the country as the Jews, and still do not approximate to 
the Hindoos in type. Way, more, in India itself we see, in the 
different castes, the most opposite complexions, which have remained 
independent of climate several thousand years. Unlike the Anglo- 
Saxons, the Jews seem to bear up well against that climate. 

The colonists of warm countries nowhere present the same vigoi 
of constitution as the population of Great Britain or Germany; and 
although they may escape attacks of fever, they are annoyed by 
many minor ills, which make them a physic-taking and shorter-lived 
people. Knox asserts that the Germanic races would die out in 
America if left alone ; and though I am not disposed to go to his 
extremes, I do not believe that even our 3sTew England States are so 
well adapted to those races as the temperate zone of Europe, from 
which history derives them. 

There is, unquestionably, an acclimation, though imperfect, against 
moderately high temperature ; and it is equally true, that persons 
who have gone through this process, and more especially their 
children, when grown up, are less liable to violent attacks of our 
marsh fevers, when exposed to them, than fresh immigrants from 
the north. The latter are more plethoric, their systems more in- 
flammable ; and although not more liable to be attacked by these 
endemics than natives, they expeiience them, when attacked, in a 

11 Johnson on Tropical Climates, London, 1841, p. 56. 

12 See, for details, "Types of Mankind" by Nott & Glidbon, chapter "Physical History 
of the Jews." 



366 acclimation; or, the influence of 

more violent and dangerous form. The latter fact holds good of 
yellow, as well as of remittent fever. 

Dr. Boudin, in his "Lettres sur l'Algerie," after establishing the 
persistent influence of marsh malaria on French and English colo- 
nists, continues thus : 

"Reste a examiner 1'influence exercee sur le chiffre des deces par le sejour dans les 
locality de l'Algerie, non sujeltes aux emanations paludeennes, mais se distinguant de la 
France uniquement par une temperature eievee. A deTaut de documents assez nombreux 
vecueillis en Algerie meme, nous invoquerons les faits relatifs a, deux possessions anglaises 
ayant la plus grande analogie thermome'trique avec notre possession africaine; nous voulons 
parler: 1°, du Cap de Bonne-Esperance ; 2°, de Malte: Tun et l'autre proverbialement 
exempted de l'<jl6nient paludeen. 

"Au Cap de Bonne-Esperance, la mortality de trois regiments anglais, de 1831 a 1830, 
a ete representee par les nombres suivants : 

En 1831 26 deces. 

" 1832 26 

" 1833 28 

" 1834 28 

" 1835 34 

" 1836 33 

"A Malte, oil Ton peut considerer les hommes les plus jeunes comme les plus recemment 
arrives d'Angleterre, la proportion des deces a suivi la marche ci-apres. 

Au-dessous de 18 ans 10 deces sur 1000 hommes. 

Del8a25 18.7 " 

" 25 a, 33 23.6 " 

" 33 a 40 29.5 " 

" 40 a 50 34.4 " 

"En resume, les analogies puisees, non seulement dans les localites paludeennes, mais 
encore dans les contrees non marecageuses, ayant une plus grande analogie climatologique 
avec l'Algerie, se montrent peu favorable a, l'hypothese de l'acclimatment." 

He then goes on to give statistics both of the civil and military 
population of Algeria, which show still more deadly effects of 
climate. 

If we turn now to the physical history of the Negro, we shall find 
the picture completely reversed. He is the native of the hottest 
region on the globe, where he goes naked in the scorching rays of 
the sun, and can lie down and sleep on the ground in a temperature 
of at least 150° of Fahrenheit, where the white man would die in a 
few hours. {And while the degenerate tropical descendants of the 
whites are regenerated by transportation to cold parallels of the 
temperate zone, experience abundantly proves that, in America, the 
Negro steadily deteriorates, and becomes exterminated north of about 
40° north latitude. The statistics of New England, New York, and 
Philadelphia, abundantly prove this. The mortality of blacks in 
our Northern States averages about double that of the whites ; and 
although their natural improvidence and social condition may, and 



CLIMATE AND DISEASES ON MAN. 367 

do, have an influence on this result, still, no one conversant with 
the facts will deny the baneful influence of cold upon the race. ' 

/It is evident, then, that the white and black races differ, at the 
present day, as, much in their physiological as they do in their phy- 
sical characters 7 ; and until their actual characteristics are changed, 
it" cannot be expected that their normal geographical range will be 
enlarged. The respective types which they now present, antedate 
all human, written, or monumental records, and will only disappear 
with the other typical forms of our Fauna. 

We may here refer to another curious train of facts, in connection 
with the adaptability of the above races to climate. "We allude to 
the results of crossing or breeding them together, which seem best 
explained by the laws of hybridity. The mulattoes, no matter 
where born, north or south, possess characteristics, in reference to 
medical climate, intermediate between the pure races. The mulat- 
toes brought from Maryland or Virginia to Mobile or ]STew Orleans, 
suffer infinitely less from the diseases of these localities, than do the 
pure whites of the same States. In fact, the smallest admixture of 
negro blood, as in the Quarteroon or Quinteroon, is a great, though 
not absolute, protection against yellow fever. "We have, in the 
course of twenty years' professional observations, in Mobile, seen 
this fact fully tested ; and it is conceded, on all hands, throughout 
the South. Previously to the memorable yellow fever epidemic of 
1853, we never saw more than two or three exceptions ; and although 
there were more examples in that year, still, the mortality was 
trifling compared with that of the pure whites. I hazard nothing in 
the assertion, that one-fourth negro blood is a more perfect protec- 
tion against yellow fever, than is vaccine against small-pox. 

The subject of hybridity has been very imperfectly understood 
until the last few years ; and to the late Dr. Morton are we mainly 
indebted for the advance actually made. He has shown that there 
is a regular gradation, in hybridity among species, from that of 
perfect sterility to perfect prolificacy. The mulatto would seem to 
fall into that condition of hybrids, where they continue to be more 
or less prolific for a few generations, but with a constant tendency 
to run out. The idea is prevalent with us, that mulattoes are less 
prolific than either pure race ; suffer much from tubercular affec- 
tions ; their children die young ; and that their average duration of 
life is very low. That all this is true of the cross of the pure whites 
and blacks, I have no doubt ; but these remarks apply with less force 
to the cross of Spaniards, Portuguese, and other dark races, with the 
negro : these affiliate much better. If we could select the pure- 
blooded races, put them together, and continue crossing them for 



368 ACCLIMATION; OR, THE INFLUENCE OF 

several generations, we might come to more definite conclusions 
with regard to the specific proximity of races ; but this we are unable 
to control ; nor has sufficient use been made even of the materials 
we have at command. Only a few years ago, the origin of the 
domestic dog was a subject of dispute, and many naturalists sup- 
posed it to be derived from the wolf; but M. Flourens has been 
making a series of experiments, in the Garden of Plants, at Paris, 
which settles this part of the discussion. He ascertained that the 
progeny becomes sterile after the third generation ; while that of the 
dog and jackal run as far as the fourth generation, and then in like 
manner become sterile. These are important discoveries in the 
history of hybridity, and show how erroneous have been conclusions 
as to identity of species, based upon prolificacy of offspring. 

There is reason, as above stated, to believe that this law of hy- 
bridity applies to the species of man ; and that there are degrees of 
fertility in the offspring of different types, in proportion as they are 
similar or dissimilar. 13 

Our limits, if we desired to do so, would not permit a more 
extended examination of races, in connection with non-malarial 
climates ; and we shall therefore pass on to another division of the 
subject. The whites and blacks have sufficiently served to illustrate 
the point ; and the other races would show similar effects, in various 
degrees. Many facts bearing on other races will be brought out as 
we progress. 

Malarial Climates. — Under this head, we shall introduce facts to 
prove that races are influenced differently, not only by the tempera- 
ture of various latitudes, but by morbific agents, which, to a certain 
extent, are independent of mere temperature — viz., the causes of 
marsh or yellow fevers, typhoid fever, cholera, plague, &am